%0 Journal Article
	%A Supavej Maniyom and  Gerard H. Markx
	%D 2012
	%J International Journal of Chemical and Molecular Engineering
	%B World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology
	%I Open Science Index 68, 2012
	%T Biomass and Pigment Production by Monascus during Miniaturized Submerged Culture on Adlay
	%U https://publications.waset.org/pdf/1020
	%V 68
	%X Three reactor types were explored and successfully
used for pigment production by Monascus: shake flasks, and shaken
and stirred miniaturized reactors. Also, the use of dielectric
spectroscopy for the on-line measurement of biomass levels was
explored. Shake flasks gave good pigment yields, but scale up is
difficult, and they cannot be automated. Shaken bioreactors were less
successful with pigment production than stirred reactors.
Experiments with different impeller speeds in different volumes of
liquid in the reactor confirmed that this is most likely due oxygen
availability. The availability of oxygen appeared to affect biomass
levels less than pigment production; red pigment production in
particular needed very high oxygen levels. Dielectric spectroscopy
was effectively used to continuously measure biomass levels during
the submerged fungal fermentation in the shaken and stirred
miniaturized bioreactors, despite the presence of the solid substrate
particles. Also, the capacitance signal gave useful information about
the viability of the cells in the culture.
	%P 813 - 818