Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 122

Search results for: stage

122 Two-Stage Compensator Designs with Partial Feedbacks

Authors: Kazuyoshi MORI

Abstract:

The two-stage compensator designs of linear system are investigated in the framework of the factorization approach. First, we give “full feedback" two-stage compensator design. Based on this result, various types of the two-stage compensator designs with partial feedbacks are derived.

Keywords: Linear System, Factorization Approach, Two-Stage Compensator Design, Parametrization of Stabilizing Controllers.

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121 On the Verification of Power Nap Associated with Stage 2 Sleep and Its Application

Authors: Jetsada Arnin, Yodchanan Wongsawat

Abstract:

One of the most important causes of accidents is driver fatigue. To reduce the accidental rate, the driver needs a quick nap when feeling sleepy. Hence, searching for the minimum time period of nap is a very challenging problem. The purpose of this paper is twofold, i.e. to investigate the possible fastest time period for nap and its relationship with stage 2 sleep, and to develop an automatic stage 2 sleep detection and alarm device. The experiment for this investigation is designed with 21 subjects. It yields the result that waking up the subjects after getting into stage 2 sleep for 3-5 minutes can efficiently reduce the sleepiness. Furthermore, the automatic stage 2 sleep detection and alarm device yields the real-time detection accuracy of approximately 85% which is comparable with the commercial sleep lab system.

Keywords: Stage 2 sleep, nap, sleep detection, real-time, EEG

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120 Optimizing the Number of Bits/Stage in 10-Bit, 50Ms/Sec Pipelined A/D Converter Considering Area, Speed, Power and Linearity

Authors: P. Prasad Rao, K. Lal Kishore

Abstract:

Pipeline ADCs are becoming popular at high speeds and with high resolution. This paper discusses the options of number of bits/stage conversion techniques in pipelined ADCs and their effect on Area, Speed, Power Dissipation and Linearity. The basic building blocks like op-amp, Sample and Hold Circuit, sub converter, DAC, Residue Amplifier used in every stage is assumed to be identical. The sub converters use flash architectures. The design is implemented using 0.18

Keywords: 1.5 bits/stage, Conversion Frequency, Redundancy Switched Capacitor Sample and Hold Circuit

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119 Bounds on the Second Stage Spectral Radius of Graphs

Authors: S.K.Ayyaswamy, S.Balachandran, K.Kannan

Abstract:

Let G be a graph of order n. The second stage adjacency matrix of G is the symmetric n × n matrix for which the ijth entry is 1 if the vertices vi and vj are of distance two; otherwise 0. The sum of the absolute values of this second stage adjacency matrix is called the second stage energy of G. In this paper we investigate a few properties and determine some upper bounds for the largest eigenvalue.

Keywords: Second stage spectral radius, Irreducible matrix, Derived graph

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118 Effect of Temperature on the Performance of Multi-Stage Distillation

Authors: A. Diaf, H. Aburideh, Z.Tigrine, D. Tassalit, F.Alaoui

Abstract:

The tray/multi-tray distillation process is a topic that has been investigated to great detail over the last decade by many teams such as Jubran et al. [1], Adhikari et al. [2], Mowla et al. [3], Shatat et al. [4] and Fath [5] to name a few. A significant amount of work and effort was spent focusing on modeling and/simulation of specific distillation hardware designs. In this work, we have focused our efforts on investigating and gathering experimental data on several engineering and design variables to quantify their influence on the yield of the multi-tray distillation process. Our goals are to generate experimental performance data to bridge some existing gaps in the design, engineering, optimization and theoretical modeling aspects of the multi-tray distillation process.

Keywords: Distillation, Desalination, Multi-Stage still, Solar Energy

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117 Some Results on Parallel Alternating Two-stage Methods

Authors: Guangbin Wang, Xue Li

Abstract:

In this paper, we present parallel alternating two-stage methods for solving linear system Ax=b, where A is a symmetric positive definite matrix. And we give some convergence results of these methods for nonsingular linear system.

Keywords: alternating two-stage, convergence, linear system, parallel.

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116 Engineering Study and Equipment Design: Effects of Temperature and design variables on Yield of a Multi-Stage Distillator

Authors: A.Diaf, Z.Tigrine, H. Aburideh, D.Tassalit , F.Alaoui, B .Abbad

Abstract:

The distillation process in the general sense is a relatively simple technique from the standpoints of its principles. When dedicating distillation to water treatment and specifically producing fresh water from sea, ocean and/ briny waters it is interesting to notice that distillation has no limitations or domains of applicability regarding the nature or the type of the feedstock water. This is not the case however for other techniques that are technologically quite complex, necessitate bigger capital investments and are limited in their usability. In a previous paper we have explored some of the effects of temperature on yield. In this paper, we continue building onto that knowledge base and focus on the effects of several additional engineering and design variables on productivity.

Keywords: Distillation, Desalination, Multi-Stage still, Solar Energy

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115 A Real-Time Tracking System Developed for an Interactive Stage Performance

Authors: S. Hu, J. Mortensen, Bernard F. Buxton

Abstract:

A real-time tracking system was built to track performers on an interactive stage. Using an ordinary, up to date, desktop workstation, the performers- silhouette was segmented from the background and parameterized by calculating the normalized central image moments. In the stage system, the silhouette moments were then sent to a parallel workstation, which used them to generate corresponding 3D virtual geometry and projected the generated graphic back onto the stage.

Keywords: Image moment, interactive stage, real-time, silhouette.

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114 Multi-stage Directional Median Filter

Authors: Zong Chen, Li Zhang

Abstract:

Median filter is widely used to remove impulse noise without blurring sharp edges. However, when noise level increased, or with thin edges, median filter may work poorly. This paper proposes a new filter, which will detect edges along four possible directions, and then replace noise corrupted pixel with estimated noise-free edge median value. Simulations show that the proposed multi-stage directional median filter can provide excellent performance of suppressing impulse noise in all situations.

Keywords: Impulse noise, Median filter, Multi-stage, Edgepreserving

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113 Key Issues in Transfer Stage of BOT Project: Experience from China

Authors: Wang Liguang, Zhang Xueqing

Abstract:

The build-operate-transfer (BOT) project delivery system has provided effective routes to mobilize private sector funds, innovative technologies, management skills and operational efficiencies for public infrastructure development and have been widely used in China during the last 20 years. Many BOT projects in China will be smoothly transferred to the government soon and the transfer stage, which is considered as the last stage, must be studied carefully and handled well to achieve the overall success of BOT projects. There will be many issues faced by both the public sector and private sector in the transfer stage of BOT projects, including project post-assessment, technology and documents transfer, personal training and staff transition, etc. and sometimes additional legislation is needed for future operation and management of facilities. However, most previous studies focused on the bidding, financing, and building and operation stages instead of transfer stage. This research identifies nine key issues in the transfer stage of BOT projects through a comprehensive study on three cases in China, and the expert interview and expert discussion meetings are held to validate the key issues and give detail analysis. A proposed framework of transfer management is prepared based on the experiences derived and lessons drawn from the case studies and expert interview and discussions, which is expected to improve the transfer management of BOT projects in practice.

Keywords: BOT project, key issues, transfer management transfer stage.

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112 Straightness Error Compensation Servo-system for Single-axis Linear Motor Stage

Authors: M. S. Kang, D. H. Kim, J. S. Yoon, B. S. Park, J. K. Lee

Abstract:

Since straightness error of linear motor stage is hardly dependent upon machining accuracy and assembling accuracy, there is limit on maximum realizable accuracy. To cope with this limitation, this paper proposed a servo system to compensate straightness error of a linear motor stage. The servo system is mounted on the slider of the linear motor stage and moves in the direction of the straightness error so as to compensate the error. From position dependency and repeatability of the straightness error of the slider, a feedforward compensation control is applied to the platform servo control. In the consideration of required fine positioning accuracy, a platform driven by an electro-magnetic actuator is suggested and a sliding mode control was applied. The effectiveness of the sliding mode control was verified along with some experimental results.

Keywords: Linear Motor Stage, Straightness Error, Friction, Sliding Mode Control.

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111 Development of Active Learning Calculus Course for Biomedical Program

Authors: Mikhail Bouniaev

Abstract:

The paper reviews design and implementation of a Calculus Course required for the Biomedical Competency Based Program developed as a joint project between The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, and the University of Texas’ Institute for Transformational Learning, from the theoretical perspective as presented in scholarly work on active learning, formative assessment, and on-line teaching. Following a four stage curriculum development process (objective, content, delivery, and assessment), and theoretical recommendations that guarantee effectiveness and efficiency of assessment in active learning, we discuss the practical recommendations on how to incorporate a strong formative assessment component to address disciplines’ needs, and students’ major needs. In design and implementation of this project, we used Constructivism and Stage-by-Stage Development of Mental Actions Theory recommendations.

Keywords: Active learning, assessment, Calculus, cognitive demand, constructivism, mathematics, Stage-by-Stage Development of Mental Action Theory.

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110 Efficacy of Three Different Herbicides to the Control of Wild Barley (Hordeum spontaneum C. Koch) in Relation to Plant Growth Stage and Nitrogen Fertilizer Additive

Authors: Sh. Edrisi, M. Moeeni, A. Farahbakhsh

Abstract:

To study the effect of nitrogenous additive spray solution on the efficacy of three herbicides i.e. pinoxaden (Trade name: Axial), sulfosulfuron+metsulfuron-methyl (Trade name: Total) and sulfosulfuron (Trade name: Apirus) in controlling wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum C. Koch), in different growth stages, a greenhouse experiment as a split plot in a completely randomized design in three replications was conducted. One month after treatments, all plants were harvested and growth parameters were determined. The data were analyzed with computer. The results showed that the herbicide applications with and without nitrogen additive caused significant reductions in growth parameters of wild barley at 2-4 leaf stage. However, the plants were not killed by this herbicide. Plants were killed completely due to applications of the two other herbicides i.e. Apirus and Total at 2-4 leaf. There was no significant difference between the effect of these two herbicides. There was no significant difference between the highest rate of each herbicide used alone and that of the lowest rate with nitrogenous additive.

Keywords: Growth stage, herbicide, nitrogenous additive, wild barley.

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109 Parallel Alternating Two-stage Methods for Solving Linear System

Authors: Guangbin Wang, Ning Zhang, Fuping Tan

Abstract:

In this paper, we present parallel alternating two-stage methods for solving linear system Ax = b, where A is a monotone matrix or an H-matrix. And we give some convergence results of these methods for nonsingular linear system.

Keywords: Parallel, alternating two-stage, convergence, linear system.

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108 Convergence Analysis of the Generalized Alternating Two-Stage Method

Authors: Guangbin Wang, Liangliang Li, Fuping Tan

Abstract:

In this paper, we give the generalized alternating twostage method in which the inner iterations are accomplished by a generalized alternating method. And we present convergence results of the method for solving nonsingular linear systems when the coefficient matrix of the linear system is a monotone matrix or an H-matrix.

Keywords: Generalized alternating two-stage method, linear system, convergence.

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107 Treatment of Oily Wastewater by Fibrous Coalescer Process: Stage Coalescer and Model Prediction

Authors: Pisut Painmanakul, Kotchakorn Kongkangwarn, Nattawin Chawaloesphonsiya

Abstract:

The coalescer process is one of the methods for oily water treatment by increasing the oil droplet size in order to enhance the separating velocity and thus effective separation. However, the presence of surfactants in an oily emulsion can limit the obtained mechanisms due to the small oil size related with stabilized emulsion. In this regard, the purpose of this research is to improve the efficiency of the coalescer process for treating the stabilized emulsion. The effects of bed types, bed height, liquid flow rate and stage coalescer (step-bed) on the treatment efficiencies in term of COD values were studied. Note that the treatment efficiency obtained experimentally was estimated by using the COD values and oil droplet size distribution. The study has shown that the plastic media has more effective to attach with oil particles than the stainless one due to their hydrophobic properties. Furthermore, the suitable bed height (3.5 cm) and step bed (3.5 cm with 2 steps) were necessary in order to well obtain the coalescer performance. The application of step bed coalescer process in reactor has provided the higher treatment efficiencies in term of COD removal than those obtained with classical process. The proposed model for predicting the area under curve and thus treatment efficiency, based on the single collector efficiency (ηT) and the attachment efficiency (α), provides relatively a good coincidence between the experimental and predicted values of treatment efficiencies in this study.

Keywords: Stage coalescer, stabilized emulsions, treatment efficiency, model prediction.

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106 Calculation Analysis of an Axial Compressor Supersonic Stage Impeller

Authors: Y. B. Galerkin, E. Y. Popova, K. V. Soldatova

Abstract:

There is an evident trend to elevate pressure ratio of a single stage of a turbo compressors - axial compressors in particular. Whilst there was an opinion recently that a pressure ratio 1,9 was a reasonable limit, later appeared information on successful modeling tested of stages with pressure ratio up to 2,8. The authors recon that lack of information on high pressure stages makes actual a study of rational choice of design parameters before high supersonic flow problems solving. The computer program of an engineering type was developed. Below is presented a sample of its application to study possible parameters of the impeller of the stage with pressure ratio 3,0. Influence of two main design parameters on expected efficiency, periphery blade speed and flow structure is demonstrated. The results had lead to choose a variant for further analysis and improvement by CFD methods.

Keywords: Supersonic stage, impeller, efficiency, flow rate coefficient, work coefficient, loss coefficient, oblique shock, direct shock.

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105 Complex Dynamic Behaviors in an Ivlev-type Stage-structured Predator-prey System Concerning Impulsive Control Strategy

Authors: Shunyi Li, Zhifang He, Xiangui Xue

Abstract:

An Ivlev-type predator-prey system and stage-structured for predator concerning impulsive control strategy is considered. The conditions for the locally asymptotically stable prey-eradication periodic solution is obtained, by using Floquet theorem and small amplitude perturbation skills——when the impulsive period is less than the critical value. Otherwise, the system is permanence. Numerical examples show that the system considered has more complicated dynamics, including high-order quasi-periodic and periodic oscillating, period-doubling and period-halving bifurcation, chaos and attractor crisis, etc. Finally, the biological implications of the results and the impulsive control strategy are discussed.

Keywords: Stage-structured predator-prey system, Impulsive, Permanence, Bifurcation, Chaos.

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104 Achieving Design-Stage Elemental Cost Planning Accuracy: Case Study of New Zealand

Authors: Johnson Adafin, James O. B. Rotimi, Suzanne Wilkinson, Abimbola O. Windapo

Abstract:

An aspect of client expenditure management that requires attention is the level of accuracy achievable in design-stage elemental cost planning. This has been a major concern for construction clients and practitioners in New Zealand (NZ). Pre-tender estimating inaccuracies are significantly influenced by the level of risk information available to estimators. Proper cost planning activities should ensure the production of a project’s likely construction costs (initial and final), and subsequent cost control activities should prevent unpleasant consequences of cost overruns, disputes and project abandonment. If risks were properly identified and priced at the design stage, observed variance between design-stage elemental cost plans (ECPs) and final tender sums (FTS) (initial contract sums) could be reduced. This study investigates the variations between design-stage ECPs and FTS of construction projects, with a view to identifying risk factors that are responsible for the observed variance. Data were sourced through interviews, and risk factors were identified by using thematic analysis. Access was obtained to project files from the records of study participants (consultant quantity surveyors), and document analysis was employed in complementing the responses from the interviews. Study findings revealed the discrepancies between ECPs and FTS in the region of -14% and +16%. It is opined in this study that the identified risk factors were responsible for the variability observed. The values obtained from the analysis would enable greater accuracy in the forecast of FTS by Quantity Surveyors. Further, whilst inherent risks in construction project developments are observed globally, these findings have important ramifications for construction projects by expanding existing knowledge on what is needed for reasonable budgetary performance and successful delivery of construction projects. The findings contribute significantly to the study by providing quantitative confirmation to justify the theoretical conclusions generated in the literature from around the world. This therefore adds to and consolidates existing knowledge.

Keywords: Accuracy, design-stage, elemental cost plan, final tender sum, New Zealand.

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103 River Stage-Discharge Forecasting Based on Multiple-Gauge Strategy Using EEMD-DWT-LSSVM Approach

Authors: Farhad Alizadeh, Alireza Faregh Gharamaleki, Mojtaba Jalilzadeh, Houshang Gholami, Ali Akhoundzadeh

Abstract:

This study presented hybrid pre-processing approach along with a conceptual model to enhance the accuracy of river discharge prediction. In order to achieve this goal, Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition algorithm (EEMD), Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and Mutual Information (MI) were employed as a hybrid pre-processing approach conjugated to Least Square Support Vector Machine (LSSVM). A conceptual strategy namely multi-station model was developed to forecast the Souris River discharge more accurately. The strategy used herein was capable of covering uncertainties and complexities of river discharge modeling. DWT and EEMD was coupled, and the feature selection was performed for decomposed sub-series using MI to be employed in multi-station model. In the proposed feature selection method, some useless sub-series were omitted to achieve better performance. Results approved efficiency of the proposed DWT-EEMD-MI approach to improve accuracy of multi-station modeling strategies.

Keywords: River stage-discharge process, LSSVM, discrete wavelet transform (DWT), ensemble empirical decomposition mode (EEMD), multi-station modeling.

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102 A Relationship between Two Stabilizing Controllers and Its Application to Two-Stage Compensator Design without Coprime Factorizability – Single-Input Single-Output Case –

Authors: Kazuyoshi Mori

Abstract:

In this paper, we first show a relationship between two stabilizing controllers, which presents an extended feedback system using two stabilizing controllers. Then, we apply this relationship to the two-stage compensator design. In this paper, we consider singleinput single-output plants. On the other hand, we do not assume the coprime factorizability of the model. Thus, the results of this paper are based on the factorization approach only, so that they can be applied to numerous linear systems.

Keywords: Relationship among Compensators, Two-Stage Compensator Design, Parametrization of Stabilizing Controllers, Factorization Approach

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101 Two Stage Control Method Using a Disturbance Observer and a Kalman Filter

Authors: Hiromitsu Ogawa, Manato Ono, Naohiro Ban, Yoshihisa Ishida

Abstract:

This paper describes the two stage control using a disturbance observer and a Kalman filter. The system feedback uses the estimated state when it controls the speed. After the change-over point, its feedback uses the controlled plant output when it controls the position. To change the system continually, a change-over point has to be determined pertinently, and the controlled plant input has to be adjusted by the addition of the appropriate value. The proposed method has noise-reduction effect. It changes the system continually, even if the controlled plant identification has the error. Although the conventional method needs a speed sensor, the proposed method does not need it. The proposed method has a superior robustness compared with the conventional two stage control.

Keywords: Disturbance observer, kalman filter, optimal control, two stage control.

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100 Institutional Foundations of Capitalism and Tourism Management Problems of Countries at the Transition Stage (Case of Georgia)

Authors: Maia Margvelashvili, Kakhaber Cheishvili, Ineza Vatsadze

Abstract:

In Capitalism all economic activity rests upon a set of core institutional foundations, main from which are privately owned capital assets and profit. How these core institutional foundations are working in former soviet countries, in particular in Travel and Tourism Industry of Georgia? The role of Travel and Tourism as a key pillar of economic growth is being increasingly recognized by governments in all regions of the world. For the last few years Georgia succeeded in the World Bank and IFC “Doing Business” rankings. Despite of that, during decades totally different statistical data of the tourism sector were provided by the different State bodies; economic parameters were published few, or not published at all. The frequency and extent of property rights violation in Georgia has repeatedly been the subject of concern for the last decade. Total value of abrogated by the former Georgian Government private property is estimated approximately in US$4-5 billion. Thus, if economic profitability is unknown and property rights are not protected – that means that the main institutional foundations of capitalism in Georgia, are not working properly yet, that cause management problems at all levels of the national Travel and Tourism industry of Georgia.

Keywords: Institutional foundations of capitalism, Tourism management, Transition stage.

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99 Harrison’s Stolen: Addressing Aboriginal and Indigenous Islanders Human Rights

Authors: M. Shukry

Abstract:

According to the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights in 1948, every human being is entitled to rights in life that should be respected by others and protected by the state and community. Such rights are inherent regardless of colour, ethnicity, gender, religion or otherwise, and it is expected that all humans alike have the right to live without discrimination of any sort. However, that has not been the case with Aborigines in Australia. Over a long period of time, the governments of the State and the Territories and the Australian Commonwealth denied the Aboriginal and Indigenous inhabitants of the Torres Strait Islands such rights. Past Australian governments set policies and laws that enabled them to forcefully remove Indigenous children from their parents, which resulted in creating lost generations living the trauma of the loss of cultural identity, alienation and even their own selfhood. Intending to reduce that population of natives and their Aboriginal culture while, on the other hand, assimilate them into mainstream society, they gave themselves the right to remove them from their families with no hope of return. That practice has led to tragic consequences due to the trauma that has affected those children, an experience that is depicted by Jane Harrison in her play Stolen. The drama is the outcome of a six-year project on lost children and which was first performed in 1997 in Melbourne. Five actors only appear on the stage, playing the role of all the different characters, whether the main protagonists or the remaining cast, present or non-present ones as voices. The play outlines the life of five children who have been taken from their parents at an early age, entailing a disastrous negative impact that differs from one to the other. Unknown to each other, what connects between them is being put in a children’s home. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the play’s text in light of the 1948 Declaration of Human Rights, using it as a lens that reflects the atrocities practiced against the Aborigines. It highlights how such practices formed an outrageous violation of those natives’ rights as human beings. Harrison’s dramatic technique in conveying the children’s experiences is through a non-linear structure, fluctuating between past and present that are linked together within each of the five characters, reflecting their suffering and pain to create an emotional link between them and the audience. Her dramatic handling of the issue by fusing tragedy with humour as well as symbolism is a successful technique in revealing the traumatic memory of those children and their present life. The play has made a difference in commencing to address the problem of the right of all children to be with their families, which renders the real meaning of having a home and an identity as people.

Keywords: Aboriginal, audience, Australia, children, culture, drama, home, human rights, identity, indigenous, Jane Harrison, memory, scenic effects, setting, stage, stage directions, Stolen, trauma.

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98 3-D Visualization and Optimization for SISO Linear Systems Using Parametrization of Two-Stage Compensator Design

Authors: Kazuyoshi Mori, Keisuke Hashimoto

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider the two-stage compensator designs of SISO plants. As an investigation of the characteristics of the two-stage compensator designs, which is not well investigated yet, of SISO plants, we implement three dimensional visualization systems of output signals and optimization system for SISO plants by the parametrization of stabilizing controllers based on the two-stage compensator design. The system runs on Mathematica by using “Three Dimensional Surface Plots,” so that the visualization can be interactively manipulated by users. In this paper, we use the discrete-time LTI system model. Even so, our approach is the factorization approach, so that the result can be applied to many linear models.

Keywords: Linear systems, visualization, optimization, two-Stage compensator design, Mathematica.

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97 Hopf Bifurcation Analysis for a Delayed Predator–prey System with Stage Structure

Authors: Kejun Zhuang

Abstract:

In this paper, a delayed predator–prey system with stage structure is investigated. Sufficient conditions for the system to have multiple periodic solutions are obtained when the delay is sufficiently large by applying Bendixson-s criterion. Further, some numerical examples are given.

Keywords: Predator-prey system, Stage structure, Hopf bifurcation, Periodic solutions.

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96 On-Time Performance and Service Regularity of Stage Buses in Mixed Traffic

Authors: Suwardo, Madzlan B. Napiah, Ibrahim B. Kamaruddin

Abstract:

Stage bus operated in the mixed traffic might always meet many problems about low quality and reliability of services. The low quality and reliability of bus service can make the system not attractive and directly reduce the interest of using bus service. This paper presents the result of field investigation and analysis of on-time performance and service regularity of stage bus in mixed traffic. Data for analysis was collected from the field by on-board observation along the Ipoh-Lumut corridor in Perak, Malaysia. From analysis and discussion, it can be concluded that on-time performance and service regularity varies depend on station, typical day, time period, operation characteristics of bus and characteristics of traffic. The on-time performance and service regularity of stage bus in mixed traffic can be derived by using data collected by onboard survey. It is clear that on-time performance and service regularity of the existing stage bus system was low.

Keywords: mixed traffic, on-time performance, service regularity, stage bus

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95 Micro-aerobic, Anaerobic and Two-stage Condition for Ethanol Production by enterobacter aerogenes from Biodiesel-derived Crude Glycerol

Authors: Kanokrat Saisaard, Irini Angelidaki, Poonsuk Prasertsan

Abstract:

The microbial production of ethanol from biodiesel¬derived crude glycerol by Enterobacter aerogenes TISTR1468, under micro-aerobic and anaerobic conditions, was investigated. The experimental results showed that micro-aerobic conditions were more favorable for cellular growth (4.0 g/L DCW), ethanol production (20.7 g/L) as well as the ethanol yield (0.47 g/g glycerol) than anaerobic conditions (1.2 g/L DCW, 6.3 g/L ethanol and 0.72 g/g glycerol, respectively). Crude glycerol (100 g/L) was consumed completely with the rate of 1.80 g/L/h. Two-stage fermentation (combination of micro-aerobic and anaerobic condition) exhibited higher ethanol production (24.5 g/L) than using one-stage fermentation (either micro-aerobic or anaerobic condition. The two- stage configuration, exhibited slightly higher crude glycerol consumption rate (1.81 g/L/h), as well as ethanol yield (0.56 g/g) than the one-stage configuration. Therefore, two-stage process was selected for ethanol production from E. aerogenes TISTR1468 in scale-up studies.

Keywords: crude glycerol, ethanol, micro-aerobic, two-stage, Enterobacter aerogenes

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94 Stability and HOPF Bifurcation Analysis in a Stage-structured Predator-prey system with Two Time Delays

Authors: Yongkun Li, Meng Hu

Abstract:

A stage-structured predator-prey system with two time delays is considered. By analyzing the corresponding characteristic equation, the local stability of a positive equilibrium is investigated and the existence of Hopf bifurcations is established. Formulae are derived to determine the direction of bifurcations and the stability of bifurcating periodic solutions by using the normal form theory and center manifold theorem. Numerical simulations are carried out to illustrate the theoretical results. Based on the global Hopf bifurcation theorem for general functional differential equations, the global existence of periodic solutions is established.

Keywords: Predator-prey system, stage structure, time delay, HOPF bifurcation, periodic solution, stability.

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93 Parameters of Main Stage of Discharge between Artificial Charged Aerosol Cloud and Ground in Presence of Model Hydrometeor Arrays

Authors: D. S. Zhuravkova, A. G. Temnikov, O. S. Belova, L. L. Chernensky, T. K. Gerastenok, I. Y. Kalugina, N. Y. Lysov, A.V. Orlov

Abstract:

Investigation of the discharges from the artificial charged water aerosol clouds in presence of the arrays of the model hydrometeors could help to receive the new data about the peculiarities of the return stroke formation between the thundercloud and the ground when the large volumes of the hail particles participate in the lightning discharge initiation and propagation stimulation. Artificial charged water aerosol clouds of the negative or positive polarity with the potential up to one million volts have been used. Hail has been simulated by the group of the conductive model hydrometeors of the different form. Parameters of the impulse current of the main stage of the discharge between the artificial positively and negatively charged water aerosol clouds and the ground in presence of the model hydrometeors array and of its corresponding electromagnetic radiation have been determined. It was established that the parameters of the array of the model hydrometeors influence on the parameters of the main stage of the discharge between the artificial thundercloud cell and the ground. The maximal values of the main stage current impulse parameters and the electromagnetic radiation registered by the plate antennas have been found for the array of the model hydrometeors of the cylinder revolution form for the negatively charged aerosol cloud and for the array of the hydrometeors of the plate rhombus form for the positively charged aerosol cloud, correspondingly. It was found that parameters of the main stage of the discharge between the artificial charged water aerosol cloud and the ground in presence of the model hydrometeor array of the different considered forms depend on the polarity of the artificial charged aerosol cloud. In average, for all forms of the investigated model hydrometeors arrays, the values of the amplitude and the current rise of the main stage impulse current and the amplitude of the corresponding electromagnetic radiation for the artificial charged aerosol cloud of the positive polarity were in 1.1-1.9 times higher than for the charged aerosol cloud of the negative polarity. Thus, the received results could indicate to the possible more important role of the big volumes of the large hail arrays in the thundercloud on the parameters of the return stroke for the positive lightning.

Keywords: Main stage of discharge, hydrometeor form, lightning parameters, negative and positive artificial charged aerosol cloud.

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