Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Search results for: dynamic stall

9 Numerical Investigations on Dynamic Stall of a Pitching-Plunging Helicopter Blade Airfoil

Authors: Xie Kai, Laith K. Abbas, Chen Dongyang, Yang Fufeng, Rui Xiaoting

Abstract:

Effect of plunging motion on the pitch oscillating NACA0012 airfoil is investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). A simulation model based on overset grid technology and k - ω shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model is established, and the numerical simulation results are compared with available experimental data and other simulations. Two cases of phase angle φ = 0, μ which represents the phase difference between the pitching and plunging motions of an airfoil are performed. Airfoil vortex generation, moving, and shedding are discussed in detail. Good agreements have been achieved with the available literature. The upward plunging motion made the equivalent angle of attack less than the actual one during pitching analysis. It is observed that the formation of the stall vortex is suppressed, resulting in a decrease in the lift coefficient and a delay of the stall angle. However, the downward plunging motion made the equivalent angle of attack higher the actual one.

Keywords: Dynamic stall, pitching-plunging, computational fluid dynamics, helicopter blade rotor, airfoil.

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8 Numerical Investigation of Dynamic Stall over a Wind Turbine Pitching Airfoil by Using OpenFOAM

Authors: Mahbod Seyednia, Shidvash Vakilipour, Mehran Masdari

Abstract:

Computations for two-dimensional flow past a stationary and harmonically pitching wind turbine airfoil at a moderate value of Reynolds number (400000) are carried out by progressively increasing the angle of attack for stationary airfoil and at fixed pitching frequencies for rotary one. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in conjunction with Unsteady Reynolds Average Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations for turbulence modeling are solved by OpenFOAM package to investigate the aerodynamic phenomena occurred at stationary and pitching conditions on a NACA 6-series wind turbine airfoil. The aim of this study is to enhance the accuracy of numerical simulation in predicting the aerodynamic behavior of an oscillating airfoil in OpenFOAM. Hence, for turbulence modelling, k-ω-SST with low-Reynolds correction is employed to capture the unsteady phenomena occurred in stationary and oscillating motion of the airfoil. Using aerodynamic and pressure coefficients along with flow patterns, the unsteady aerodynamics at pre-, near-, and post-static stall regions are analyzed in harmonically pitching airfoil, and the results are validated with the corresponding experimental data possessed by the authors. The results indicate that implementing the mentioned turbulence model leads to accurate prediction of the angle of static stall for stationary airfoil and flow separation, dynamic stall phenomenon, and reattachment of the flow on the surface of airfoil for pitching one. Due to the geometry of the studied 6-series airfoil, the vortex on the upper surface of the airfoil during upstrokes is formed at the trailing edge. Therefore, the pattern flow obtained by our numerical simulations represents the formation and change of the trailing-edge vortex at near- and post-stall regions where this process determines the dynamic stall phenomenon.

Keywords: CFD, Moderate Reynolds number, OpenFOAM, pitching oscillation, unsteady aerodynamics, wind turbine.

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7 Aerodynamic Models for the Analysis of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs)

Authors: T. Brahimi, F. Saeed, I. Paraschivoiu

Abstract:

This paper details the progress made in the development of the different state-of-the-art aerodynamic tools for the analysis of vertical axis wind turbines including the flow simulation around the blade, viscous flow, stochastic wind, and dynamic stall effects. The paper highlights the capabilities of the developed wind turbine aerodynamic codes over the last thirty years which are currently being used in North America and Europe by Sandia Laboratories, FloWind, IMST Marseilles, and Hydro-Quebec among others. The aerodynamic codes developed at Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Canada, represent valuable tools for simulating the flow around wind turbines including secondary effects. Comparison of theoretical results with experimental data have shown good agreement. The strength of the aerodynamic codes based on Double-Multiple Stream tube model (DMS) lies in its simplicity, accuracy, and ability to analyze secondary effects that interfere with wind turbine aerodynamic calculations.

Keywords: Aerodynamics, wind turbines, VAWT, CARDAAV, Darrieus, dynamic stall.

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6 Dynamic Stall Vortex Formation of OA-209 Airfoil at Low Reynolds Number

Authors: Aung Myo Thu, Sang Eon Jeon, Yung Hwan Byun, Soo Hyung Park

Abstract:

The unsteady flow field around oscillating OA-209 airfoil at a Reynolds number of 3.5×105 were investigated. Three different reduced frequencies were tested in order to see how it affects the hysteresis loop of an airfoil. At a reduced frequency of 0.05 the deep dynamic stall phenomenon was observed. Lift overshooting was observed as a result of dynamic stall vortex (DSV) shedding. Further investigation was carried out to find out the cause of DSV formation and shedding over airfoil. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) and CFD tools were used and it was found out that dynamic stall separation (DSS), which is separated from leading edge separation (LES) and trailing edge separation (TES), triggered the dynamic stall vortex (DSV).

Keywords: Airfoil Flow, CFD, PIV, Dynamic Stall, Flow Separation.

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5 A Comparison between Hybrid and Experimental Extended Polars for the Numerical Prediction of Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine Performance using Blade Element-Momentum Algorithm

Authors: Gabriele Bedon, Marco Raciti Castelli, Ernesto Benini

Abstract:

A dynamic stall-corrected Blade Element-Momentum algorithm based on a hybrid polar is validated through the comparison with Sandia experimental measurements on a 5-m diameter wind turbine of Troposkien shape. Different dynamic stall models are evaluated. The numerical predictions obtained using the extended aerodynamic coefficients provided by both Sheldal and Klimas and Raciti Castelli et al. are compared to experimental data, determining the potential of the hybrid database for the numerical prediction of vertical-axis wind turbine performances.

Keywords: Darrieus wind turbine, Blade Element-Momentum Theory, extended airfoil database, hybrid database, Sandia 5-m wind turbine.

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4 Effect of Dynamic Stall, Finite Aspect Ratio and Streamtube Expansion on VAWT Performance Prediction using the BE-M Model

Authors: M. Raciti Castelli, A. Fedrigo, E. Benini

Abstract:

A multiple-option analytical model for the evaluation of the energy performance and distribution of aerodynamic forces acting on a vertical-axis Darrieus wind turbine depending on both rotor architecture and operating conditions is presented. For this purpose, a numerical algorithm, capable of generating the desired rotor conformation depending on design geometric parameters, is coupled to a Single/Double-Disk Multiple-Streamtube Blade Element – Momentum code. Both single and double-disk configurations are analyzed and model predictions are compared to literature experimental data in order to test the capability of the code for predicting rotor performance. Effective airfoil characteristics based on local blade Reynolds number are obtained through interpolation of literature low-Reynolds airfoil databases. Some corrections are introduced inside the original model with the aim of simulating also the effects of blade dynamic stall, rotor streamtube expansion and blade finite aspect ratio, for which a new empirical relationship to better fit the experimental data is proposed. In order to predict also open field rotor operation, a freestream wind shear profile is implemented, reproducing the effect of atmospheric boundary layer.

Keywords: Wind turbine, BE-M, dynamic stall, streamtube expansion, airfoil finite aspect ratio

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3 Optimization Approach on Flapping Aerodynamic Characteristics of Corrugated Airfoil

Authors: Wei-Hsin Sun, Jr-Ming Miao, Chang-Hsien Tai, Chien-Chun Hung

Abstract:

The development of biomimetic micro-aerial-vehicles (MAVs) with flapping wings is the future trend in military/domestic field. The successful flight of MAVs is strongly related to the understanding of unsteady aerodynamic performance of low Reynolds number airfoils under dynamic flapping motion. This study explored the effects of flapping frequency, stroke amplitude, and the inclined angle of stroke plane on lift force and thrust force of a bio-inspiration corrugated airfoil with 33 full factorial design of experiment and ANOVA analysis. Unsteady vorticity flows over a corrugated thin airfoil executing flapping motion are computed with time-dependent two-dimensional laminar incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the conformal hybrid mesh. The tested freestream Reynolds number based on the chord length of airfoil as characteristic length is fixed of 103. The dynamic mesh technique is applied to model the flapping motion of a corrugated airfoil. Instant vorticity contours over a complete flapping cycle clearly reveals the flow mechanisms for lift force generation are dynamic stall, rotational circulation, and wake capture. The thrust force is produced as the leading edge vortex shedding from the trailing edge of airfoil to form a reverse von Karman vortex. Results also indicated that the inclined angle is the most significant factor on both the lift force and thrust force. There are strong interactions between tested factors which mean an optimization study on parameters should be conducted in further runs.

Keywords: biomimetic, MAVs, aerodynamic, ANOVA analysis.

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2 Aerodynamic Stall Control of a Generic Airfoil using Synthetic Jet Actuator

Authors: Basharat Ali Haider, Naveed Durrani, Nadeem Aizud, Salimuddin Zahir

Abstract:

The aerodynamic stall control of a baseline 13-percent thick NASA GA(W)-2 airfoil using a synthetic jet actuator (SJA) is presented in this paper. Unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved on a hybrid grid using a commercial software to simulate the effects of a synthetic jet actuator located at 13% of the chord from the leading edge at a Reynolds number Re = 2.1x106 and incidence angles from 16 to 22 degrees. The experimental data for the pressure distribution at Re = 3x106 and aerodynamic coefficients at Re = 2.1x106 (angle of attack varied from -16 to 22 degrees) without SJA is compared with the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation as a baseline validation. A good agreement of the CFD simulations is obtained for aerodynamic coefficients and pressure distribution. A working SJA has been integrated with the baseline airfoil and initial focus is on the aerodynamic stall control at angles of attack from 16 to 22 degrees. The results show a noticeable improvement in the aerodynamic performance with increase in lift and decrease in drag at these post stall regimes.

Keywords: Active flow control, Aerodynamic stall, Airfoilperformance, Synthetic jet actuator.

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1 A Numerical Investigation on the Dynamic Stall of a Wind Turbine Section Using Different Turbulent Models

Authors: S. A. Ahmadi, S. Sharif, R. Jamshidi

Abstract:

In this article, the flow behavior around a NACA 0012 airfoil which is oscillating with different Reynolds numbers and in various amplitudes has been investigated numerically. Numerical simulations have been performed with ANSYS software. First, the 2- D geometry has been studied in different Reynolds numbers and angles of attack with various numerical methods in its static condition. This analysis was to choose the best turbulent model and comparing the grids to have the optimum one for dynamic simulations. Because the analysis was to study the blades of wind turbines, the Reynolds numbers were not arbitrary. They were in the range of 9.71e5 to 22.65e5. The angle of attack was in the range of -41.81° to 41.81°. By choosing the forward wind speed as the independent parameter, the others like Reynolds and the amplitude of the oscillation would be known automatically. The results show that the SST turbulent model is the best choice that leads the least numerical error with respect the experimental ones. Also, a dynamic stall phenomenon is more probable at lower wind speeds in which the lift force is less.

Keywords: Dynamic stall, Numerical simulation, Wind turbine, Turbulent Model

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