Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 267

Search results for: Hong Jianzhong

267 A Study of Cross Border Student in Hong Kong: The New Phenomenon of Cross Border Students which arise from Cross Border Birth

Authors: Nancy, Ling Sze Leung

Abstract:

The number of cross-border student between Hong Kong and mainland China is increasing due to an increase of cross-border marriage between Hong Kong and mainland China. Since the education system is different to the mainland China, the statue Since all the children who have the right of abode in Hong Kong entitle to have free education in Hong Kong, many of the cross-border family prefer to send the children back to Hong Kong for their education.

Keywords: Birthright citizenship, Cross border birth, Cross border student, Hong Kong

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266 The Development and Future of Hong Kong Typography

Authors: Amic G. Ho

Abstract:

Language usage and typography in Hong Kong are unique, as can be seen clearly on the streets of the city. In contrast to many other parts of the world, where there is only one language, in Hong Kong many signs and billboards display two languages: Chinese and English. The language usage on signage, fonts and types used, and the designs in magazines and advertisements all demonstrate the unique features of Hong Kong typographic design, which reflect the multicultural nature of Hong Kong society. This study is the first step in investigating the nature and development of Hong Kong typography. The preliminary research explored how the historical development of Hong Kong is reflected in its unique typography. Following a review of historical development, a quantitative study was designed: Local Hong Kong participants were invited to provide input on what makes the Hong Kong typographic style unique. Their input was collected and analyzed. This provided us with information about the characteristic criteria and features of Hong Kong typography, as recognized by the local people. The most significant typographic designs in Hong Kong were then investigated and the influence of Chinese and other cultures on Hong Kong typography was assessed. The research results provide an indication to local designers on how they can strengthen local design outcomes and promote the values and culture of their mother town.

Keywords: Typography, Hong Kong, historical developments, multiple cultures.

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265 The Low-fertility problem in Hong Kong: Do Mainlanders- Births Help to Rejuvenate Low-fertility Problem?

Authors: Nancy, Ling Sze Leung

Abstract:

Hong Kong is one of the regions in the world where Total Fertility Rate (TFR) is very low. In 2001, the TFR dropped until 0.931, which means 1 woman even cannot give birth to one child on average. However, after the reformation of the 'Right of Abode of Hong Kong' in 2001 and the Chinese Central Government loosened the disembarkation procedure of mainland Chinese (mainlander) to enter Hong Kong in 2003; mainlander couples started to cross the border for giving births in Hong Kong. This action raises Hong Kong-s TFR quickly from 0.931 (2001) to 1.094 (2010). Usually, an increasing trend of TFR means a sign of rejuvenation in low-fertility, but in the case of Hong Kong, the increase of TFR does not, rather it generates other population problems. This paper is going to discuss do mainlanders- births help to solve the low-fertility problem in Hong Kong.

Keywords: Cross Border Birth, Low-fertility, Mainlander, Total Fertility Rate

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264 XML Data Management in Compressed Relational Database

Authors: Hongzhi Wang, Jianzhong Li, Hong Gao

Abstract:

XML is an important standard of data exchange and representation. As a mature database system, using relational database to support XML data may bring some advantages. But storing XML in relational database has obvious redundancy that wastes disk space, bandwidth and disk I/O when querying XML data. For the efficiency of storage and query XML, it is necessary to use compressed XML data in relational database. In this paper, a compressed relational database technology supporting XML data is presented. Original relational storage structure is adaptive to XPath query process. The compression method keeps this feature. Besides traditional relational database techniques, additional query process technologies on compressed relations and for special structure for XML are presented. In this paper, technologies for XQuery process in compressed relational database are presented..

Keywords: XML, compression, query processing

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263 Creeping Insulation - Hong Kong Green Wall

Authors: X. L. Zhang, K. L. Li, R. M. Skitmore

Abstract:

Hong Kong is a densely populated city suffering badly from the urban heat island effect. Green wall offers a means of ameliorating the situation but there are doubts over its suitability in Hong Kong’s unique environment. In this paper, we look at the potential for green walls in Hong Kong first by summarizing some of the Chinese green walling systems and associated vegetation in use, then by an introduction to three existing green walls in Hong Kong, and finally through a small experiment aimed at identifying the likely main effects of green walled housing.

The results indicate that green walling in Hong Kong is likely to provide enhanced internal house environment in terms of warm weather temperature reduction, stabilization and damping, with direct energy savings in air-conditioning and indirect district benefits of reduced heat island effect and carbon emissions. The green walling insulation properties also suggest the possibility of warmer homes in winter and/or energy savings in mechanical heating provision.

Keywords: Case studies, experiment, green wall, Hong Kong.

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262 Critical Analysis of the Hong Kong International Convention on Ship Recycling

Authors: K. P. Jain, J. F. J. Pruyn, J. J. Hopman

Abstract:

In May 2009, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) adopted the Hong Kong International Convention for the Safe and Environmentally Sound Recycling of Ships to address the growing concerns about the environmental, occupational health and safety risks related to ship recycling. The aim of the Hong Kong Convention is to provide a legally binding instrument which ensures that the process of ship recycling does not pose risks to human health, safety and to the environment. In this paper, critical analysis of the Hong Kong Convention has been carried out in order to study the effectiveness of the Convention to meet its objectives. The Convention has been studied in detail including its background, main features, major stakeholders, strengths and weaknesses. The Convention, though having several deficiencies, is a major breakthrough in not only recognizing but also dealing with the ill-practices associated with ship recycling.

Keywords: Hong Kong Convention, IMO, Ship breaking, Ship recycling.

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261 Design and Research of a New Kind Balance Adjusting System of Centrifuge

Authors: Li Xinyao, Hong Jianzhong, Wu Wenkai

Abstract:

In order to make environmental test centrifuge balance automatically and accurately, reduce unbalance centrifugal force, balance adjusting system of centrifuge is designed. The new balance adjusting system comprises motor-reducer, timing belt, screw pair, slider-guideway and four rocker force sensors. According to information obtained by the four rocker force sensors, unbalanced value at both ends of the big arm is computed and heavy block is moved to achieve balance adjusting. In this paper, motor power and torque to move the heavy block is calculated. In full load running progress of centrifuge, the stress-strain of screw pair composed by adjusting nut and big arm are analyzed. A successful application of the balance adjusting system is also put forwarded. The results show that the balance adjusting system can satisfy balance require of environmental test centrifuge.

Keywords: balance adjusting system, centrifuge, screw pair, timing belt

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260 Sedimentological Study of Bivalve Fossils Site Locality in Hong Hoi Formation, Lampang, Thailand

Authors: Kritsada Moonpa, Kannipa Motanated, Weerapan Srichan

Abstract:

Hong Hoi Formation is a Middle Triassic deep marine succession presented in outcrops throughout the Lampang Basin of northern Thailand. The primary goal of this research is to diagnose the paleoenvironment, petrographic compositions, and sedimentary sources of the Hong Hoi Formation in Ban Huat, Ngao District. The Triassic Hong Hoi Formation is chosen because the outcrops are continuous and fossils are greatly exposed and abundant. Depositional environment is reconstructed through sedimentological studies along with facies analysis. The Hong Hoi Formation is petrographically divided into two major facies, they are: sandstones with mudstone interbeds, and mudstones or shale with sandstone interbeds. Sandstone beds are lithic arenite and lithic greywacke, volcanic lithic fragments are dominated. Sedimentary structures, paleocurrent data and lithofacies arrangement indicate that the formation deposited in a part of deep marine abyssal plain environment. The sedimentological and petrographic features suggest that during the deposition the Hong Hoi Formation received sediment supply from nearby volcanic arc. This suggested that the intensive volcanic activity within the Sukhothai Arc during the Middle Triassic is the main sediment source.

Keywords: Sukhothai Zone, petrography, Hong Hoi Formation, Lampang, Triassic.

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259 Comparative Embodied Carbon Analysis of the Prefabrication Elements Compared with In-situ Elements in Residential Building Development of Hong Kong

Authors: Felix Wong, YT Tang

Abstract:

This paper reviews the greenhouse gas emissions of prefabrication elements for residential development in Hong Kong. Prefabrication becomes a common practice in residential development in Hong Kong and is considered as a green approach. In Hong Kong, prefabrication took place at factories in Pearl River Delta. Although prefabrication reduces construction wastage, it might generate more greenhouse gas emission from transportation and manufacturing processes. This study attempts to measure the “cradle to site" greenhouse gas emission from prefabrication elements for a public housing development in Kai Tak area. The findings could help further reduction of greenhouse gas emissions through process improvement.

Keywords: Prefabrication, greenhouse gas emission, cradle-tosite, residential development.

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258 E-Learning Experiences of Hong Kong Students

Authors: J. Lam, R. Chan

Abstract:

The adoption of e-learning in Hong Kong has been increasing rapidly in the past decade. To understand the e-learning experiences of the students, the School of Professional and Continuing Education of The University of Hong Kong conducted a survey. The survey aimed to collect students- experiences in using learning management system, their perceived e-learning advantages, barriers in e-learning and preferences in new e-learning development. A questionnaire with 84 questions was distributed in mid 2012 and 608 valid responds were received. The analysis results showed that the students found e-learning helpful to their study. They preferred interactive functions and mobile features. Blended learning mode, both face-to-face learning mode integrated with online learning and face-to-face learning mode supplemented with online resources, were preferred by the students. The results of experiences of Hong Kong students in e-learning provided a contemporary reference to the e-learning practitioners to understand the e-learning situation in Asia.

Keywords: E-learning, blended learning, learning experience, learning management system.

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257 Deciphering Chinese Calligraphy as the Architectural Essence of Tao Fong Shan Christian Center in Hong Kong

Authors: Chak Kwong Lau

Abstract:

Many buildings in Hong Kong are graced with enchanting works of Chinese calligraphy. An excellent example is Tao Fong Shan Christian Center founded by a Norwegian missionary, Karl Ludvig Reichelt (1877-1952) in 1930. Adorned with many inspiring works of Chinese calligraphy, the center functions as a place for the study of Christianity where people of different religions can meet to have religious discussions and intellectual exchanges. This paper examines the pivotal role played by Chinese calligraphy in creating a significant context for the center to fulfill her visions and missions. The methodology of this research involves stylistic and textual analyses of works of calligraphy, in particular through an examination and interpretation of their extended meanings in terms of architectural symbology and social and cultural contexts. Findings showed that Chinese calligraphy was effectively used as a powerful vehicle for a purposeful development of contextual Christian spirituality in Hong Kong.

Keywords: Chinese calligraphy, Hong Kong architecture, Hong Kong calligraphy, Johannes Prip-Møller, Karl Ludvig Reichelt, Norwegian missionary, Tao Fong Shan Christian Center, traditional Chinese architecture, contextual Christian spirituality, Chinese arts and culture.

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256 Analysis on Urban Form and Evolution Mechanism of High-Density City: Case Study of Hong Kong

Authors: Yuan Zhang

Abstract:

Along with large population and great demands for urban development, Hong Kong serves as a typical high-density city with multiple altitudes, advanced three-dimensional traffic system, rich city open space, etc. This paper contributes to analyzing its complex urban form and evolution mechanism from three aspects of view, separately as time, space and buildings. Taking both horizontal and vertical dimension into consideration, this paper provides a perspective to explore the fascinating process of growing and space folding in the urban form of high-density city, also as a research reference for related high-density urban design.

Keywords: Evolution mechanism, high-density city, Hong Kong, urban form.

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255 A Comparison of Short- and Long-Haul Vacation Tourists on Evaluation of Attractiveness: The Case of Hong Kong

Authors: Zhaoyu Chen

Abstract:

In this study, an attempt was made to find reasons why tourists go to particular attractions. Tourists may be either motivated by the attractions or simply make the choice to satisfy their needs and desires. Based on the attractions in Hong Kong, this research was conducted to explore the attraction-related concepts to discuss how the attraction system works. Due to the limited studies on exploring the attractiveness of attractions through tourist movement patterns, the study aims to evaluate such indicators to determine whether tourists are motivated by attractiveness or their own needs. The investigation is conducted through the comparison of different source markets - Mainland China, short haul markets (excluding Mainland China) and long haul markets. The latest finding of Departing Visitor Survey (DVS) implemented by the Hong Kong Tourism Board (HKTB) is employed for the analysis. Various tourist movement patterns are drawn from the practical data. The managerial implication to destination management organizations (DMOs) is suggested to better allocate attractions according to the needs of tourists.

Keywords: Attractions, attraction system, Hong Kong, tourist movement patterns.

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254 The Experiences of Hong Kong Chinese Divorced Wives in Facing the Cancer Death of Their Ex-Husbands

Authors: M. L. Yeung

Abstract:

With the surge of divorce rate and male cancer onset/death rates, the phenomenon of divorced wives in the facing cancer death of their ex-husbands is not uncommon in Hong Kong. Yet, there is a dearth of study on the experiences of bereaved-divorced wives in the Hong Kong cultural context. This project fills the knowledge gap by conducting a qualitative study for having interviewed four bereaved ex-wives, who returned to ex-husbands’ end-of-life caregiving and eventually grieved for the ex-spousal’s death. From the perspectives of attachment theory and disenfranchised grief in the Hong Kong cultural context, a ‘double-loss’ experience is found in which interviewees suffer from the first loss of divorce and the second loss of ex-husbands’ death. Traumatic childhood experiences, attachment needs, role ambiguity, unresolved emotions and unrecognized grief are found significant in their lived experiences which alert the ‘double-loss’ is worthy of attention. Extending a family-centered end-of-life and bereavement care services to divorced couples is called for, in which validation on the attachment needs, ex-couple reconciliation, and acknowledgement on the disenfranchised grief are essential for social work practice on this group of clienteles specifically in Hong Kong cultural context.

Keywords: Changing family, disenfranchised grief, divorce, ex-spousal death, marriage.

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253 A Study on the Planning Criteria of Block-Unit Redevelopment to Improve Residential Environment - Focused on Redevelopment Project in Seoul -

Authors: Hong-Nam Choi, Hyeong-Wook Song, Sungwan Hong, Hong-Kyu Kim

Abstract:

In Korea, elements that decide the quality of residential environment are not only diverse, but show deviation as well. However, people do not consider these elements and instead, they try to settle the uniformed style of residential environment, which focuses on the construction development of apartment housing and business based plans. Recently, block-unit redevelopment is becoming the standout alternative plan of standardize redevelopment projects, but constructions become inefficient because of indefinite planning criteria.

 In conclusion, the following research is about analyzing and categorizing the development method and legal ground of redevelopment project district and plan determinant and applicable standard; the purpose of this study is to become a basis in compatible analysis of planning standards that will happen in the future.

Keywords: Shape Restrictions, Improvement of Reagulation, Diversity of Residential Environment, Classification of Redevelopment Project, Planning Criteria of Redevelopment, Special Architectural District (SAD).

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252 Life Cycle Assessment of Precast Concrete Units

Authors: Ya Hong Dong, Conrad T.C. Wong, S. Thomas Ng, James M.W. Wong

Abstract:

Precast concrete has been widely adopted in public housing construction of Hong Kong since the mid-1980s. While pre-casting is considered an environmental friendly solution, there is lack of study to investigate the life cycle performance of precast concrete units. This study aims to bridge the knowledge gap by providing a comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA) study for two precast elements namely façade and bathroom. The results show that raw material is the most significant contributor of environmental impact accounting for about 90% to the total impact. Furthermore, human health is more affected by the production of precast concrete than the ecosystems.

Keywords: Environment, green, LCA, LCIA, precast.

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251 Topological Queries on Graph-structured XML Data: Models and Implementations

Authors: Hongzhi Wang, Jianzhong Li, Jizhou Luo

Abstract:

In many applications, data is in graph structure, which can be naturally represented as graph-structured XML. Existing queries defined on tree-structured and graph-structured XML data mainly focus on subgraph matching, which can not cover all the requirements of querying on graph. In this paper, a new kind of queries, topological query on graph-structured XML is presented. This kind of queries consider not only the structure of subgraph but also the topological relationship between subgraphs. With existing subgraph query processing algorithms, efficient algorithms for topological query processing are designed. Experimental results show the efficiency of implementation algorithms.

Keywords: XML, Graph Structure, Topological query.

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250 Optimization and Determination of Process Parameters in Thin Film SOI Photo-BJMOSFET

Authors: Hai-Qing Xie, Yun Zeng, Yong-Hong Yan, Guo-Liang Zhang, Tai-Hong Wang

Abstract:

We propose photo-BJMOSFET (Bipolar Junction Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor) fabricated on SOI film. ITO film is adopted in the device as gate electrode to reduce light absorption. I-V characteristics of photo-BJMOSFET obtained in dark (dark current) and under 570nm illumination (photo current) are studied furthermore to achieve high photo-to-dark-current contrast ratio. Two variables in the calculation were the channel length and the thickness of the film which were set equal to six different values, i.e., L=2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12μm and three different values, i.e., dsi =100, 200 and 300nm, respectively. The results indicate that the greatest photo-to-dark-current contrast ratio is achieved with L=10μm and dsi=200 nm at VGK=0.6V.

Keywords: Photo-to-dark-current contrast ratio, Photo-current, Dark-current, Process parameter

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249 Health and Greenhouse Gas Emission Implications of Reducing Meat Intakes in Hong Kong

Authors: Cynthia Sau Chun Yip, Richard Fielding

Abstract:

High meat and especially red meat intakes are significantly and positively associated with a multiple burden of diseases and also high greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This study investigated population meat intake patterns in Hong Kong. It quantified the burden of disease and GHG emission outcomes by modeling to adjust Hong Kong population meat intakes to recommended healthy levels. It compared age- and sex-specific population meat, fruit and vegetable intakes obtained from a population survey among adults aged 20 years and over in Hong Kong in 2005-2007, against intake recommendations suggested in the Modelling System to Inform the Revision of the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE-2011-MS) technical document. This study found that meat and meat alternatives, especially red meat intakes among Hong Kong males aged 20+ years and over are significantly higher than recommended. Red meat intakes among females aged 50-69 years and other meat and alternatives intakes among aged 20-59 years are also higher than recommended. Taking the 2005-07 age- and sex-specific population meat intake as baselines, three counterfactual scenarios of adjusting Hong Kong adult population meat intakes to AGHE-2011-MS and Pre-2011 AGHE recommendations by the year 2030 were established. Consequent energy intake gaps were substituted with additional legume, fruit and vegetable intakes. To quantify the consequent GHG emission outcomes associated with Hong Kong meat intakes, Cradle-to-ready-to-eat lifecycle assessment emission outcome modelling was used. Comparative risk assessment of burden of disease model was used to quantify the health outcomes. This study found adjusting meat intakes to recommended levels could reduce Hong Kong GHG emission by 17%-44% when compared against baseline meat intake emissions, and prevent 2,519 to 7,012 premature deaths in males and 53 to 1,342 in females, as well as multiple burden of diseases when compared to the baseline meat intake scenario. Comparing lump sum meat intake reduction and outcome measures across the entire population, and using emission factors, and relative risks from individual studies in previous co-benefit studies, this study used age- and sex-specific input and output measures, emission factors and relative risks obtained from high quality meta-analysis and meta-review respectively, and has taken government dietary recommendations into account. Hence evaluations in this study are of better quality and more reflective of real life practices. Further to previous co-benefit studies, this study pinpointed age- and sex-specific population and meat-type-specific intervention points and leverages. When compared with similar studies in Australia, this study also showed that intervention points and leverages among populations in different geographic and cultural background could be different, and that globalization also globalizes meat consumption emission effects. More regional and cultural specific evaluations are recommended to promote more sustainable meat consumption and enhance global food security.

Keywords: Burden of diseases, greenhouse gas emissions, Hong Kong diet, sustainable meat consumption.

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248 Technological Innovation Capabilities and Firm Performance

Authors: Richard C.M. Yam, William Lo, Esther P.Y. Tang, Antonio, K.W. Lau

Abstract:

Technological innovation capability (TIC) is defined as a comprehensive set of characteristics of a firm that facilities and supports its technological innovation strategies. An audit to evaluate the TICs of a firm may trigger improvement in its future practices. Such an audit can be used by the firm for self assessment or third-party independent assessment to identify problems of its capability status. This paper attempts to develop such an auditing framework that can help to determine the subtle links between innovation capabilities and business performance; and to enable the auditor to determine whether good practice is in place. The seven TICs in this study include learning, R&D, resources allocation, manufacturing, marketing, organization and strategic planning capabilities. Empirical data was acquired through a survey study of 200 manufacturing firms in the Hong Kong/Pearl River Delta (HK/PRD) region. Structural equation modelling was employed to examine the relationships among TICs and various performance indicators: sales performance, innovation performance, product performance, and sales growth. The results revealed that different TICs have different impacts on different performance measures. Organization capability was found to have the most influential impact. Hong Kong manufacturers are now facing the challenge of high-mix-low-volume customer orders. In order to cope with this change, good capability in organizing different activities among various departments is critical to the success of a company.

Keywords: Hong Kong/Pearl River Delta, Innovationaudit, Manufacturing, Technological innovation capability

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247 A Study on the Design Elements of Sidewalk in Urban Commercial District

Authors: Ji Hyun Kang, Hwan Su Seo, Hong-Kyu Kim, Hong Sok Kim

Abstract:

This study was to search for the desirable direction of the sidewalk planning in Korea by establishing the concepts of walking and pedestrian space, and analyzing the advanced precedents in and out of country. Also, based on the precedent studies and relevant laws, regulations, and systems, it aimed for the following sequential process: firstly, to derive design elements from the functions and characteristics of sidewalk and cluster the similar elements by each characteristics, sampling representative characteristics and making them hierarchical; then, to analyze their significances via the first questionnaire survey, and the relative weights and priorities of each elements via the Analytic Hierarchy Process(AHP); finally, based on the analysis result, to establish the frame of suggesting the direction of policy to improve the pedestrian environment of sidewalk in urban commercial district for the future planning and design of pedestrian space.

Keywords: Sidewalk, Pedestrian, AHP, Indicator.

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246 Characterization of Responsivity, Sensitivity and Spectral Response in Thin Film SOI photo-BJMOS -FET Compatible with CMOS Technology

Authors: Hai-Qing Xie, Yun Zeng, Yong-Hong Yan, Jian-Ping Zeng, Tai-Hong Wang

Abstract:

Photo-BJMOSFET (Bipolar Junction Metal-Oxide- Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor) fabricated on SOI film was proposed. ITO film is adopted in the device as gate electrode to reduce light absorption. Depletion region but not inversion region is formed in film by applying gate voltage (but low reverse voltage) to achieve high photo-to-dark-current ratio. Comparisons of photoelectriccharacteristics executed among VGK=0V, 0.3V, 0.6V, 0.9V and 1.0V (reverse voltage VAK is equal to 1.0V for total area of 10×10μm2). The results indicate that the greatest improvement in photo-to-dark-current ratio is achieved up to 2.38 at VGK=0.6V. In addition, photo-BJMOSFET is compatible with CMOS integration due to big input resistance

Keywords: Photo-BJMOSFET, Responsivity, Sensitivity, Spectral response.

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245 An Efficient Graph Query Algorithm Based on Important Vertices and Decision Features

Authors: Xiantong Li, Jianzhong Li

Abstract:

Graph has become increasingly important in modeling complicated structures and schemaless data such as proteins, chemical compounds, and XML documents. Given a graph query, it is desirable to retrieve graphs quickly from a large database via graph-based indices. Different from the existing methods, our approach, called VFM (Vertex to Frequent Feature Mapping), makes use of vertices and decision features as the basic indexing feature. VFM constructs two mappings between vertices and frequent features to answer graph queries. The VFM approach not only provides an elegant solution to the graph indexing problem, but also demonstrates how database indexing and query processing can benefit from data mining, especially frequent pattern mining. The results show that the proposed method not only avoids the enumeration method of getting subgraphs of query graph, but also effectively reduces the subgraph isomorphism tests between the query graph and graphs in candidate answer set in verification stage.

Keywords: Decision Feature, Frequent Feature, Graph Dataset, Graph Query

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244 ‘Daily Speaking’: Designing an App for Construction of Language Learning Model Supporting ‘Seamless Flipped’ Environment

Authors: Zhou Hong, Gu Xiao-Qing, Lıu Hong-Jiao, Leng Jing

Abstract:

Seamless learning is becoming a research hotspot in recent years, and the emerging of micro-lectures, flipped classroom has strengthened the development of seamless learning. Based on the characteristics of the seamless learning across time and space and the course structure of the flipped classroom, and the theories of language learning, we put forward the language learning model which can support ‘seamless flipped’ environment (abbreviated as ‘S-F’). Meanwhile, the characteristics of the ‘S-F’ learning environment, the corresponding framework construction and the activity design of diversified corpora were introduced. Moreover, a language learning app named ‘Daily Speaking’ was developed to facilitate the practice of the language learning model in ‘S-F’ environment. In virtue of the learning case of Shanghai language, the rationality and feasibility of this framework were examined, expecting to provide a reference for the design of ‘S-F’ learning in different situations.

Keywords: Seamless learning, flipped classroom, seamless-flipped environment, language learning model.

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243 Palmprint Recognition by Wavelet Transform with Competitive Index and PCA

Authors: Deepti Tamrakar, Pritee Khanna

Abstract:

This manuscript presents, palmprint recognition by combining different texture extraction approaches with high accuracy. The Region of Interest (ROI) is decomposed into different frequencytime sub-bands by wavelet transform up-to two levels and only the approximate image of two levels is selected, which is known as Approximate Image ROI (AIROI). This AIROI has information of principal lines of the palm. The Competitive Index is used as the features of the palmprint, in which six Gabor filters of different orientations convolve with the palmprint image to extract the orientation information from the image. The winner-take-all strategy is used to select dominant orientation for each pixel, which is known as Competitive Index. Further, PCA is applied to select highly uncorrelated Competitive Index features, to reduce the dimensions of the feature vector, and to project the features on Eigen space. The similarity of two palmprints is measured by the Euclidean distance metrics. The algorithm is tested on Hong Kong PolyU palmprint database. Different AIROI of different wavelet filter families are also tested with the Competitive Index and PCA. AIROI of db7 wavelet filter achievs Equal Error Rate (EER) of 0.0152% and Genuine Acceptance Rate (GAR) of 99.67% on the palm database of Hong Kong PolyU.

Keywords: DWT, EER, Euclidean Distance, Gabor filter, PCA, ROI.

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242 Sustainable Engineering: Synergy of BIM and Environmental Assessment Tools in the Hong Kong Construction Industry

Authors: Kwok Tak Kit

Abstract:

The construction industry plays an important role in environmental and carbon emissions as it consumes a huge amount of natural resources and energy. Sustainable engineering involves the process of planning, design, procurement, construction and delivery in which the whole building and construction process resulting from building and construction can be effectively and sustainability managed to achieve the use of natural resources. Implementation of sustainable technology development and innovation, adoption of the advanced construction process and facilitate the facilities management to implement the energy and waste control more accurately and effectively. Study and research in the relationship of BIM and environment assessment tools lack a clear discussion. In this paper, we will focus on the synergy of BIM technology and sustainable engineering in the AEC industry and outline the key factors which enhance the use of advanced innovation, technology and method and define the role of stakeholders to achieve zero-carbon emission toward the Paris Agreement to limit global warming to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels. A case study of the adoption of Building Information Modeling (BIM) and environmental assessment tools in Hong Kong will be discussed in this paper.

Keywords: sustainability, sustainable engineering, BIM, LEED

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241 Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Characteristics for Stainless Wire Mesh and Number of Plies of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic

Authors: Min Sang Lee, Hee Jae Shin, In Pyo Cha, Hyun Kyung Yoon, Seong Woo Hong, Min Jae Yu, Hong Gun Kim, Lee Ku Kwac

Abstract:

In this paper, the electromagnetic shielding characteristics of an up-to-date typical carbon filler material, carbon fiber used with a metal mesh were investigated. Carbon fiber 12k-prepregs, where carbon fibers were impregnated with epoxy, were laminated with wire meshes, vacuum bag-molded and hardened to manufacture hybrid-type specimens, with which an electromagnetic shield test was performed in accordance with ASTM D4935-10, through which was known as the most excellent reproducibility is obtainable among electromagnetic shield tests. In addition, glass fiber prepregs whose electromagnetic shielding effect were known as insignificant were laminated and formed with wire meshes to verify the validity of the electromagnetic shield effect of wire meshes in order to confirm the electromagnetic shielding effect of metal meshes corresponding existing carbon fiber 12k-prepregs. By grafting carbon fibers, on which studies are being actively underway in the environmental aspects and electromagnetic shielding effect, with hybrid-type wire meshes that were analysed through the tests, in this study, the applicability and possibility are proposed.

Keywords: Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP), Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP), Stainless Wire Mesh, Electromagnetic Shielding.

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240 Study on the Optimization of Completely Batch Water-using Network with Multiple Contaminants Considering Flow Change

Authors: Jian Du, Shui Hong Hong, Lu Meng, Qing Wei Meng

Abstract:

This work addresses the problem of optimizing completely batch water-using network with multiple contaminants where the flow change caused by mass transfer is taken into consideration for the first time. A mathematical technique for optimizing water-using network is proposed based on source-tank-sink superstructure. The task is to obtain the freshwater usage, recycle assignments among water-using units, wastewater discharge and a steady water-using network configuration by following steps. Firstly, operating sequences of water-using units are determined by time constraints. Next, superstructure is simplified by eliminating the reuse and recycle from water-using units with maximum concentration of key contaminants. Then, the non-linear programming model is solved by GAMS (General Algebra Model System) for minimum freshwater usage, maximum water recycle and minimum wastewater discharge. Finally, numbers of operating periods are calculated to acquire the steady network configuration. A case study is solved to illustrate the applicability of the proposed approach.

Keywords: Completely batch process, flow change, multiple contaminants, water-using network.

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239 A Case Study of Applying Virtual Prototyping in Construction

Authors: Stephen C. W. Kong

Abstract:

The use of 3D computer-aided design (CAD) models to support construction project planning has been increasing in the previous year. 3D CAD models reveal more planning ideas by visually showing the construction site environment in different stages of the construction process. Using 3D CAD models together with scheduling software to prepare construction plan can identify errors in process sequence and spatial arrangement, which is vital to the success of a construction project. A number of 4D (3D plus time) CAD tools has been developed and utilized in different construction projects due to the awareness of their importance. Virtual prototyping extends the idea of 4D CAD by integrating more features for simulating real construction process. Virtual prototyping originates from the manufacturing industry where production of products such as cars and airplanes are virtually simulated in computer before they are built in the factory. Virtual prototyping integrates 3D CAD, simulation engine, analysis tools (like structural analysis and collision detection), and knowledgebase to streamline the whole product design and production process. In this paper, we present the application of a virtual prototyping software which has been used in a few construction projects in Hong Kong to support construction project planning. Specifically, the paper presents an implementation of virtual prototyping in a residential building project in Hong Kong. The applicability, difficulties and benefits of construction virtual prototyping are examined based on this project.

Keywords: construction project planning, prefabrication, simulation, virtual prototyping.

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238 Qualitative Survey on Managing Building Maintenance Projects

Authors: Edmond W.M. Lam, Albert P.C. Chan, Daniel W.M. Chan

Abstract:

Buildings are one of the valuable assets to provide people with shelters for work, leisure and rest. After years of attacks by weather, buildings will deteriorate which need proper maintenance in order to fulfill the requirements and satisfaction of the users. Poorly managed buildings not just give a negative image to the city itself, but also pose potential risk hazards to the health and safety of the general public. As a result, the management of maintenance projects has played an important role in cities like Hong Kong where the problem of urban decay has drawn much attention. However, most research has focused on managing new construction, and little research effort has been put on maintenance projects. Given the short duration and more diversified nature of work, repair and maintenance works are found to be more difficult to monitor and regulate when compared with new works. Project participants may face with problems in running maintenance projects which should be investigated so that proper strategies can be established. This paper aims to provide a thorough analysis on the problems of running maintenance projects. A review of literature on the characteristics of building maintenance projects was firstly conducted, which forms a solid basis for the empirical study. Results on the problems and difficulties of running maintenance projects from the viewpoints of industry practitioners will also be delivered with a view to formulating effective strategies for managing maintenance projects successfully.

Keywords: characteristics, problems, building maintenance, Hong Kong

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