Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 162

Search results for: hierarchy

162 Discovery of Production Rules with Fuzzy Hierarchy

Authors: Fadl M. Ba-Alwi, Kamal K. Bharadwaj

Abstract:

In this paper a novel algorithm is proposed that integrates the process of fuzzy hierarchy generation and rule discovery for automated discovery of Production Rules with Fuzzy Hierarchy (PRFH) in large databases.A concept of frequency matrix (Freq) introduced to summarize large database that helps in minimizing the number of database accesses, identification and removal of irrelevant attribute values and weak classes during the fuzzy hierarchy generation.Experimental results have established the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

Keywords: Data Mining, Degree of subsumption, Freq matrix, Fuzzy hierarchy.

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161 Analyzing Methods of the Relation between Concepts based on a Concept Hierarchy

Authors: Ke Lu, Tetsuya Furukawa

Abstract:

Data objects are usually organized hierarchically, and the relations between them are analyzed based on a corresponding concept hierarchy. The relation between data objects, for example how similar they are, are usually analyzed based on the conceptual distance in the hierarchy. If a node is an ancestor of another node, it is enough to analyze how close they are by calculating the distance vertically. However, if there is not such relation between two nodes, the vertical distance cannot express their relation explicitly. This paper tries to fill this gap by improving the analysis method for data objects based on hierarchy. The contributions of this paper include: (1) proposing an improved method to evaluate the vertical distance between concepts; (2) defining the concept horizontal distance and a method to calculate the horizontal distance; and (3) discussing the methods to confine a range by the horizontal distance and the vertical distance, and evaluating the relation between concepts.

Keywords: Concept Hierarchy, Horizontal Distance, Relation Analysis, Vertical Distance

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160 Emotional, Behavioural and Social Development: Modality of Hierarchy of Needs in Supporting Parents with Special Needs

Authors: Fadzilah Abdul Rahman

Abstract:

Emotional development is developed between the parents and their child. Behavioural development is also developed between the parents and their child. Social Development is how parents can help their special needs child to adapt to society and to face challenges. In promoting a lifelong learning mindset, enhancing skill sets and readiness to face challenges, parents would be able to counter balance these challenges during their care giving process and better manage their expectations through understanding the hierarchy of needs modality towards a positive attitude, and in turn, improve their quality of life and participation in society. This paper aims to demonstrate how the hierarchy of needs can be applied in various situations of caregiving for parents with a special needs child.

Keywords: Hierarchy of needs, parents, special needs, care-giving.

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159 AHP and Extent Fuzzy AHP Approach for Prioritization of Performance Measurement Attributes

Authors: Remica Aggarwal, Sanjeet Singh

Abstract:

The decision to recruit manpower in an organization requires clear identification of the criteria (attributes) that distinguish successful from unsuccessful performance. The choice of appropriate attributes or criteria in different levels of hierarchy in an organization is a multi-criteria decision problem and therefore multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) techniques can be used for prioritization of such attributes. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is one such technique that is widely used for deciding among the complex criteria structure in different levels. In real applications, conventional AHP still cannot reflect the human thinking style as precise data concerning human attributes are quite hard to be extracted. Fuzzy logic offers a systematic base in dealing with situations, which are ambiguous or not well defined. This study aims at defining a methodology to improve the quality of prioritization of an employee-s performance measurement attributes under fuzziness. To do so, a methodology based on the Extent Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process is proposed. Within the model, four main attributes such as Subject knowledge and achievements, Research aptitude, Personal qualities and strengths and Management skills with their subattributes are defined. The two approaches conventional AHP approach and the Extent Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process approach have been compared on the same hierarchy structure and criteria set.

Keywords: AHP, Extent analysis method, Fuzzy AHP, Prioritization.

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158 Methods for Data Selection in Medical Databases: The Binary Logistic Regression -Relations with the Calculated Risks

Authors: Cristina G. Dascalu, Elena Mihaela Carausu, Daniela Manuc

Abstract:

The medical studies often require different methods for parameters selection, as a second step of processing, after the database-s designing and filling with information. One common task is the selection of fields that act as risk factors using wellknown methods, in order to find the most relevant risk factors and to establish a possible hierarchy between them. Different methods are available in this purpose, one of the most known being the binary logistic regression. We will present the mathematical principles of this method and a practical example of using it in the analysis of the influence of 10 different psychiatric diagnostics over 4 different types of offences (in a database made from 289 psychiatric patients involved in different types of offences). Finally, we will make some observations about the relation between the risk factors hierarchy established through binary logistic regression and the individual risks, as well as the results of Chi-squared test. We will show that the hierarchy built using the binary logistic regression doesn-t agree with the direct order of risk factors, even if it was naturally to assume this hypothesis as being always true.

Keywords: Databases, risk factors, binary logisticregression, hierarchy.

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157 Identifying Key Success Factor For Supply Chain Management System in the Semiconductor Industry - A Focus Group Approach

Authors: T. P. Lu, B. N. Hwang, T. Z. Liou, Y. L. Lin

Abstract:

Developing a supply chain management (SCM) system is costly, but important. However, because of its complicated nature, not many of such projects are considered successful. Few research publications directly relate to key success factors (KSFs) for implementing a SCM system. Motivated by the above, this research proposes a hierarchy of KSFs for SCM system implementation in the semiconductor industry by using a two-step approach. First, the literature review indicates the initial hierarchy. The second step includes a focus group approach to finalize the proposed KSF hierarchy by extracting valuable experiences from executives and managers that actively participated in a project, which successfully establish a seamless SCM integration between the world's largest semiconductor foundry manufacturing company and the world's largest assembly and testing company. Future project executives may refer the resulting KSF hierarchy as a checklist for SCM system implementation in semiconductor or related industries.

Keywords: Focus group, key success factors, supply chain management, semiconductor industry.

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156 The Multi-objective Optimization for the SLS Process Parameters Based on Analytic Hierarchy Process

Authors: Yang Laixia, Deng Jun, Li Dichen, Bai Yang

Abstract:

The forming process parameters of Selective Laser Sintering(SLS) directly affect the forming efficiency and forming quality. Therefore, to determine reasonable process parameters is particularly important. In this paper, the weight of each target of the forming quality and efficiency is firstly calculated with the Analytic Hierarchy Process. And then the size of each target is measured by orthogonal experiment. Finally, the sum of the product of each target with the weight is compared to the process parameters in each group and obtained the optimal molding process parameters.

Keywords: Analytic Hierarchy Process, Multi-objective optimization, Orthogonal test, Selective Laser Sintering

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155 Determination of Cu and Mo Potential Targets in the Khatunabad Based on Analytical Hierarchy Process, West of Mianeh, Iran

Authors: R. Noori, F. Feizi, M.R. Jafari

Abstract:

Khatunabad area is situated geologically in Urmieh- Dokhtar magmatic belt in NW of Iran. In this research, studied area has been investigated in order to recognize the potential copper and molybdenum-bearing target areas. The survey layers include the lithologic units, alteration, geochemical result, tectonics and copper and molybdenum occurrence. As an accurate decision can have a considerable effect on exploration plans, so in this efforts have been made to make use of new combination method. For this purpose, the analytical hierarchy process was used and revealed highly potential copper and molybdenum mineralization areas. Based on achieved results, geological perspective in north of studied area is appropriate for advance stage, especially for subsurface exploration in future.

Keywords: Analytical hierarchy process, Potential targets, Khatunabad, Iran

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154 Multi-Criteria Spatial Analysis for the Localization of Production Structures. Analytic Hierarchy Process and Geographical Information Systems in the Case of Expanding an Industrial Area

Authors: Gianluigi De Mare, Pierluigi Morano, Antonio Nesticò

Abstract:

Among the numerous economic evaluation techniques currently available, Multi-criteria Spatial Analysis lends itself to solving localization problems of property complexes and, in particular, production plants. The methodology involves the use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and the mapping overlay technique, which overlaps the different information layers of a territory in order to obtain an overview of the parameters that characterize it. This first phase is used to detect possible settlement surfaces of a new agglomeration, subsequently selected through Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), so as to choose the best alternative. The result ensures the synthesis of a multidimensional profile that expresses both the quantitative and qualitative effects. Each criterion can be given a different weight.

Keywords: Multi-criteria Spatial Analysis, Analytic Hierarchy Process, Geographical Information Systems, localization of industrial areas.

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153 Prioritising the TQM Enablers and IT Resources in the ICT Industry: An AHP Approach

Authors: Suby Khanam, Jamshed Siddiqui, Faisal Talib

Abstract:

Total Quality Management (TQM) is a managerial approach that improves the competitiveness of the industry, meanwhile Information technology (IT) was introduced with TQM for handling the technical issues which is supported by quality experts for fulfilling the customers’ requirement. Present paper aims to utilise AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) methodology to priorities and rank the hierarchy levels of TQM enablers and IT resource together for its successful implementation in the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) industry. A total of 17 TQM enablers (nine) and IT resources (eight) were identified and partitioned into 3 categories and were prioritised by AHP approach. The finding indicates that the 17 sub-criteria can be grouped into three main categories namely organizing, tools and techniques, and culture and people. Further, out of 17 sub-criteria, three sub-criteria: top management commitment and support, total employee involvement, and continuous improvement got highest priority whereas three sub-criteria such as structural equation modelling, culture change, and customer satisfaction got lowest priority. The result suggests a hierarchy model for ICT industry to prioritise the enablers and resources as well as to improve the TQM and IT performance in the ICT industry. This paper has some managerial implication which suggests the managers of ICT industry to implement TQM and IT together in their organizations to get maximum benefits and how to utilize available resources. At the end, conclusions, limitation, future scope of the study are presented.

Keywords: Analytic Hierarchy Process, Information Technology, Information and Communication Technology, Prioritization, Total Quality Management.

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152 Analytic Hierarchy Process Method for Supplier Selection Considering Green Logistics: Case Study of Aluminum Production Sector

Authors: H. Erbiyik, A. Bal, M. Sirakaya, Ö. Yesildal, E. Yolcu

Abstract:

The emergence of many environmental issues began with the Industrial Revolution. The depletion of natural resources and emerging environmental challenges over time requires enterprises and managers to take into consideration environmental factors while managing business. If we take notice of these causes; the design and implementation of environmentally friendly green purchasing, production and waste management systems become very important at green logistics systems. Companies can adopt green supply chain with the awareness of these facts. The concept of green supply chain constitutes from green purchasing, green production, green logistics, waste management and reverse logistics. In this study, we wanted to identify the concept of green supply chain and why green supply chain should be applied. In the practice part of the study an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) study is conducted on an aluminum production company to evaluate suppliers.

Keywords: Aluminum sector, analytic hierarchy process, decision making, green logistics.

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151 Material Handling Equipment Selection using Hybrid Monte Carlo Simulation and Analytic Hierarchy Process

Authors: Amer M. Momani, Abdulaziz A. Ahmed

Abstract:

The many feasible alternatives and conflicting objectives make equipment selection in materials handling a complicated task. This paper presents utilizing Monte Carlo (MC) simulation combined with the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to evaluate and select the most appropriate Material Handling Equipment (MHE). The proposed hybrid model was built on the base of material handling equation to identify main and sub criteria critical to MHE selection. The criteria illustrate the properties of the material to be moved, characteristics of the move, and the means by which the materials will be moved. The use of MC simulation beside the AHP is very powerful where it allows the decision maker to represent his/her possible preference judgments as random variables. This will reduce the uncertainty of single point judgment at conventional AHP, and provide more confidence in the decision problem results. A small business pharmaceutical company is used as an example to illustrate the development and application of the proposed model.

Keywords: Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), Materialhandling equipment selection, Monte Carlo simulation, Multi-criteriadecision making

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150 Role of ICT and Wage Inequality in Organization

Authors: Shoji Katagiri

Abstract:

This study deals with wage inequality in organization and shows the relationship between ICT and wage in organization. To do so, we incorporate ICT’s factors in organization into our model. ICT’s factors are efficiencies of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), Computer Assisted Design/Computer Assisted Manufacturing (CAD/CAM), and NETWORK. The improvement of ICT’s factors decrease the learning cost to solve problem pertaining to the hierarchy in organization. The improvement of NETWORK increases the wage inequality within workers and decreases within managers and entrepreneurs. The improvements of CAD/CAM and ERP increases the wage inequality within all agent, and partially increase it between the agents in hierarchy.

Keywords: Endogenous economic growth, ICT, inequality, capital accumulation, technology.

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149 A New Similarity Measure Based On Edge Counting

Authors: T. Slimani, B. Ben Yaghlane, K. Mellouli

Abstract:

In the field of concepts, the measure of Wu and Palmer [1] has the advantage of being simple to implement and have good performances compared to the other similarity measures [2]. Nevertheless, the Wu and Palmer measure present the following disadvantage: in some situations, the similarity of two elements of an IS-A ontology contained in the neighborhood exceeds the similarity value of two elements contained in the same hierarchy. This situation is inadequate within the information retrieval framework. To overcome this problem, we propose a new similarity measure based on the Wu and Palmer measure. Our objective is to obtain realistic results for concepts not located in the same way. The obtained results show that compared to the Wu and Palmer approach, our measure presents a profit in terms of relevance and execution time.

Keywords: Hierarchy, IS-A ontology, Semantic Web, Similarity Measure.

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148 Ranking of Performance Measures of GSCM towards Sustainability: Using Analytic Hierarchy Process

Authors: Dixit Garg, S. Luthra, A. Haleem

Abstract:

During recent years, the natural environment has become a challenging topic that business organizations must consider due to the economic and ecological impacts and increasing awareness of environment protection among society. Organizations are trying to achieve the goals of improvement in environment, low cost, high quality, flexibility and more customer satisfaction. Performance measurement frameworks are very useful to monitor the performance of any organization. The basic goal of this paper is to identify performance measures and ranking of these performance measures of GSCM performance measurement towards sustainability framework. Five perspectives (Environment, Economic, Social, Operational and Cost performances) and nineteen performance measures of GSCM performance towards sustainability have been have been identified from extensive literature review. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique has been utilized for ranking of these performance perspectives and measures. All pair comparisons in AHP have been made on the basis on the experts’ opinions (selected from academia and industry). Ranking of these performance perspectives and measures will help to understand the importance of environmental, economic, social, operational performances and cost performances in the supply chain.

Keywords: Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), Green Supply Chain Management, Performance Measures (PM), Sustainability.

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147 Using Rao-Blackwellised Particle Filter Track 3D Arm Motion based on Hierarchical Limb Model

Authors: XueSong Yu, JiaFeng Liu, XiangLong Tang, JianHua Huang

Abstract:

For improving the efficiency of human 3D tracking, we present an algorithm to track 3D Arm Motion. First, the Hierarchy Limb Model (HLM) is proposed based on the human 3D skeleton model. Second, via graph decomposition, the arm motion state space, modeled by HLM, can be discomposed into two low dimension subspaces: root nodes and leaf nodes. Finally, Rao-Blackwellised Particle Filter is used to estimate the 3D arm motion. The result of experiment shows that our algorithm can advance the computation efficiency.

Keywords: Hierarchy Limb Model; Rao-Blackwellised Particle Filter; 3D tracking

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146 Developing a Structured and Strategically Focused Performance Assessment System

Authors: Isabel Duarte de Almeida, João Vilas-Boas, Ana Abrantes Cabral

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The number and adequacy of Performance-Indicators (PIs) for organisational purposes are core to the success of organisations and a major concern to the sponsor of this research. This assignment developed a procedure to improve a firm’s performance assessment system, by identifying two key-PIs out of 28 initial ones, and by setting criteria and their relative importance to validate and rank the adequacy and the right number of operational metrics. The Analytical-Hierarchy-Process was used with a synthesismethod to treat data coming from the management inquiries. Although organisational alignment has been achieved, business processes should also be targeted and PIs continuously revised.

Keywords: Strategic performance assessment systems, Key Performance Indicators (KPIs), Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP).

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145 Data Mining Approach for Commercial Data Classification and Migration in Hybrid Storage Systems

Authors: Mais Haj Qasem, Maen M. Al Assaf, Ali Rodan

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Parallel hybrid storage systems consist of a hierarchy of different storage devices that vary in terms of data reading speed performance. As we ascend in the hierarchy, data reading speed becomes faster. Thus, migrating the application’ important data that will be accessed in the near future to the uppermost level will reduce the application I/O waiting time; hence, reducing its execution elapsed time. In this research, we implement trace-driven two-levels parallel hybrid storage system prototype that consists of HDDs and SSDs. The prototype uses data mining techniques to classify application’ data in order to determine its near future data accesses in parallel with the its on-demand request. The important data (i.e. the data that the application will access in the near future) are continuously migrated to the uppermost level of the hierarchy. Our simulation results show that our data migration approach integrated with data mining techniques reduces the application execution elapsed time when using variety of traces in at least to 22%.

Keywords: Data mining, hybrid storage system, recurrent neural network, support vector machine.

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144 A Study of the Effectiveness of the Routing Decision Support Algorithm

Authors: Wayne Goodridge, Alexander Nikov, Ashok Sahai

Abstract:

Multi criteria decision making (MCDM) methods like analytic hierarchy process, ELECTRE and multi-attribute utility theory are critically studied. They have irregularities in terms of the reliability of ranking of the best alternatives. The Routing Decision Support (RDS) algorithm is trying to improve some of their deficiencies. This paper gives a mathematical verification that the RDS algorithm conforms to the test criteria for an effective MCDM method when a linear preference function is considered.

Keywords: Decision support systems, linear preference function, multi-criteria decision-making algorithm, analytic hierarchy process.

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143 Using Analytic Hierarchy Process as a Decision-Making Tool in Project Portfolio Management

Authors: D. Danesh, M. J. Ryan, A. Abbasi

Abstract:

Project Portfolio Management (PPM) is an essential component of an organisation’s strategic procedures, which requires attention of several factors to envisage a range of long-term outcomes to support strategic project portfolio decisions. To evaluate overall efficiency at the portfolio level, it is essential to identify the functionality of specific projects as well as to aggregate those findings in a mathematically meaningful manner that indicates the strategic significance of the associated projects at a number of levels of abstraction. PPM success is directly associated with the quality of decisions made and poor judgment increases portfolio costs. Hence, various Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) techniques have been designed and employed to support the decision-making functions. This paper reviews possible options to enhance the decision-making outcomes in organisational portfolio management processes using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) both from academic and practical perspectives and will examine the usability, certainty and quality of the technique. The results of the study will also provide insight into the technical risk associated with current decision-making model to underpin initiative tracking and strategic portfolio management.

Keywords: Analytic hierarchy process, decision support systems, multi-criteria decision-making, project portfolio management.

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142 Classifying Biomedical Text Abstracts based on Hierarchical 'Concept' Structure

Authors: Rozilawati Binti Dollah, Masaki Aono

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Classifying biomedical literature is a difficult and challenging task, especially when a large number of biomedical articles should be organized into a hierarchical structure. In this paper, we present an approach for classifying a collection of biomedical text abstracts downloaded from Medline database with the help of ontology alignment. To accomplish our goal, we construct two types of hierarchies, the OHSUMED disease hierarchy and the Medline abstract disease hierarchies from the OHSUMED dataset and the Medline abstracts, respectively. Then, we enrich the OHSUMED disease hierarchy before adapting it to ontology alignment process for finding probable concepts or categories. Subsequently, we compute the cosine similarity between the vector in probable concepts (in the “enriched" OHSUMED disease hierarchy) and the vector in Medline abstract disease hierarchies. Finally, we assign category to the new Medline abstracts based on the similarity score. The results obtained from the experiments show the performance of our proposed approach for hierarchical classification is slightly better than the performance of the multi-class flat classification.

Keywords: Biomedical literature, hierarchical text classification, ontology alignment, text mining.

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141 Sustainable Maintenance Model for Infrastructure in Egypt

Authors: S. Hasan, I. Beshara

Abstract:

Infrastructure maintenance is a great challenge facing sustainable development of infrastructure assets due to the high cost of passive implementation of a sustainable maintenance plan. An assessment model of sustainable maintenance for highway infrastructure projects in Egypt is developed in this paper. It helps in improving the implementation of sustainable maintenance criteria. Thus, this paper has applied the analytical hierarchy processes (AHP) to rank and explore the weight of 26 assessment indicators using three hierarchy levels containing the main sustainable categories and subcategories with related indicators. Overall combined weight of each indicator for sustainable maintenance evaluation has been calculated to sum up to a sustainable maintenance performance index (SMI). The results show that the factor "Preventive maintenance cost" has the highest relative contribution factor among others (13.5%), while two factors of environmental performance have the least weights (0.7%). The developed model aims to provide decision makers with information about current maintenance performance and support them in the decision-making process regarding future directions of maintenance activities. It can be used as an assessment performance tool during the operation and maintenance stage. The developed indicators can be considered during designing the maintenance plan. Practices for successful implementation of the model are also presented.

Keywords: Analytical Hierarchy Process, AHP, assessment performance model, KPIs for sustainable maintenance, sustainable maintenance index.

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140 Simulation of Robotic Arm using Genetic Algorithm and AHP

Authors: V. K. Banga, Y. Singh, R. Kumar

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In this paper, we have proposed a low cost optimized solution for the movement of a three-arm manipulator using Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). A scheme is given for optimizing the movement of robotic arm with the help of Genetic Algorithm so that the minimum energy consumption criteria can be achieved. As compared to Direct Kinematics, Inverse Kinematics evolved two solutions out of which the best-fit solution is selected with the help of Genetic Algorithm and is kept in search space for future use. The Inverse Kinematics, Fitness Value evaluation and Binary Encoding like tasks are simulated and tested. Although, three factors viz. Movement, Friction and Least Settling Time (or Min. Vibration) are used for finding the Fitness Function / Fitness Values, however some more factors can also be considered.

Keywords: Inverse Kinematics, Genetic Algorithm (GA), Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), Fitness Value, Fitness Function.

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139 Modeling the Country Selection Decision in Retail Internationalization

Authors: A. Hortacsu, A. Tektas

Abstract:

This paper aims to develop a model that assists the international retailer in selecting the country that maximizes the degree of fit between the retailer-s goals and the country characteristics in his initial internationalization move. A two-stage multi criteria decision model is designed integrating the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Goal Programming. Ethical, cultural, geographic and economic proximity are identified as the relevant constructs of the internationalization decision. The constructs are further structured into sub-factors within analytic hierarchy. The model helps the retailer to integrate, rank and weigh a number of hard and soft factors and prioritize the countries accordingly. The model has been implemented on a Turkish luxury goods retailer who was planning to internationalize. Actual entry of the specific retailer in the selected country is a support for the model. Implementation on a single retailer limits the generalizability of the results; however, the emphasis of the paper is on construct identification and model development. The paper enriches the existing literature by proposing a hybrid multi objective decision model which introduces new soft dimensions i.e. perceived distance, ethical proximity, humane orientation to the decision process and facilitates effective decision making.

Keywords: Analytic hierarchy process, culture, ethics, goal programming, retail foreign market selection.

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138 Utilizing the Analytic Hierarchy Process in Improving Performances of Blind Judo

Authors: Hyun Chul Cho, Hyunkyoung Oh, Hyun Yoon, Jooyeon Jin, Jae Won Lee

Abstract:

Identifying, structuring, and racking the most important factors related to improving athletes’ performances could pave the way for improve training system. The purpose of this study was to identify the relative importance factors to improve performance of the of judo athletes with visual impairments, including blindness by using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). After reviewing the literature, the relative importance of factors affecting performance of the blind judo was selected. A group of expert reviewed the first draft of the questionnaires, and then finally selected performance factors were classified into the major categories of techniques, physical fitness, and psychological categories. Later, a pre-selected experts group was asked to review the final version of questionnaire and confirm the priories of performance factors. The order of priority was determined by performing pairwise comparisons using Expert Choice 2000. Results indicated that “grappling” (.303) and “throwing” (.234) were the most important lower hierarchy factors for blind judo skills. In addition, the most important physical factors affecting performance were “muscular strength and endurance” (.238). Further, among other psychological factors “competitive anxiety” (.393) was important factor that affects performance. It is important to offer psychological skills training to reduce anxiety of judo athletes with visual impairments and blindness, so they can compete in their optimal states. These findings offer insights into what should be considered when determining factors to improve performance of judo athletes with visual impairments and blindness.

Keywords: Analytic hierarchy process, blind athlete, judo, sport performance.

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137 Strategic Priority of Green ICT Policy in Korea: Applying Analytic Hierarchy Process

Authors: Yong Ho Shim, Ki Youn Kim, Ji Yeon Cho, Jin Kyung Park, Bong Gyou Lee

Abstract:

This study considers priorities of primary goals to increase policy efficiency of Green ICT. Recently several studies have been published that address how IT is linked to climate change. However, most of the previous studies are limited to Green ICT industrial statute and policy directions. This paper present Green ICT policy making processes systematically. As a result of the analysis of Korean Green ICT policy, the following emerged as important to accomplish for Green ICT policy: eco-friendliness, technology evolution, economic efficiency, energy efficiency, and stable supply of energy. This is an initial study analyzing Green ICT policy, which provides an academic framework that can be used a guideline to establish Green ICT policy.

Keywords: AHP(Analytic Hierarchy Process), Case Study, Green ICT, Policy Priority

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136 Study on Applying Fuzzy AHP and GRA in Selection of Agent Construction Enterprise

Authors: Shirong Li, Huan Yan

Abstract:

To help the client to select a competent agent construction enterprise (ACE), this study aims to investigate the selection standards by using the Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP) and build an evaluation mathematical model with Grey Relational Analysis (GRA). According to the outputs of literature review, four orderly levels are established within the model, taking the consideration of various agent construction models in practice. Then, the process of applying FAHP and GRA is discussed in detailed. Finally, through a case study, this paper illustrates how to apply these methods in getting the weights of each standard and the final assessment result.

Keywords: agent construction enterprise, agent constructionmodel, fuzzy analytic hierarchy process, grey relational analysis

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135 Measuring Perceived Service Quality for Intelligent Living Space Showroom – Living 3.0 in Taiwan

Authors: Ming-Wen Hsu, Yaw-Kuang Chen, Che-Ming Chiang, Shin-Ku Lee

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This research explores visitor-s expectations of service quality in intelligent living space showroom – Living 3.0 in Taiwan. Based on the five dimensions of PZB service quality, a specialist questionnaire is utilized to establish a complete service quality evaluation framework for Living 3.0. In this research, analysis hierarchy process (AHP) is applied to find the relative weights among the criteria. Finally, the service quality evaluation framework and evaluation results can be used as a guide for Living 3.0 proprietors to review, improve, and enhance service planning and service qualities in the future.

Keywords: Analysis Hierarchy Process (AHP), Service quality, Intelligent living space.

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134 Rating the Importance of Customer Requirements for Green Product Using Analytic Hierarchy Process Methodology

Authors: Lara F. Horani, Shurong Tong

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Identification of customer requirements and their preferences are the starting points in the process of product design. Most of design methodologies focus on traditional requirements. But in the previous decade, the green products and the environment requirements have increasingly attracted the attention with the constant increase in the level of consumer awareness towards environmental problems (such as green-house effect, global warming, pollution and energy crisis, and waste management). Determining the importance weights for the customer requirements is an essential and crucial process. This paper used the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) approach to evaluate and rate the customer requirements for green products. With respect to the ultimate goal of customer satisfaction, surveys are conducted using a five-point scale analysis. With the help of this scale, one can derive the weight vectors. This approach can improve the imprecise ranking of customer requirements inherited from studies based on the conventional AHP. Furthermore, the AHP with extent analysis is simple and easy to implement to prioritize customer requirements. The research is based on collected data through a questionnaire survey conducted over a sample of 160 people belonging to different age, marital status, education and income groups in order to identify the customer preferences for green product requirements.

Keywords: Analytic hierarchy process, green product, customer requirements for green design, importance weights for the customer requirements.

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133 Genetic Programming Approach to Hierarchical Production Rule Discovery

Authors: Basheer M. Al-Maqaleh, Kamal K. Bharadwaj

Abstract:

Automated discovery of hierarchical structures in large data sets has been an active research area in the recent past. This paper focuses on the issue of mining generalized rules with crisp hierarchical structure using Genetic Programming (GP) approach to knowledge discovery. The post-processing scheme presented in this work uses flat rules as initial individuals of GP and discovers hierarchical structure. Suitable genetic operators are proposed for the suggested encoding. Based on the Subsumption Matrix(SM), an appropriate fitness function is suggested. Finally, Hierarchical Production Rules (HPRs) are generated from the discovered hierarchy. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithm.

Keywords: Genetic Programming, Hierarchy, Knowledge Discovery in Database, Subsumption Matrix.

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