@article{(Open Science Index):https://publications.waset.org/pdf/6688,
	  title     = {Microalbuminuria in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome},
	  author    = {Sharan Badiger and  Prema T. Akkasaligar and  Patil LS and  Manish Patel and  Biradar MS},
	  country	= {},
	  institution	= {},
	  abstract     = {Human immunodeficiency virus infection and
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is a global pandemic with
cases reporting from virtually every country and continues to be a
common infection in developing country like India.
Microalbuminuria is a manifestation of human immunodeficiency
virus associated nephropathy. Therefore, microalbuminuria may be
an early marker of human immunodeficiency virus associated
nephropathy, and screening for its presence may be beneficial. A
strikingly high prevalence of microalbuminuria among human
immunodeficiency virus infected patients has been described in
various studies. Risk factors for clinically significant proteinuria
include African - American race, higher human immunodeficiency
virus ribonucleic acid level and lower CD4 lymphocyte count. The
cardiovascular risk factors of increased systolic blood pressure and
increase fasting blood sugar level are strongly associated with
microalbuminuria in human immunodeficiency virus patient. These
results suggest that microalbuminuria may be a sign of current
endothelial dysfunction and micro-vascular disease and there is
substantial risk of future cardiovascular disease events. Positive
contributing factors include early kidney disease such as human
immunodeficiency virus associated nephropathy, a marker of end
organ damage related to co morbidities of diabetes or hypertension,
or more diffuse endothelial cells dysfunction. Nevertheless after
adjustment for non human immunodeficiency virus factors, human
immunodeficiency virus itself is a major risk factor. The presence of
human immunodeficiency virus infection is independent risk to
develop microalbuminuria in human immunodeficiency virus patient.
Cardiovascular risk factors appeared to be stronger predictors of
microalbuminuria than markers of human immunodeficiency virus
severity person with human immunodeficiency virus infection and
microalbuminuria therefore appear to potentially bear the burden of
two separate damage related to known vascular end organ damage
related to know vascular risk factors, and human immunodeficiency
virus specific processes such as the direct viral infection of kidney
cells.The higher prevalence of microalbuminuria among the human
immunodeficiency virus infected could be harbinger of future
increased risks of both kidney and cardiovascular disease. Further
study defining the prognostic significance of microalbuminuria
among human immunodeficiency virus infected persons will be
essential. Microalbuminuria seems to be a predictor of cardiovascular
disease in diabetic and non diabetic subjects, hence it can also be
used for early detection of micro vascular disease in human
immunodeficiency virus positive patients, thus can help to diagnose
the disease at the earliest.},
	    journal   = {International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences},
	  volume    = {6},
	  number    = {8},
	  year      = {2012},
	  pages     = {375 - 380},
	  ee        = {https://publications.waset.org/pdf/6688},
	  url   	= {https://publications.waset.org/vol/68},
	  bibsource = {https://publications.waset.org/},
	  issn  	= {eISSN: 1307-6892},
	  publisher = {World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology},
	  index 	= {Open Science Index 68, 2012},