Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1617

Search results for: Unknown source

1617 Identifying an Unknown Source in the Poisson Equation by a Modified Tikhonov Regularization Method

Authors: Ou Xie, Zhenyu Zhao

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider the problem for identifying the unknown source in the Poisson equation. A modified Tikhonov regularization method is presented to deal with illposedness of the problem and error estimates are obtained with an a priori strategy and an a posteriori choice rule to find the regularization parameter. Numerical examples show that the proposed method is effective and stable.

Keywords: Ill-posed problem, Unknown source, Poisson equation, Tikhonov regularization method, Discrepancy principle

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1616 Topological Sensitivity Analysis for Reconstruction of the Inverse Source Problem from Boundary Measurement

Authors: Maatoug Hassine, Mourad Hrizi

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider a geometric inverse source problem for the heat equation with Dirichlet and Neumann boundary data. We will reconstruct the exact form of the unknown source term from additional boundary conditions. Our motivation is to detect the location, the size and the shape of source support. We present a one-shot algorithm based on the Kohn-Vogelius formulation and the topological gradient method. The geometric inverse source problem is formulated as a topology optimization one. A topological sensitivity analysis is derived from a source function. Then, we present a non-iterative numerical method for the geometric reconstruction of the source term with unknown support using a level curve of the topological gradient. Finally, we give several examples to show the viability of our presented method.

Keywords: Geometric inverse source problem, heat equation, topological sensitivity, topological optimization, Kohn-Vogelius formulation.

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1615 An Eigen-Approach for Estimating the Direction-of Arrival of Unknown Number of Signals

Authors: Dia I. Abu-Al-Nadi, M. J. Mismar, T. H. Ismail

Abstract:

A technique for estimating the direction-of-arrival (DOA) of unknown number of source signals is presented using the eigen-approach. The eigenvector corresponding to the minimum eigenvalue of the autocorrelation matrix yields the minimum output power of the array. Also, the array polynomial with this eigenvector possesses roots on the unit circle. Therefore, the pseudo-spectrum is found by perturbing the phases of the roots one by one and calculating the corresponding array output power. The results indicate that the DOAs and the number of source signals are estimated accurately in the presence of a wide range of input noise levels.

Keywords: Array signal processing, direction-of-arrival, antenna arrays, eigenvalues, eigenvectors.

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1614 Blind Source Separation based on the Estimation for the Number of the Blind Sources under a Dynamic Acoustic Environment

Authors: Takaaki Ishibashi

Abstract:

Independent component analysis can estimate unknown source signals from their mixtures under the assumption that the source signals are statistically independent. However, in a real environment, the separation performance is often deteriorated because the number of the source signals is different from that of the sensors. In this paper, we propose an estimation method for the number of the sources based on the joint distribution of the observed signals under two-sensor configuration. From several simulation results, it is found that the number of the sources is coincident to that of peaks in the histogram of the distribution. The proposed method can estimate the number of the sources even if it is larger than that of the observed signals. The proposed methods have been verified by several experiments.

Keywords: blind source separation, independent component analysys, estimation for the number of the blind sources, voice activity detection, target extraction.

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1613 Kalman Filter Design in Structural Identification with Unknown Excitation

Authors: Z. Masoumi, B. Moaveni

Abstract:

This article is about first step of structural health monitoring by identifying structural system in the presence of unknown input. In the structural system identification, identification of structural parameters such as stiffness and damping are considered. In this study, the Kalman filter (KF) design for structural systems with unknown excitation is expressed. External excitations, such as earthquakes, wind or any other forces are not measured or not available. The purpose of this filter is its strengths to estimate the state variables of the system in the presence of unknown input. Also least squares estimation (LSE) method with unknown input is studied. Estimates of parameters have been adopted. Finally, using two examples advantages and drawbacks of both methods are studied.

Keywords: Structural health monitoring, Kalman filter, Least square estimation, structural system identification.

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1612 Robust Adaptive Control of a Robotic Manipulator with Unknown Dead Zone and Friction Torques

Authors: Ibrahim F. Jasim, Najah F. Jasim

Abstract:

The problem of controlling a two link robotic manipulator, consisting of a rotating and a prismatic links, is addressed. The actuations of both links are assumed to have unknown dead zone nonlinearities and friction torques modeled by LuGre friction model. Because of the existence of the unknown dead zone and friction torque at the actuations, unknown parameters and unmeasured states would appear to be part of the overall system dynamics that need for estimation. Unmeasured states observer, unknown parameters estimators, and robust adaptive control laws have been derived such that closed loop global stability is achieved. Simulation results have been performed to show the efficacy of the suggested approach.

Keywords: Adaptive Robust Control, Dead Zone, Friction Torques, Robotic Manipulators.

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1611 The Vulnerability Analysis of Java Bytecode Based on Points-to Dataflow

Authors: Tang Hong, Zhang Lufeng, Chen Hua, Zhang Jianbo

Abstract:

Today many developers use the Java components collected from the Internet as external LIBs to design and develop their own software. However, some unknown security bugs may exist in these components, such as SQL injection bug may comes from the components which have no specific check for the input string by users. To check these bugs out is very difficult without source code. So a novel method to check the bugs in Java bytecode based on points-to dataflow analysis is in need, which is different to the common analysis techniques base on the vulnerability pattern check. It can be used as an assistant tool for security analysis of Java bytecode from unknown softwares which will be used as extern LIBs.

Keywords: Java bytecode, points-to dataflow, vulnerability analysis

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1610 Capturing an Unknown Moving Target in Unknown Territory using Vision and Coordination

Authors: Kiran Ijaz, Umar Manzoor, Arshad Ali Shahid

Abstract:

In this paper we present an extension to Vision Based LRTA* (VLRTA*) known as Vision Based Moving Target Search (VMTS) for capturing unknown moving target in unknown territory with randomly generated obstacles. Target position is unknown to the agents and they cannot predict its position using any probability method. Agents have omni directional vision but can see in one direction at some point in time. Agent-s vision will be blocked by the obstacles in the search space so agent can not see through the obstacles. Proposed algorithm is evaluated on large number of scenarios. Scenarios include grids of sizes from 10x10 to 100x100. Grids had obstacles randomly placed, occupying 0% to 50%, in increments of 10%, of the search space. Experiments used 2 to 9 agents for each randomly generated maze with same obstacle ratio. Observed results suggests that VMTS is effective in locate target time, solution quality and virtual target. In addition, VMTS becomes more efficient if the number of agents is increased with proportion to obstacle ratio.

Keywords: Vision, MTS, Unknown Target, Coordination, VMTS, Multi-Agent.

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1609 Application of a Dual Satellite Geolocation System on Locating Sweeping Interference

Authors: M. H. Chan

Abstract:

This paper describes an application of a dual satellite geolocation (DSG) system on identifying and locating the unknown source of uplink sweeping interference. The geolocation system integrates the method of joint time difference of arrival (TDOA) and frequency difference of arrival (FDOA) with ephemeris correction technique which successfully demonstrated high accuracy in interference source location. The factors affecting the location error were also discussed.

Keywords: Dual satellite geolocation system, DGS, geolocation, TDOA/FDOA, and sweeping interference

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1608 Identifying Unknown Dynamic Forces Applied on Two Dimensional Frames

Authors: H. Katkhuda

Abstract:

A time domain approach is used in this paper to identify unknown dynamic forces applied on two dimensional frames using the measured dynamic structural responses for a sub-structure in the two dimensional frame. In this paper a sub-structure finite element model with short length of measurement from only three or four accelerometers is required, and an iterative least-square algorithm is used to identify the unknown dynamic force applied on the structure. Validity of the method is demonstrated with numerical examples using noise-free and noise-contaminated structural responses. Both harmonic and impulsive forces are studied. The results show that the proposed approach can identify unknown dynamic forces within very limited iterations with high accuracy and shows its robustness even noise- polluted dynamic response measurements are utilized.

Keywords: Dynamic Force Identification, Dynamic Responses, Sub-structure and Time Domain.

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1607 Using the Polynomial Approximation Algorithm in the Algorithm 2 for Manipulator's Control in an Unknown Environment

Authors: Pavel K. Lopatin, Artyom S. Yegorov

Abstract:

The Algorithm 2 for a n-link manipulator movement amidst arbitrary unknown static obstacles for a case when a sensor system supplies information about local neighborhoods of different points in the configuration space is presented. The Algorithm 2 guarantees the reaching of a target position in a finite number of steps. The Algorithm 2 is reduced to a finite number of calls of a subroutine for planning a trajectory in the presence of known forbidden states. The polynomial approximation algorithm which is used as the subroutine is presented. The results of the Algorithm2 implementation are given.

Keywords: Manipulator, trajectory planning, unknown obstacles.

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1606 Blind Image Deconvolution by Neural Recursive Function Approximation

Authors: Jiann-Ming Wu, Hsiao-Chang Chen, Chun-Chang Wu, Pei-Hsun Hsu

Abstract:

This work explores blind image deconvolution by recursive function approximation based on supervised learning of neural networks, under the assumption that a degraded image is linear convolution of an original source image through a linear shift-invariant (LSI) blurring matrix. Supervised learning of neural networks of radial basis functions (RBF) is employed to construct an embedded recursive function within a blurring image, try to extract non-deterministic component of an original source image, and use them to estimate hyper parameters of a linear image degradation model. Based on the estimated blurring matrix, reconstruction of an original source image from a blurred image is further resolved by an annealed Hopfield neural network. By numerical simulations, the proposed novel method is shown effective for faithful estimation of an unknown blurring matrix and restoration of an original source image.

Keywords: Blind image deconvolution, linear shift-invariant(LSI), linear image degradation model, radial basis functions (rbf), recursive function, annealed Hopfield neural networks.

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1605 Conservativeness of Probabilistic Constrained Optimal Control Method for Unknown Probability Distribution

Authors: Tomoaki Hashimoto

Abstract:

In recent decades, probabilistic constrained optimal control problems have attracted much attention in many research fields. Although probabilistic constraints are generally intractable in an optimization problem, several tractable methods haven been proposed to handle probabilistic constraints. In most methods, probabilistic constraints are reduced to deterministic constraints that are tractable in an optimization problem. However, there is a gap between the transformed deterministic constraints in case of known and unknown probability distribution. This paper examines the conservativeness of probabilistic constrained optimization method for unknown probability distribution. The objective of this paper is to provide a quantitative assessment of the conservatism for tractable constraints in probabilistic constrained optimization with unknown probability distribution.

Keywords: Optimal control, stochastic systems, discrete-time systems, probabilistic constraints.

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1604 Stable Robust Adaptive Controller and Observer Design for a Class of SISO Nonlinear Systems with Unknown Dead Zone

Authors: Ibrahim F. Jasim

Abstract:

This paper presents a new stable robust adaptive controller and observer design for a class of nonlinear systems that contain i. Coupling of unmeasured states and unknown parameters ii. Unknown dead zone at the system actuator. The system is firstly cast into a modified form in which the observer and parameter estimation become feasible. Then a stable robust adaptive controller, state observer, parameter update laws are derived that would provide global adaptive system stability and desirable performance. To validate the approach, simulation was performed to a single-link mechanical system with a dynamic friction model and unknown dead zone exists at the system actuation. Then a comparison is presented with the results when there is no dead zone at the system actuation.

Keywords: Dead Zone, Nonlinear Systems, Observer, Robust Adaptive Control.

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1603 Adaptive Impedance Control for Unknown Time-Varying Environment Position and Stiffness

Authors: Norsinnira Zainul Azlan, Hiroshi Yamaura

Abstract:

This study is concerned with a new adaptive impedance control strategy to compensate for unknown time-varying environment stiffness and position. The uncertainties are expressed by Function Approximation Technique (FAT), which allows the update laws to be derived easily using Lyapunov stability theory. Computer simulation results are presented to validate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

Keywords: Adaptive Impedance Control, Function Approximation Technique (FAT), unknown time-varying environment position and stiffness.

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1602 A 7DOF Manipulator Control in an Unknown Environment based on an Exact Algorithm

Authors: Pavel K. Lopatin, Artyom S. Yegorov

Abstract:

An exact algorithm for a n-link manipulator movement amidst arbitrary unknown static obstacles is presented. The algorithm guarantees the reaching of a target configuration of the manipulator in a finite number of steps. The algorithm is reduced to a finite number of calls of a subroutine for planning a trajectory in the presence of known forbidden states. The polynomial approximation algorithm which is used as the subroutine is presented. The results of the exact algorithm implementation for the control of a seven link (7 degrees of freedom, 7DOF) manipulator are given.

Keywords: Manipulator, trajectory planning, unknown obstacles

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1601 Robust Stabilization against Unknown Consensus Network

Authors: Myung-Gon Yoon, Jung-Ho Moon, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

This paper studies a robust stabilization problem of a single agent in a multi-agent consensus system composed of identical agents, when the network topology of the system is completely unknown. It is shown that the transfer function of an agent in a consensus system can be described as a multiplicative perturbation of the isolated agent transfer function in frequency domain. From an existing robust stabilization result, we present sufficient conditions for a robust stabilization of an agent against unknown network topology.

Keywords: Multi-agent System, Robust Stabilization, Transfer Function.

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1600 Source Direction Detection based on Stationary Electronic Nose System

Authors: Jie Cai, David C. Levy

Abstract:

Electronic nose (array of chemical sensors) are widely used in food industry and pollution control. Also it could be used to locate or detect the direction of the source of emission odors. Usually this task is performed by electronic nose (ENose) cooperated with mobile vehicles, but when a source is instantaneous or surrounding is hard for vehicles to reach, problem occurs. Thus a method for stationary ENose to detect the direction of the source and locate the source will be required. A novel method which uses the ratio between the responses of different sensors as a discriminant to determine the direction of source in natural wind surroundings is presented in this paper. The result shows that the method is accurate and easily to be implemented. This method could be also used in movably, as an optimized algorithm for robot tracking source location.

Keywords: Electronic nose, Nature wind situation, Source direction detection.

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1599 Automatic Recognition of an Unknown and Time-Varying Number of Simultaneous Environmental Sound Sources

Authors: S. Ntalampiras, I. Potamitis, N. Fakotakis, S. Kouzoupis

Abstract:

The present work faces the problem of automatic enumeration and recognition of an unknown and time-varying number of environmental sound sources while using a single microphone. The assumption that is made is that the sound recorded is a realization of sound sources belonging to a group of audio classes which is known a-priori. We describe two variations of the same principle which is to calculate the distance between the current unknown audio frame and all possible combinations of the classes that are assumed to span the soundscene. We concentrate on categorizing environmental sound sources, such as birds, insects etc. in the task of monitoring the biodiversity of a specific habitat.

Keywords: automatic recognition of multiple sound sources, enumeration of sound sources, computational ecology.

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1598 Selection of Designs in Ordinal Regression Models under Linear Predictor Misspecification

Authors: Ishapathik Das

Abstract:

The purpose of this article is to find a method of comparing designs for ordinal regression models using quantile dispersion graphs in the presence of linear predictor misspecification. The true relationship between response variable and the corresponding control variables are usually unknown. Experimenter assumes certain form of the linear predictor of the ordinal regression models. The assumed form of the linear predictor may not be correct always. Thus, the maximum likelihood estimates (MLE) of the unknown parameters of the model may be biased due to misspecification of the linear predictor. In this article, the uncertainty in the linear predictor is represented by an unknown function. An algorithm is provided to estimate the unknown function at the design points where observations are available. The unknown function is estimated at all points in the design region using multivariate parametric kriging. The comparison of the designs are based on a scalar valued function of the mean squared error of prediction (MSEP) matrix, which incorporates both variance and bias of the prediction caused by the misspecification in the linear predictor. The designs are compared using quantile dispersion graphs approach. The graphs also visually depict the robustness of the designs on the changes in the parameter values. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the proposed methodology.

Keywords: Model misspecification, multivariate kriging, multivariate logistic link, ordinal response models, quantile dispersion graphs.

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1597 A Second Law Assessment of Organic Rankine Cycle Depending on Source Temperature

Authors: Kyoung Hoon Kim

Abstract:

Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) has potential in reducing fossil fuels and relaxing environmental problems. In this work performance analysis of ORC is conducted based on the second law of thermodynamics for recovery of low temperature heat source from 100oC to 140oC using R134a as the working fluid. Effects of system parameters such as turbine inlet pressure or source temperature are theoretically investigated on the exergy destructions (anergies) at various components of the system as well as net work production or exergy efficiency. Results show that the net work or exergy efficiency has a peak with respect to the turbine inlet pressure when the source temperature is low, however, increases monotonically with increasing turbine inlet pressure when the source temperature is high.

Keywords: Organic Rankine cycle (ORC), low temperature heat source, exergy, source temperature.

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1596 Adaptive Impedance Control for Unknown Non-Flat Environment

Authors: Norsinnira Zainul Azlan, Hiroshi Yamaura

Abstract:

This paper presents a new adaptive impedance control strategy, based on Function Approximation Technique (FAT) to compensate for unknown non-flat environment shape or time-varying environment location. The target impedance in the force controllable direction is modified by incorporating adaptive compensators and the uncertainties are represented by FAT, allowing the update law to be derived easily. The force error feedback is utilized in the estimation and the accurate knowledge of the environment parameters are not required by the algorithm. It is shown mathematically that the stability of the controller is guaranteed based on Lyapunov theory. Simulation results presented to demonstrate the validity of the proposed controller.

Keywords: Adaptive impedance control, Function Approximation Technique (FAT), impedance control, unknown environment position.

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1595 Defects in Open Source Software: The Role of Online Forums

Authors: Faheem Ahmed, Piers Campbell, Ahmad Jaffar, Luiz Capretz

Abstract:

Free and open source software is gaining popularity at an unprecedented rate of growth. Organizations despite some concerns about the quality have been using them for various purposes. One of the biggest concerns about free and open source software is post release software defects and their fixing. Many believe that there is no appropriate support available to fix the bugs. On the contrary some believe that due to the active involvement of internet user in online forums, they become a major source of communicating the identification and fixing of defects in open source software. The research model of this empirical investigation establishes and studies the relationship between open source software defects and online public forums. The results of this empirical study provide evidence about the realities of software defects myths of open source software. We used a dataset consist of 616 open source software projects covering a broad range of categories to study the research model of this investigation. The results of this investigation show that online forums play a significant role identifying and fixing the defects in open source software.

Keywords: About Open source software, software engineering, software defect management, empirical software engineering.

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1594 Jeffrey's Prior for Unknown Sinusoidal Noise Model via Cramer-Rao Lower Bound

Authors: Samuel A. Phillips, Emmanuel A. Ayanlowo, Rasaki O. Olanrewaju, Olayode Fatoki

Abstract:

This paper employs the Jeffrey's prior technique in the process of estimating the periodograms and frequency of sinusoidal model for unknown noisy time variants or oscillating events (data) in a Bayesian setting. The non-informative Jeffrey's prior was adopted for the posterior trigonometric function of the sinusoidal model such that Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB) inference was used in carving-out the minimum variance needed to curb the invariance structure effect for unknown noisy time observational and repeated circular patterns. An average monthly oscillating temperature series measured in degree Celsius (0C) from 1901 to 2014 was subjected to the posterior solution of the unknown noisy events of the sinusoidal model via Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). It was not only deduced that two minutes period is required before completing a cycle of changing temperature from one particular degree Celsius to another but also that the sinusoidal model via the CRLB-Jeffrey's prior for unknown noisy events produced a miniature posterior Maximum A Posteriori (MAP) compare to a known noisy events.

Keywords: Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB), Jeffrey's prior, Sinusoidal, Maximum A Posteriori (MAP), Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), Periodograms.

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1593 Array Data Transformation for Source Code Obfuscation

Authors: S. Praveen, P. Sojan Lal

Abstract:

Obfuscation is a low cost software protection methodology to avoid reverse engineering and re engineering of applications. Source code obfuscation aims in obscuring the source code to hide the functionality of the codes. This paper proposes an Array data transformation in order to obfuscate the source code which uses arrays. The applications using the proposed data structures force the programmer to obscure the logic manually. It makes the developed obscured codes hard to reverse engineer and also protects the functionality of the codes.

Keywords: Reverse Engineering, Source Code Obfuscation.

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1592 FAT based Adaptive Impedance Control for Unknown Environment Position

Authors: N. Z. Azlan, H. Yamaura

Abstract:

This paper presents the Function Approximation Technique (FAT) based adaptive impedance control for a robotic finger. The force based impedance control is developed so that the robotic finger tracks the desired force while following the reference position trajectory, under unknown environment position and uncertainties in finger parameters. The control strategy is divided into two phases, which are the free and contact phases. Force error feedback is utilized in updating the uncertain environment position during contact phase. Computer simulations results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

Keywords: Adaptive impedance control, force based impedance control, force control, Function Approximation Technique (FAT), unknown environment position.

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1591 Analysis of Joint Source Channel LDPC Coding for Correlated Sources Transmission over Noisy Channels

Authors: Marwa Ben Abdessalem, Amin Zribi, Ammar Bouall├Ęgue

Abstract:

In this paper, a Joint Source Channel coding scheme based on LDPC codes is investigated. We consider two concatenated LDPC codes, one allows to compress a correlated source and the second to protect it against channel degradations. The original information can be reconstructed at the receiver by a joint decoder, where the source decoder and the channel decoder run in parallel by transferring extrinsic information. We investigate the performance of the JSC LDPC code in terms of Bit-Error Rate (BER) in the case of transmission over an Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel, and for different source and channel rate parameters. We emphasize how JSC LDPC presents a performance tradeoff depending on the channel state and on the source correlation. We show that, the JSC LDPC is an efficient solution for a relatively low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) channel, especially with highly correlated sources. Finally, a source-channel rate optimization has to be applied to guarantee the best JSC LDPC system performance for a given channel.

Keywords: AWGN channel, belief propagation, joint source channel coding, LDPC codes.

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1590 Controller Design for Active Suspension System of ┬╝ Car with Unknown Mass and Time-Delay

Authors: Ali Al-Zughaibi, Huw Davies

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to present a modeling and control of a quarter-car active suspension system with unknown mass, unknown time-delay and road disturbance. The objective of designing the controller is to derive a control law to achieve stability of the system and convergence that can considerably improve ride comfort and road disturbance handling. This is accomplished by using Routh-Hurwitz criterion based on defined parameters. Mathematical proof is given to show the ability of the designed controller to ensure the target of design, implementation with the active suspension system and enhancement dispersion oscillation of the system despite these problems. Simulations were also performed to control quarter car suspension, where the results obtained from these simulations verify the validity of the proposed design.

Keywords: Active suspension system, disturbance rejection, dynamic uncertainty, time-delay.

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1589 Optimal Preventive Maintenance of the Reserve Source in the Industrial Electric Network

Authors: M. Bouguerra, H. Meglouli, I. Habi

Abstract:

The great majority of the electric installations belong to the first and second category. In order to ensure a high level of reliability of their electric system feeder, two power supply sources are envisaged, one principal, the other of reserve, generally a cold reserve (electric diesel group). The principal source being under operation, its control can be ideal and sure, however for the reserve source being in stop, a preventive maintenance-s which proceeds on time intervals (periodicity) and for well defined lengths of time are envisaged, so that this source will always available in case of the principal source failure. The choice of the periodicity of preventive maintenance of the source of reserve influences directly the reliability of the electric feeder system. On the basis of the semi-markovians processes, the influence of the periodicity of the preventive maintenance of the source of reserve is studied and is given the optimal periodicity.

Keywords: Semi Markovians processes, reliability, optimization, electric network.

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1588 Behrens-Fisher Problem with One Variance Unknown

Authors: Sa-aat Niwitpong, Rada Somkhuean, Suparat Niwitpong

Abstract:

This paper presents the generalized p-values for testing the Behrens-Fisher problem when one variance is unknown. We also derive a closed form expression of the upper bound of the proposed generalized p-value.

Keywords: Generalized p-value, hypothesis testing, upper bound.

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