Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

Search results for: MM2

26 Quality Assessment of Hollow Sandcrete Blocks in Minna, Nigeria

Authors: M. Abdullahi, S. Sadiku, Bashar S. Mohammed, J. I. Aguwa

Abstract:

The properties of hollow sandcrete blocks produced in Minna, Nigeria are presented. Sandcrete block is made of cement, water and sand binded together in certain mix proportions. For the purpose of this work, fifty (50) commercial sandcrete block industries were visited in Minna, Nigeria to obtain block samples and aggregates used for the manufacture, and to take inventory of the mix composition and the production process. Sieve analysis tests were conduction on the soil sample from various block industries to ascertain their quality to be used for block making. The mix ratios were also investigated. Five (5) nine inches (9’’ or 225mm) blocks were obtained from each block industry and tested for dimensional compliance and compressive strength. The results of the soil test shows that the grading fall within the limit for natural aggregate and can easily are used to obtain workable mix. Physical examinations of the block sizes show slight deviation from the standard requirement in NIS 87:2000. Compressive strength of hollow sandcrete blocks in range of 0.12 N/mm2 to 0.54 N/mm2 was obtained which is below the recommendable value of 3.45 N/mm2 for load bearing hollow sandcrete blocks. This indicates that these blocks are below the standard for load-bearing sandcrete blocks and cannot be used as load bearing walling units. The mix composition also indicated low cement content resulting in low compressive strength. Most of the commercial block industries visited does not take curing very serious. Water were only sprinkled ones or twice before the blocks were stacked and made readily available for sale. It is recommended that a mix ratio of 1:4 to 1:6 should be used for the production of sandcrete blocks and proper curing practice should be adhered. Blocks should also be cured for 14 days before making them available for consumers.

Keywords: Compressive strength, dimensions, mix proportions, sandcrete blocks.

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25 The Use of Palm Kernel Shell and Ash for Concrete Production

Authors: J. E. Oti, J. M. Kinuthia, R. Robinson, P. Davies

Abstract:

This work reports the potential of using Palm Kernel (PK) ash and shell as a partial substitute for Portland Cement (PC) and coarse aggregate in the development of mortar and concrete. PK ash and shell are agro-waste materials from palm oil mills, the disposal of PK ash and shell is an environmental problem of concern. The PK ash has pozzolanic properties that enables it as a partial replacement for cement and also plays an important role in the strength and durability of concrete, its use in concrete will alleviate the increasing challenges of scarcity and high cost of cement. In order to investigate the PC replacement potential of PK ash, three types of PK ash were produced at varying temperature (350-750C) and they were used to replace up to 50% PC. The PK shell was used to replace up to 100% coarse aggregate in order to study its aggregate replacement potential. The testing programme included material characterisation, the determination of compressive strength, tensile splitting strength and chemical durability in aggressive sulfatebearing exposure conditions. The 90 day compressive results showed a significant strength gain (up to 26.2 N/mm2). The Portland cement and conventional coarse aggregate has significantly higher influence in the strength gain compared to the equivalent PK ash and PK shell. The chemical durability results demonstrated that after a prolonged period of exposure, significant strength losses in all the concretes were observed. This phenomenon is explained, due to lower change in concrete morphology and inhibition of reaction species and the final disruption of the aggregate cement paste matrix.

Keywords: Sustainability, Concrete, mortar, Palm kernel shell, compressive strength, consistency.

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24 Design and Synthesis of Two Tunable Bandpass Filters Based On Varactors and Defected Ground Structure

Authors: M. Boulakroune, M. Challal, H. Louazene, S. Fentiz

Abstract:

This paper presents two types of microstrip bandpass filter (BPF) at microwave frequencies. The first one is a tunable BPF using planar patch resonators based on a varactor diode. The filter is formed by a triple mode circular patch resonator with two pairs of slots, in which the varactor diodes are connected. Indeed, this filter is initially centered at 2.4 GHz; the center frequency of the tunable patch filter could be tuned up to 1.8 GHz simultaneously with the bandwidth, reaching high tuning ranges. Lossless simulations were compared to those considering the substrate dielectric, conductor losses and the equivalent electrical circuit model of the tuning element in order to assess their effects. Within these variations, simulation results showed insertion loss better than 2 dB and return loss better than 10 dB over the passband. The second structure is a BPF for ultra-wideband (UWB) applications based on multiple-mode resonator (MMR) and rectangular-shaped defected ground structure (DGS). This filter, which is compact size of 25.2 x 3.8 mm2, provides in the pass band an insertion loss of 0.57 dB and a return loss greater than 12 dB. The proposed filters presents good performances and the simulation results are in satisfactory agreement with the experimentation ones reported elsewhere.

Keywords: Defected ground structure, varactor diode, microstrip bandpass filter, multiple-mode resonator.

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23 Eco-Friendly Preservative Treated Bamboo Culm: Compressive Strength Analysis

Authors: Perminder JitKaur, Santosh Satya, K. K. Pant, S. N. Naik

Abstract:

Bamboo is extensively used in construction industry. Low durability of bamboo due to fungus infestation and termites attack under storage puts certain constrains for it usage as modern structural material. Looking at many chemical formulations for bamboo treatment leading to severe harmful environment effects, research on eco-friendly preservatives for bamboo treatment has been initiated world-over. In the present studies, eco-friendly preservative for bamboo treatment has been developed. To validate its application for structural purposes, investigation of effect of treatment on compressive strength has been investigated. Neemoil (25%) integrated with copper naphthenate (0.3%) on dilution with kerosene oil impregnated into bamboo culm at 2 bar pressure, has shown weight loss of only 3.15% in soil block analysis method. The results from compressive strength analysis using HEICO Automatic Compression Testing Machine reveal that preservative treatment has not altered the structural properties of bamboo culms. Compressive strength of control (11.72 N/mm2) and above treated samples (11.71 N/mm2) was found to be comparable.

Keywords: Compressive strength, D. strictus bamboo, Ecofriendly treatment, neem oil.

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22 Design of a Novel CPW Fed Fractal Antenna for UWB

Authors: A. El Hamdouni, J. Zbitou, A. Tajmouati, L. El Abdellaoui, A. Errkik, A. Tribak, M. Latrach

Abstract:

This paper presents a novel fractal antenna structure proposed for UWB (Ultra – Wideband) applications. The frequency band 3.1-10.6GHz released by FCC (Federal Communication Commission) as the commercial operation of UWB has been chosen as frequency range for this antenna based on coplanar waveguide (CPW) feed and circular shapes fulfilled according to fractal geometry. The proposed antenna is validated and designed by using an FR4 substrate with overall area of 34x43 mm2. The simulated results performed by CST-Microwave Studio and compared by ADS (Advanced Design System) show good matching input impedance with return loss less than -10dB between 2.9 GHz and 11 GHz.

Keywords: Fractal antenna, Fractal Geometry, CPW Feed, UWB, FCC.

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21 Determining Fire Resistance of Wooden Construction Elements through Experimental Studies and Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Sakir Tasdemir, Mustafa Altin, Gamze Fahriye Pehlivan, Ismail Saritas, Sadiye Didem Boztepe Erkis, Selma Tasdemir

Abstract:

Artificial intelligence applications are commonly used in industry in many fields in parallel with the developments in the computer technology. In this study, a fire room was prepared for the resistance of wooden construction elements and with the mechanism here, the experiments of polished materials were carried out. By utilizing from the experimental data, an artificial neural network (ANN) was modelled in order to evaluate the final cross sections of the wooden samples remaining from the fire. In modelling, experimental data obtained from the fire room were used. In the developed system, the first weight of samples (ws-gr), preliminary cross-section (pcs-mm2), fire time (ft-minute), and fire temperature (t-oC) as input parameters and final cross-section (fcs-mm2) as output parameter were taken. When the results obtained from ANN and experimental data are compared after making statistical analyses, the data of two groups are determined to be coherent and seen to have no meaning difference between them. As a result, it is seen that ANN can be safely used in determining cross sections of wooden materials after fire and it prevents many disadvantages.

Keywords: Artificial neural network, final cross-section, fire retardant polishes, fire safety, wood resistance.

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20 Temperature Investigations in Two Type of Crimped Connection Using Experimental Determinations

Authors: C. F. Ocoleanu, A. I. Dolan, G. Cividjian, S. Teodorescu

Abstract:

In this paper we make a temperature investigations in two type of superposed crimped connections using experimental determinations. All the samples use 8 copper wire 7.1 x 3 mm2 crimped by two methods: the first method uses one crimp indents and the second is a proposed method with two crimp indents. The ferrule is a parallel one. We study the influence of number and position of crimp indents. The samples are heated in A.C. current at different current values until steady state heating regime. After obtaining of temperature values, we compare them and present the conclusion.

Keywords: Crimped connections, experimental determinations, heat transfer temperature.

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19 Production of Biodiesel from Roasted Chicken Fat and Methanol: Free Catalyst

Authors: Jorge Ramírez-Ortiz, Merced Martínez Rosales, Horacio Flores Zúñiga

Abstract:

Transesterification reactions free of catalyst between roasted chicken fat with methanol were carried out in a batch reactor in order to produce biodiesel to temperatures from 120°C to 140°C. Parameters related to the transesterification reactions, including temperature, time and the molar ratio of chicken fat to methanol also investigated. The maximum yield of the reaction was of 98% under conditions of 140°C, 4 h of reaction time and a molar ratio of chicken fat to methanol of 1:31. The biodiesel thus obtained exhibited a viscosity of 6.3 mm2/s and a density of 895.9 kg/m3. The results showed this process can be right choice to produce biodiesel since this process does not use any catalyst. Therefore, the steps of neutralization and washing are avoided, indispensables in the case of the alkaline catalysis.

Keywords: Biodiesel, non-catalyst, roasted chicken fat, transesterification.

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18 A Comparison on Healing Effects of an Ayurvedic Preparation and Silver Sulfadiazine on Burn Wounds in Albino Rats

Authors: S. S. Pathak, M. A. Borkar, S. S. Patel

Abstract:

To compare Healing Effects of an Ayurvedic Preparation and Silver Sulfadiazine on burn wounds in Albino Rats. Methods: Albino rats– 30 male / female rats weighing between 150-200 g were used in the study. They were individually housed and maintained on normal diet and water ad libitum. Partial thickness burn wounds were inflicted, on overnight-starved animals under pentobarbitone (30mg/kg, i.p.) anaesthesia, by pouring hot molten wax at 80oC into a plastic cylinder of 300 mm2 circular openings placed on the shaven back of the animal. Apart from the drugs under investigation no local/ systemic chemotherapeutic cover will be provided to animals. All the animals were assessed for the percentage of wound contraction, signs of infection, scab formation and histopathological examination. Results: Percentage of wound healing was significantly better in the test ointment group compared to the standard. Signs of infection were observed in more animals in the test ointment group compared to the standard. Scab formation also took place earlier in the test ointment group compared to standard. Epithelial regeneration and healing profile was better in the test ointment compared to the standard. Moreover the test ointment group did not show any raised margins in the wound or blackish discoloration as was observed in silver sulfadiazine group. Conclusion: The burn wound healing effect of the ayurvedic ointment under study is better in comparison to standard therapy of silver sulfadiazine. The problem of infection encountered with the test ointment can be overcome by changing the concentrations and proportions of the ingredients in the test ointment which constitutes the further plan of the study.

Keywords: Ayurvedic test ointment, burn wounds, Silver sulfadiazine.

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17 Performance of Concrete Grout under Aggressive Chloride Environment in Sabah

Authors: S. Imbin, S. Dullah, H. Asrah, P. S. Kumar, M. E. Rahman, M. A. Mannan

Abstract:

Service life of existing reinforced concrete (RC) structures in coastal towns of Sabah has been affected very much. Concrete crack, spalling of concrete cover and reinforcement rusting of RC buildings are seen even within 5 years of construction in Sabah. Hence, in this study a new mix design of concrete grout was developed using locally available materials and investigated under two curing conditions and workability, compressive strength, Accelerated Mortar Bar Test (AMBT), water absorption, volume of permeable voids (VPV), Sorptivity and 90-days salt ponding test were conducted. The compressive strength of concrete grout at the age 90 days was found to be 44.49 N/mm2 under water curing. It was observed that the percentage of mortar bar length change was below 1% for developed concrete grout. The water absorption of the concrete grout was in between the range of 0.88 % to 3.60 % under two different curing up to the age 90 days. It was also observed that the VPV of concrete was in the range of 0 % to 9.75 and 2.44% to 13.05% under water curing and site curing respectively. It was found that the Sorptivity of the concrete grout under water curing at the age of 28 days is 0.211mm/√min and at the age 90 day are 0.067 mm/√min. The chloride content decreased greatly, 90% after a depth of 15 mm. It was noticed that the site cured samples showed higher chloride contents near surface compared to water cured samples. This investigation suggested that the developed mix design of concrete grout using locally available construction materials can be used for crack repairing of existing RC structures in Sabah.

Keywords: Concrete grout, Salt ponding, Sorptivity, Water absorption.

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16 Some Physical Properties of Musk Lime (Citrus Microcarpa)

Authors: M.H.R.O. Abdullah, P.E. Ch'ng, N.A. Yunus

Abstract:

Some physical properties of musk lime (Citrus microcarpa) were determined in this study. The average moisture content (wet basis) of the fruit was found to be 85.10 (±0.72) %. The mean of length, width and thickness of the fruit was 26.36 (±0.97), 26.40 (±1.04) and 25.26 (±0.94) mm respectively. The average value for geometric mean diameter, sphericity, aspect ratio, mass, surface area, volume, true density, bulk density and porosity was 26.00 (±0.82) mm, 98.67 (±2.04) %, 100.23 (±3.28) %, 10.007 (±0.878) g, 2125.07 (±133.93) mm2, 8800.00 (±731.82) mm3, 1002.87 (±39.16) kgm-3, 501.70 (±22.58) kgm-3 and 49.89 (±3.15) % respectively. The coefficient of static friction on four types of structural surface was found to be varying from 0.238 (±0.025) for glass to 0.247 (±0.024) for steel surface.

Keywords: Musk lime, Citrus microcarpa, physical properties.

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15 Some Physical and Mechanical Properties of Jujube Fruit

Authors: D. Zare, H. Safiyari, F. Salmanizade

Abstract:

In this study, some physical and mechanical properties of jujube fruits, were measured and compared at constant moisture content of 15.5% w.b. The results showed that the mean length, width and thickness of jujube fruits were 18.88, 16.79 and 15.9 mm, respectively. The mean projected areas of jujube perpendicular to length, width, and thickness were 147.01, 224.08 and 274.60 mm2, respectively. The mean mass and volume were 1.51 g and 2672.80 mm3, respectively. The arithmetic mean diameter, geometric mean diameter and equivalent diameter varied from 14.53 to 20 mm, 14.5 to 19.94 mm, and 14.52 to 19.97 mm, respectively. The sphericity, aspect ratio and surface area of jujube fruits were 0.91, 0.89 and 926.28 mm2, respectively. Whole fruit density, bulk density and porosity of jujube fruits were measured and found to be 1.52 g/cm3, 0.3 g/cm3 and 79.3%, respectively. The angle of repose of jujube fruit was 14.66° (±0.58°). The static coefficient of friction on galvanized iron steel was higher than that on plywood and lower than that on glass surface. The values of rupture force, deformation, hardness and energy absorbed were found to be between 11.13-19.91N, 2.53- 4.82mm, 3.06-5.81N mm and 20.13-39.08 N/mm, respectively.

Keywords: Mechanical and Physical properties, Jujube fruits, friction coefficient

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14 Dextran Modified Silicon Photonic Microring Resonator Sensors

Authors: Jessie Yiying Quah, Vivian Netto, Jack Sheng Kee, Eric Mouchel La Fosse, Mi Kyoung Park

Abstract:

We present a dextran modified silicon microring resonator sensor for high density antibody immobilization. An array of sensors consisting of three sensor rings and a reference ring was fabricated and its surface sensitivity and the limit of detection were obtained using polyelectrolyte multilayers. The mass sensitivity and the limit of detection of the fabricated sensor ring are 0.35 nm/ng mm-2 and 42.8 pg/mm2 in air, respectively. Dextran modified sensor surface was successfully prepared by covalent grafting of oxidized dextran on 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) modified silicon sensor surface. The antibody immobilization on hydrogel dextran matrix improves 40% compared to traditional antibody immobilization method via APTES and glutaraldehyde linkage.

Keywords: Antibody immobilization, Dextran, Immunosensor, Label-free detection, Silicon micro-ring resonator

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13 Effect of Bentonite on the Properties of Liquid Insulating Oil

Authors: Loai Nasrat, Mervat S. Hassan

Abstract:

Bentonitic material from South Aswan, Egypt was evaluated in terms of mineral-ogy and chemical composition as bleaching clay in refining of transformer oil before and after acid activation and thermal treatment followed by acid leaching using HCl and H2SO4 for different contact times. Structural modification and refining power of bento-nite were investigated during modification by means of X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. The results revealed that the activated bentonite could be used for refining of transformer oil. The oil parameters such as; dielectric strength, viscosity and flash point had been improved. The dielectric breakdown strength of used oil increased from 29 kV for used oil treated with unactivated bentonite to 74 kV after treatment with activated bentonite. Kinematic Viscosity changed from 19 to 11 mm2 /s after treatment with activated bentonite. However, flash point achieved 149 ºC.

Keywords: Dielectric strength, unactivated bentonite, X-ray diffraction, SEM image

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12 Application of Computational Methods Mm2 and Gussian for Studing Unimolecular Decomposition of Vinil Ethers based on the Mechanism of Hydrogen Bonding

Authors: Behnaz Shahrokh, Garnik N. Sargsyan, Arkadi B. Harutyunyan

Abstract:

Investigations of the unimolecular decomposition of vinyl ethyl ether (VEE), vinyl propyl ether (VPE) and vinyl butyl ether (VBE) have shown that activation of the molecule of a ether results in formation of a cyclic construction - the transition state (TS), which may lead to the displacement of the thermodynamic equilibrium towards the reaction products. The TS is obtained by applying energy minimization relative to the ground state of an ether under the program MM2 when taking into account the hydrogen bond formation between a hydrogen atom of alkyl residue and the extreme atom of carbon of the vinyl group. The dissociation of TS up to the products is studied by energy minimization procedure using the mathematical program Gaussian. The obtained calculation data for VEE testify that the decomposition of this ether may be conditioned by hydrogen bond formation for two possible versions: when α- or β- hydrogen atoms of the ethyl group are bound to carbon atom of the vinyl group. Applying the same calculation methods to other ethers (VPE and VBE) it is shown that only in the case of hydrogen bonding between α-hydrogen atom of the alkyl residue and the extreme atom of carbon of the vinyl group (αH---C) results in decay of theses ethers.

Keywords: Gaussian, MM2, ethers, TS, decomposition

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11 A Study of Gas Metal Arc Welding Affecting Mechanical Properties of Austenitic Stainless Steel AISI 304

Authors: Sittichai K., Santirat N., Sompong., P

Abstract:

The objective of this research was to study influence parameters affecting to mechanical property of austenitic stainless steel grade 304 (AISI 304) with Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW). The research was applying factorial design experiment, which have following interested parameters: welding current at 80, 90, and 100 Amps, welding speeds at 250, 300, and 350 mm/min, and shield gas of 75% Ar + 25% CO2, 70% Ar + 25% CO2 + 5% O2 and 69.5% Ar + 25% CO2 + 5% O2 + 0.5% He gas. The study was done in following aspects: ultimate tensile strength and elongation. A research study of ultimate tensile strength found that main factor effect, which had the highest strength to AISI 304 welding was shield gas of 70% Ar + 25% CO2 + 5% O2 at average of 954.81 N/mm2. Result of the highest elongation was showed significantly different at interaction effect between shield gas of 69.5%Ar+25%CO2+5%O2+.5%He and welding speed at 250 mm/min at 47.94%.

Keywords: Austenitic Stainless Steel AISI 304/ Mechanical Property/ Welding Gas Shield/ Gas Shield

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10 Behaviour of Masonry Wall Constructed using Interlocking Soil Cement Bricks

Authors: Ahmad Z., Othman S. Z., Md Yunus B., Mohamed A.

Abstract:

According to the masonry standard the compressive strength is basically dependent on factors such as the mortar strength and the relative values of unit and mortar strength. However interlocking brick has none or less use of mortar. Therefore there is a need to investigate the behavior of masonry walls using interlocking bricks. In this study a series of tests have been conducted; physical properties and compressive strength of brick units and masonry walls were constructed from interlocking bricks and tested under constant vertical load at different eccentricities. The purpose of the experimental investigations is to obtain the force displacement curves, analyze the behavior of masonry walls. The results showed that the brick is categorized as common brick (BS 3921:1985) and severe weathering grade (ASTM C62). The maximum compressive stress of interlocking brick wall is 3.6 N/mm2 and fulfilled the requirement of standard for residential building.

Keywords: Interlocking brick, soil-cement brick, masonry wall, compressive strength, eccentricities

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9 Design of a CMOS Highly Linear Front-end IC with Auto Gain Controller for a Magnetic Field Transceiver

Authors: Yeon-kug Moon, Kang-Yoon Lee, Yun-Jae Won, Seung-Ok Lim

Abstract:

This paper describes a low-voltage and low-power channel selection analog front end with continuous-time low pass filters and highly linear programmable gain amplifier (PGA). The filters were realized as balanced Gm-C biquadratic filters to achieve a low current consumption. High linearity and a constant wide bandwidth are achieved by using a new transconductance (Gm) cell. The PGA has a voltage gain varying from 0 to 65dB, while maintaining a constant bandwidth. A filter tuning circuit that requires an accurate time base but no external components is presented. With a 1-Vrms differential input and output, the filter achieves -85dB THD and a 78dB signal-to-noise ratio. Both the filter and PGA were implemented in a 0.18um 1P6M n-well CMOS process. They consume 3.2mW from a 1.8V power supply and occupy an area of 0.19mm2.

Keywords: component ; Channel selection filters, DC offset, programmable gain amplifier, tuning circuit

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8 Preliminary Results of In-Vitro Skin Tissue Soldering using Gold Nanoshells and ICG Combination

Authors: M. S. Nourbakhsh, M. E. Khosroshahi

Abstract:

Laser soldering is based on applying some soldering material (albumin) onto the approximated edges of the cut and heating the solder (and the underlying tissues) by a laser beam. Endogenous and exogenous materials such as indocyanine green (ICG) are often added to solders to enhance light absorption. Gold nanoshells are new materials which have an optical response dictated by the plasmon resonance. The wavelength at which the resonance occurs depends on the core and shell sizes, allowing nanoshells to be tailored for particular applications. The purposes of this study was use combination of ICG and different concentration of gold nanoshells for skin tissue soldering and also to examine the effect of laser soldering parameters on the properties of repaired skin. Two mixtures of albumin solder and different combinations of ICG and gold nanoshells were prepared. A full thickness incision of 2×20 mm2 was made on the surface and after addition of mixtures it was irradiated by an 810nm diode laser at different power densities. The changes of tensile strength σt due to temperature rise, number of scan (Ns), and scan velocity (Vs) were investigated. The results showed at constant laser power density (I), σt of repaired incisions increases by increasing the concentration of gold nanoshells in solder, Ns and decreasing Vs. It is therefore important to consider the tradeoff between the scan velocity and the surface temperature for achieving an optimum operating condition. In our case this corresponds to σt =1800 gr/cm2 at I~ 47 Wcm-2, T ~ 85ºC, Ns =10 and Vs=0.3mms-1.

Keywords: Tissue soldering, gold nanoshells, indocyanine green, combination, tensile strength.

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7 Preparation and Some Mechanical Properties of Composite Materials Made from Sawdust, Cassava Starch and Natural Rubber Latex

Authors: Apusraporn Prompunjai, Waranyou Sridach

Abstract:

The composite materials were prepared by sawdust, cassava starch and natural rubber latex (NR). The mixtures of 15%w/v gelatinized cassava starch and 15%w/v PVOH were used as the binder of these composite materials. The concentrated rubber latex was added to the mixtures. They were mixed rigorously to the treated sawdust in the ratio of 70:30 until achive uniform dispersion. The batters were subjected to the hot compression moulding at the temperature of 160°C and 3,000 psi pressure for 5 min. The experimental results showed that the mechanical properties of composite materials, which contained the gelatinized cassava starch and PVOH in the ratio of 2:1, 20% NR latex by weight of the dry starch and treated sawdust with 5%NaOH or 1% BPO, were the best. It contributed the maximal compression strength (341.10 + 26.11 N), puncture resistance (8.79 + 0.98 N/mm2) and flexural strength (3.99 + 0.72N/mm2). It is also found that the physicochemical and mechanical properties of composites strongly depends on the interface quality of sawdust, cassava starch and NR latex.

Keywords: Composites, sawdust, cassava starch, natural rubber (NR) latex, surface chemical treatments.

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6 Compact Planar Antenna for UWB Applications

Authors: Rezaul Azim, Mohammad Tariqul Islam, Norbahiah Misran

Abstract:

In this paper, a planar antenna for UWB applications has been proposed. The antenna consists of a square patch, a partial ground plane and a slot on the ground plane. The proposed antenna is easy to be integrated with microwave circuitry for low manufacturing cost. The flat type antenna has a compact structure and the total size is 14.5×14.5mm2. The result shows that the impedance bandwidth (VSWR≤ 2) of the proposed antenna is 12.49 GHz (2.95 to 15.44 GHz), which is equivalent to 135.8%. Details of the proposed compact planar UWB antenna design is presented and discussed.

Keywords: Planar antenna, partial ground plane, ultrawideband(UWB) antenna.

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5 Thermo-Mechanical Characterization of Skin Laser Soldering using Au Coated SiO2 Nanoshells

Authors: M.S.Nourbakhsh, M.E.khosroshahi

Abstract:

Gold coated silica core nanoparticles have an optical response dictated by the plasmon resonance. The wavelength at which the resonance occurs depends on the core and shell sizes, allowing nanoshells to be tailored for particular applications. The purposes of this study was to synthesize and use different concentration of gold nanoshells as exogenous material for skin tissue soldering and also to examine the effect of laser soldering parameters on the properties of repaired skin. Two mixtures of albumin solder and different concentration of gold nanoshells were prepared. A full thickness incision of 2×20 mm2 was made on the surface and after addition of mixtures it was irradiated by an 810nm diode laser at different power densities. The changes of tensile strength σt due to temperature rise, number of scan (Ns), and scan velocity (Vs) were investigated. The results showed at constant laser power density (I), σt of repaired incisions increases by increasing the concentration of gold nanoshells, Ns and decreasing Vs. It is therefore important to consider the trade off between the scan velocity and the surface temperature for achieving an optimum operating condition. In our case this corresponds to σt =1610 gr/cm2 at I~ 60 Wcm-2, T ~ 65ºC, Ns =10 and Vs=0.2mms-1.

Keywords: Tissue soldering, Diode laser, Gold Nanoshells, Tensile strength

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4 On the Prediction of Transmembrane Helical Segments in Membrane Proteins

Authors: Yu Bin, Zhang Yan

Abstract:

The prediction of transmembrane helical segments (TMHs) in membrane proteins is an important field in the bioinformatics research. In this paper, a method based on discrete wavelet transform (DWT) has been developed to predict the number and location of TMHs in membrane proteins. PDB coded as 1F88 was chosen as an example to describe the prediction of the number and location of TMHs in membrane proteins by using this method. One group of test data sets that contain total 19 protein sequences was utilized to access the effect of this method. Compared with the prediction results of DAS, PRED-TMR2, SOSUI, HMMTOP2.0 and TMHMM2.0, the obtained results indicate that the presented method has higher prediction accuracy.

Keywords: hydrophobicity, membrane protein, transmembranehelical segments, wavelet transform

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3 Phase Behaviors and Fuel Properties of Bio-Oil-Diesel-Alcohol Blends

Authors: P. Weerachanchai, C. Tangsathitkulchai, M. Tangsathitkulchai

Abstract:

Attempt was made to improve certain characteristics of bio-oil derived from palm kernel pyrolysis by blending it with diesel fuel and alcohols. Two types of alcohol, ethanol or butanol, was used as cosolvent to stabilize the phase of ternary systems. Phase behaviors and basic fuel properties of palm kernel bio-oildiesel- alcohol systems were investigated in this study. Alcohol types showed a significant influence on the phase characteristics with palm kernel bio-oil-diesel-butanol system giving larger soluble area than that of palm kernel bio-oil-diesel-ethanol system. For fuel properties, blended fuels showed superior properties including lower values of density (~860 kg/m3 at 25°C), viscosity (~4.12 mm2/s at 40°C), carbon residue (1.02-2.53 wt%), ash (0.018-0.034 wt%) and pour point (<-25 to -7 °C), increased pH (~ 6.4) and giving reasonable heating values of 32.5-41.2 MJ/kg. To enable the prediction of some properties of fuel mixtures, the measured fuel properties including heating value, density, ash content and pH were fitted by Kay-s mixing rule, whereas the viscosities of blended fuels at different temperatures were correlated by the modified Grunberg-Nissan equation and Andrade equation.

Keywords: Bio-oil, fuel blend, fuel properties, phase behaviour.

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2 A SAW-less Dual-Band CDMA Diversity and Simultaneous-GPS Zero-IF Receiver

Authors: Bassem Fahs, Philippe Barré, Patrick Ozenne, Eric Chartier, Guillaume Hérault, Sébastien Jacquet, Sébastien Clamagirand

Abstract:

We present a dual-band (Cellular & PCS) dual-path zero-IF receiver for CDMA2000 diversity, monitoring and simultaneous-GPS. The secondary path is a SAW-less diversity CDMA receiver which can be also used for advanced features like monitoring when supported with an additional external VCO. A GPS receiver is integrated with its dedicated VCO allowing simultaneous positioning during a cellular call. The circuit is implemented in a 0.25μm 40GHz-fT BiCMOS process and uses a HVQFN 56-pin package. It consumes a maximum 300mW from a 2.8V supply in dual-modes. The chip area is 12.8mm2.

Keywords: CDMA, diversity, GPS, zero-IF, SAW-less

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1 Low Complexity Multi Mode Interleaver Core for WiMAX with Support for Convolutional Interleaving

Authors: Rizwan Asghar, Dake Liu

Abstract:

A hardware efficient, multi mode, re-configurable architecture of interleaver/de-interleaver for multiple standards, like DVB, WiMAX and WLAN is presented. The interleavers consume a large part of silicon area when implemented by using conventional methods as they use memories to store permutation patterns. In addition, different types of interleavers in different standards cannot share the hardware due to different construction methodologies. The novelty of the work presented in this paper is threefold: 1) Mapping of vital types of interleavers including convolutional interleaver onto a single architecture with flexibility to change interleaver size; 2) Hardware complexity for channel interleaving in WiMAX is reduced by using 2-D realization of the interleaver functions; and 3) Silicon cost overheads reduced by avoiding the use of small memories. The proposed architecture consumes 0.18mm2 silicon area for 0.12μm process and can operate at a frequency of 140 MHz. The reduced complexity helps in minimizing the memory utilization, and at the same time provides strong support to on-the-fly computation of permutation patterns.

Keywords: Hardware interleaver implementation, WiMAX, DVB, block interleaver, convolutional interleaver, hardwaremultiplexing.

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