Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 90

Search results for: linearity

90 A New Approach to Feedback Shift Registers

Authors: Myat Su Mon Win

Abstract:

The pseudorandom number generators based on linear feedback shift registers (LFSRs), are very quick, easy and secure in the implementation of hardware and software. Thus they are very popular and widely used. But LFSRs lead to fairly easy cryptanalysis due to their completely linearity properties. In this paper, we propose a stochastic generator, which is called Random Feedback Shift Register (RFSR), using stochastic transformation (Random block) with one-way and non-linearity properties.

Keywords: Linear Feedback Shift Register, Non Linearity, R_Block, Random Feedback Shift Register

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1610
89 A Low Voltage High Linearity CMOS Gilbert Cell Using Charge Injection Method

Authors: Raheleh Hedayati, Sanaz Haddadian, Hooman Nabovati

Abstract:

A 2.4GHz (RF) down conversion Gilbert Cell mixer, implemented in a 0.18-μm CMOS technology with a 1.8V supply, is presented. Current bleeding (charge injection) technique has been used to increase the conversion gain and the linearity of the mixer. The proposed mixer provides 10.75 dB conversion gain ( C G ) with 14.3mw total power consumption. The IIP3 and 1-dB compression point of the mixer are 8dbm and -4.6dbm respectively, at 300 MHz IF frequencies. Comparing the current design against the conventional mixer design, demonstrates better performance in the conversion gain, linearity, noise figure and port-to-port isolation.

Keywords: Mixer, Gilbert Cell, Charge Injection, RFIC, CMOSTechnology.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3986
88 A Novel Low Power Digitally Controlled Oscillator with Improved linear Operating Range

Authors: Nasser Erfani Majd, Mojtaba Lotfizad

Abstract:

In this paper, an ultra low power and low jitter 12bit CMOS digitally controlled oscillator (DCO) design is presented. Based on a ring oscillator implemented with low power Schmitt trigger based inverters. Simulation of the proposed DCO using 32nm CMOS Predictive Transistor Model (PTM) achieves controllable frequency range of 550MHz~830MHz with a wide linearity and high resolution. Monte Carlo simulation demonstrates that the time-period jitter due to random power supply fluctuation is under 31ps and the power consumption is 0.5677mW at 750MHz with 1.2V power supply and 0.53-ps resolution. The proposed DCO has a good robustness to voltage and temperature variations and better linearity comparing to the conventional design.

Keywords: digitally controlled oscillator (DCO), low power, jitter; good linearity, robust

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1642
87 Design of 900 MHz High Gain SiGe Power Amplifier with Linearity Improved Bias Circuit

Authors: Guiheng Zhang, Wei Zhang, Jun Fu, Yudong Wang

Abstract:

A 900 MHz three-stage SiGe power amplifier (PA) with high power gain is presented in this paper. Volterra Series is applied to analyze nonlinearity sources of SiGe HBT device model clearly. Meanwhile, the influence of operating current to IMD3 is discussed. Then a β-helper current mirror bias circuit is applied to improve linearity, since the β-helper current mirror bias circuit can offer stable base biasing voltage. Meanwhile, it can also work as predistortion circuit when biasing voltages of three bias circuits are fine-tuned, by this way, the power gain and operating current of PA are optimized for best linearity. The three power stages which fabricated by 0.18 μm SiGe technology are bonded to the printed circuit board (PCB) to obtain impedances by Load-Pull system, then matching networks are done for best linearity with discrete passive components on PCB. The final measured three-stage PA exhibits 21.1 dBm of output power at 1 dB compression point (OP1dB) with power added efficiency (PAE) of 20.6% and 33 dB power gain under 3.3 V power supply voltage.

Keywords: High gain power amplifier, linearization bias circuit, SiGe HBT model, Volterra Series.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 621
86 Highly Linear and Low Noise AMR Sensor Using Closed Loop and Signal-Chopped Architecture

Authors: N. Hadjigeorgiou, A. C. Tsalikidou, E. Hristoforou, P. P. Sotiriadis

Abstract:

During the last few decades, the continuously increasing demand for accurate and reliable magnetic measurements has paved the way for the development of different types of magnetic sensing systems as well as different measurement techniques. Sensor sensitivity and linearity, signal-to-noise ratio, measurement range, cross-talk between sensors in multi-sensor applications are only some of the aspects that have been examined in the past. In this paper, a fully analog closed loop system in order to optimize the performance of AMR sensors has been developed. The operation of the proposed system has been tested using a Helmholtz coil calibration setup in order to control both the amplitude and direction of magnetic field in the vicinity of the AMR sensor. Experimental testing indicated that improved linearity of sensor response, as well as low noise levels can be achieved, when the system is employed.

Keywords: AMR sensor, closed loop, memory effects, chopper, linearity improvement, sensitivity improvement, magnetic noise, electronic noise.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 878
85 Development and Validation of a HPLC Method for 6-Gingerol and 6-Shogaol in Joint Pain Relief Gel Containing Ginger (Zingiber officinale)

Authors: Tanwarat Kajsongkram, Saowalux Rotamporn, Sirinat Limbunruang, Sirinan Thubthimthed

Abstract:

High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method was developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of 6-Gingerol(6G) and 6-Shogaol(6S) in joint pain relief gel containing ginger extract. The chromatographic separation was achieved by using C18 column, 150 x 4.6mm i.d., 5μ Luna, mobile phase containing acetonitrile and water (gradient elution). The flow rate was 1.0 ml/min and the absorbance was monitored at 282 nm. The proposed method was validated in terms of the analytical parameters such as specificity, accuracy, precision, linearity, range, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), and determined based on the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. The linearity ranges of 6G and 6S were obtained over 20- 60 and 6-18 μg/ml respectively. Good linearity was observed over the above-mentioned range with linear regression equation Y= 11016x- 23778 for 6G and Y = 19276x-19604 for 6S (x is concentration of analytes in μg/ml and Y is peak area). The value of correlation coefficient was found to be 0.9994 for both markers. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for 6G were 0.8567 and 2.8555 μg/ml and for 6S were 0.3672 and 1.2238 μg/ml respectively. The recovery range for 6G and 6S were found to be 91.57 to 102.36 % and 84.73 to 92.85 % for all three spiked levels. The RSD values from repeated extractions for 6G and 6S were 3.43 and 3.09% respectively. The validation of developed method on precision, accuracy, specificity, linearity, and range were also performed with well-accepted results.

Keywords: Ginger, 6-gingerol, HPLC, 6-shogaol.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3147
84 Optimizing the Number of Bits/Stage in 10-Bit, 50Ms/Sec Pipelined A/D Converter Considering Area, Speed, Power and Linearity

Authors: P. Prasad Rao, K. Lal Kishore

Abstract:

Pipeline ADCs are becoming popular at high speeds and with high resolution. This paper discusses the options of number of bits/stage conversion techniques in pipelined ADCs and their effect on Area, Speed, Power Dissipation and Linearity. The basic building blocks like op-amp, Sample and Hold Circuit, sub converter, DAC, Residue Amplifier used in every stage is assumed to be identical. The sub converters use flash architectures. The design is implemented using 0.18

Keywords: 1.5 bits/stage, Conversion Frequency, Redundancy Switched Capacitor Sample and Hold Circuit

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1526
83 A 1.5V,100MS/s,12-bit Current-Mode CMOSS ample-and-Hold Circuit

Authors: O. Hashemipour, S. G. Nabavi

Abstract:

A high-linearity and high-speed current-mode sampleand- hold circuit is designed and simulated using a 0.25μm CMOS technology. This circuit design is based on low voltage and it utilizes a fully differential circuit. Due to the use of only two switches the switch related noise has been reduced. Signal - dependent -error is completely eliminated by a new zero voltage switching technique. The circuit has a linearity error equal to ±0.05μa, i.e. 12-bit accuracy with a ±160 μa differential output - input signal frequency of 5MHZ, and sampling frequency of 100 MHZ. Third harmonic is equal to –78dB.

Keywords: Zero-voltage-technique, MOS-resistor, OTA, Feedback-resistor.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1240
82 Comprehensive Nonlinearity Simulation of Different Types and Modes of HEMTs with Respect to Biasing Conditions

Authors: M. M. Karkhanehchi, A. Ammani

Abstract:

A simple analytical model has been developed to optimize biasing conditions for obtaining maximum linearity among lattice-matched, pseudomorphic and metamorphic HEMT types as well as enhancement and depletion HEMT modes. A nonlinear current-voltage model has been simulated based on extracted data to study and select the most appropriate type and mode of HEMT in terms of a given gate-source biasing voltage within the device so as to employ the circuit for the highest possible output current or voltage linear swing. Simulation results can be used as a basis for the selection of optimum gate-source biasing voltage for a given type and mode of HEMT with regard to a circuit design. The consequences can also be a criterion for choosing the optimum type or mode of HEMT for a predetermined biasing condition.

Keywords: Biasing, characteristic, linearity, simulation.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1296
81 Digital Hypertexts vs. Traditional Books: An Inquiry into Non-Linearity

Authors: Federica Fornaciari

Abstract:

The current study begins with an awareness that today-s media environment is characterized by technological development and a new way of reading caused by the introduction of the Internet. The researcher conducted a meta analysis framed within Technological Determinism to investigate the process of hypertext reading, its differences from linear reading and the effects such differences can have on people-s ways of mentally structuring their world. The relationship between literacy and the comprehension achieved by reading hypertexts is also investigated. The results show hypertexts are not always user friendly. People experience hyperlinks as interruptions that distract their attention generating comprehension and disorientation. On one hand hypertextual jumping reading generates interruptions that finally make people lose their concentration. On the other hand hypertexts fascinate people who would rather read a document in such a format even though the outcome is often frustrating and affects their ability to elaborate and retain information.

Keywords: Hypertext reading, Internet, non-linearity.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1266
80 Improving the LDMOS Temperature Compensation Bias Circuit to Optimize Back-Off

Authors: Antonis Constantinides, Christos Yiallouras, Christakis Damianou

Abstract:

The application of today's semiconductor transistors in high power UHF DVB-T linear amplifiers has evolved significantly by utilizing LDMOS technology. This fact provides engineers with the option to design a single transistor signal amplifier which enables output power and linearity that was unobtainable previously using bipolar junction transistors or later type first generation MOSFETS. The quiescent current stability in terms of thermal variations of the LDMOS guarantees a robust operation in any topology of DVB-T signal amplifiers. Otherwise, progressively uncontrolled heat dissipation enhancement on the LDMOS case can degrade the amplifier’s crucial parameters in regards to the gain, linearity and RF stability, resulting in dysfunctional operation or a total destruction of the unit. This paper presents one more sophisticated approach from the traditional biasing circuits used so far in LDMOS DVB-T amplifiers. It utilizes a microprocessor control technology, providing stability in topologies where IDQ must be perfectly accurate.

Keywords: Amplifier, DVB-T, LDMOS, MOSFETS.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2858
79 Designing of a Non-Zero Dispersion Shifted Fiber with Ultra-High Birefringence and High Non-Linearity

Authors: Shabbir Chowdhury, Japatosh Mondal

Abstract:

Photonic Crystal Fiber (PCF) uses are no longer limited to telecommunication only rather it is now used for many sensors-based fiber optics application, medical science, space application and so on. In this paper, the authors have proposed a microstructure PCF that is designed by using Finite Element Method (FEM) based software. Besides designing, authors have discussed the necessity of the characteristics that it poses for some specified applications because it is not possible to have all good characteristics from a single PCF. Proposed PCF shows the property of ultra-high birefringence (0.0262 at 1550 nm) which is more useful for sensor based on fiber optics. The non-linearity of this fiber is 50.86 w-1km-1 at 1550 nm wavelength which is very high to guide the light through the core tightly. For Perfectly Matched Boundary Layer (PML), 0.6 μm diameter is taken. This design will offer the characteristics of Nonzero-Dispersion-Shifted Fiber (NZ-DSF) for 450 nm waveband. Since it is a software-based design and no practical evaluation has made, 2% tolerance is checked and the authors have found very small variation of the characteristics.

Keywords: Chromatic dispersion, birefringence, NZ-DSF, FEM, non-linear coefficient, DCF, waveband.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 241
78 Current Controlled Current Conveyor (CCCII)and Application using 65nm CMOS Technology

Authors: Zia Abbas, Giuseppe Scotti, Mauro Olivieri

Abstract:

Current mode circuits like current conveyors are getting significant attention in current analog ICs design due to their higher band-width, greater linearity, larger dynamic range, simpler circuitry, lower power consumption and less chip area. The second generation current controlled conveyor (CCCII) has the advantage of electronic adjustability over the CCII i.e. in CCCII; adjustment of the X-terminal intrinsic resistance via a bias current is possible. The presented approach is based on the CMOS implementation of second generation positive (CCCII+), negative (CCCII-) and dual Output Current Controlled Conveyor (DOCCCII) and its application as Universal filter. All the circuits have been designed and simulated using 65nm CMOS technology model parameters on Cadence Virtuoso / Spectre using 1V supply voltage. Various simulations have been carried out to verify the linearity between output and input ports, range of operation frequency, etc. The outcomes show good agreement between expected and experimental results.

Keywords: CCCII+, CCCII-, DOCCCII, Electronic tunability, Universal filter

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4375
77 Broadband Baseband Impedance Control for Linearity Enhancement in Microwave Devices

Authors: Muhammad Akmal Chaudhary

Abstract:

The out-of-band impedance environment is considered to be of paramount importance in engineering the in-band impedance environment. Presenting the frequency independent and constant outof- band impedances across the wide modulation bandwidth is extremely important for reliable device characterization for future wireless systems. This paper presents an out-of-band impedance optimization scheme based on simultaneous engineering of significant baseband components IF1 (twice the modulation frequency) and IF2 (four times the modulation frequency) and higher baseband components such as IF3 (six times the modulation frequency) and IF4 (eight times the modulation frequency) to engineer the in-band impedance environment. The investigations were carried out on a 10W GaN HEMT device driven to deliver a peak envelope power of approximately 40.5dBm under modulated excitation. The presentation of frequency independent baseband impedances to all the significant baseband components whilst maintaining the optimum termination for fundamental tones as well as reactive termination for 2nd harmonic under class-J mode of operation has outlined separate optimum impedances for best intermodulation (IM) linearity.

Keywords: Active load-pull, baseband, device characterisation, waveform measurements.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1652
76 Design and Characterization of CMOS Readout Circuit for ISFET and ISE Based Sensors

Authors: Yuzman Yusoff, Siti Noor Harun, Noor Shelida Sallehand Tan Kong Yew

Abstract:

This paper presents the design and characterization of analog readout interface circuits for ion sensitive field effect transistor (ISFET) and ion selective electrode (ISE) based sensor. These interface circuits are implemented using MIMOS’s 0.35um CMOS technology and experimentally characterized under 24-leads QFN package. The characterization evaluates the circuit’s functionality, output sensitivity and output linearity. Commercial sensors for both ISFET and ISE are employed together with glass reference electrode during testing. The test result shows that the designed interface circuits manage to readout signals produced by both sensors with measured sensitivity of ISFET and ISE sensor are 54mV/pH and 62mV/decade, respectively. The characterized output linearity for both circuits achieves above 0.999 rsquare. The readout also has demonstrated reliable operation by passing all qualifications in reliability test plan.

Keywords: Readout interface circuit (ROIC), analog interface circuit, ion sensitive field effect transistor (ISFET), ion selective electrode (ISE), and ion sensor electronics.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2375
75 Design and Characterization of CMOS Readout Circuit for ISFET and ISE Based Sensors

Authors: Yuzman Yusoff, Siti Noor Harun, Noor Shelida Sallehand, Tan Kong Yew

Abstract:

This paper presents the design and characterization of analog readout interface circuits for ion sensitive field effect transistor (ISFET) and ion selective electrode (ISE) based sensor. These interface circuits are implemented using MIMOS’s 0.35um CMOS technology and experimentally characterized under 24-leads QFN package. The characterization evaluates the circuit’s functionality, output sensitivity and output linearity. Commercial sensors for both ISFET and ISE are employed together with glass reference electrode during testing. The test result shows that the designed interface circuits manage to readout signals produced by both sensors with measured sensitivity of ISFET and ISE sensor are 54mV/pH and 62mV/decade, respectively. The characterized output linearity for both circuits achieves above 0.999 Rsquare. The readout also has demonstrated reliable operation by passing all qualifications in reliability test plan.

Keywords: Readout interface circuit (ROIC), analog interface circuit, ion sensitive field effect transistor (ISFET), ion selective electrode (ISE), ion sensor electronics.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1625
74 In-Flight Radiometric Performances Analysis of an Airborne Optical Payload

Authors: Caixia Gao, Chuanrong Li, Lingli Tang, Lingling Ma, Yaokai Liu, Xinhong Wang, Yongsheng Zhou

Abstract:

Performances analysis of remote sensing sensor is required to pursue a range of scientific research and application objectives. Laboratory analysis of any remote sensing instrument is essential, but not sufficient to establish a valid inflight one. In this study, with the aid of the in situ measurements and corresponding image of three-gray scale permanent artificial target, the in-flight radiometric performances analyses (in-flight radiometric calibration, dynamic range and response linearity, signal-noise-ratio (SNR), radiometric resolution) of self-developed short-wave infrared (SWIR) camera are performed. To acquire the inflight calibration coefficients of the SWIR camera, the at-sensor radiances (Li) for the artificial targets are firstly simulated with in situ measurements (atmosphere parameter and spectral reflectance of the target) and viewing geometries using MODTRAN model. With these radiances and the corresponding digital numbers (DN) in the image, a straight line with a formulation of L = G × DN + B is fitted by a minimization regression method, and the fitted coefficients, G and B, are inflight calibration coefficients. And then the high point (LH) and the low point (LL) of dynamic range can be described as LH= (G × DNH + B) and LL= B, respectively, where DNH is equal to 2n − 1 (n is the quantization number of the payload). Meanwhile, the sensor’s response linearity (δ) is described as the correlation coefficient of the regressed line. The results show that the calibration coefficients (G and B) are 0.0083 W·sr−1m−2µm−1 and −3.5 W·sr−1m−2µm−1; the low point of dynamic range is −3.5 W·sr−1m−2µm−1 and the high point is 30.5 W·sr−1m−2µm−1; the response linearity is approximately 99%. Furthermore, a SNR normalization method is used to assess the sensor’s SNR, and the normalized SNR is about 59.6 when the mean value of radiance is equal to 11.0 W·sr−1m−2µm−1; subsequently, the radiometric resolution is calculated about 0.1845 W•sr-1m-2μm-1. Moreover, in order to validate the result, a comparison of the measured radiance with a radiative-transfer-code-predicted over four portable artificial targets with reflectance of 20%, 30%, 40%, 50% respectively, is performed. It is noted that relative error for the calibration is within 6.6%.

Keywords: Calibration, dynamic range, radiometric resolution, SNR.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1142
73 Novel Linear Autozeroing Floating-gate Amplifier for Ultra Low-voltage Applications

Authors: Yngvar Berg, Mehdi Azadmehr

Abstract:

In this paper we present a linear autozeroing ultra lowvoltage amplifier. The autozeroing performed by all ULV circuits is important to reduce the impact of noise and especially avoid power supply noise in mixed signal low-voltage CMOS circuits. The simulated data presented is relevant for a 90nm TSMC CMOS process.

Keywords: Low-voltage, trans conductance amplifier, linearity, floating-gate.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1194
72 Nonlinearity and Spectrum Analysis of Drill Strings with Component Mass Unbalance

Authors: F. Abdul Majeed, H. Karki, Y. Abdel Magid, M. Karkoub

Abstract:

This paper analyses the non linear properties exhibited by a drill string system under various un balanced mass conditions. The drill string is affected by continuous friction in the form of drill bit and well bore hole interactions. This paper proves the origin of limit cycling and increase of non linearity with increase in speed of the drilling in the presence of friction. The spectrum of the frequency response is also studied to detect the presence of vibration abnormalities arising during the drilling process.

Keywords: Drill strings, Nonlinear, Spectrum analysis, Unbalanced mass

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1510
71 SDVAR Algorithm for Detecting Fraud in Telecommunications

Authors: Fatimah Almah Saaid, Darfiana Nur, Robert King

Abstract:

This paper presents a procedure for estimating VAR using Sequential Discounting VAR (SDVAR) algorithm for online model learning to detect fraudulent acts using the telecommunications call detailed records (CDR). The volatility of the VAR is observed allowing for non-linearity, outliers and change points based on the works of [1]. This paper extends their procedure from univariate to multivariate time series. A simulation and a case study for detecting telecommunications fraud using CDR illustrate the use of the algorithm in the bivariate setting.

Keywords: Telecommunications Fraud, SDVAR Algorithm, Multivariate time series, Vector Autoregressive, Change points.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1991
70 Detection Characteristics of the Random and Deterministic Signals in Antenna Arrays

Authors: Olesya Bolkhovskaya, Alexey Davydov, Alexander Maltsev

Abstract:

In this paper, approach to incoherent signal detection in multi-element antenna array are researched and modeled. Two types of useful signals with unknown wavefront were considered: first one, deterministic (Barker code), and second one, random (Gaussian distribution). The derivation of the sufficient statistics took into account the linearity of the antenna array. The performance characteristics and detecting curves are modeled and compared for different useful signals parameters and for different number of elements of the antenna array. Results of researches in case of some additional conditions can be applied to a digital communications systems.

Keywords: Antenna array, detection curves, performance characteristics, quadrature processing, signal detection.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1571
69 Novel Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation with Least Correlated Noise

Authors: Shiang-Hwua Yu, Han-Sheng Tseng

Abstract:

This paper presents a novel sinusoidal modulation scheme that features least correlated noise and high linearity. The modulation circuit, which is composed of a quantizer, a resonator, and a comparator, is capable of eliminating correlated modulation noise while doing modulation. The proposed modulation scheme combined with the linear quadratic optimal control is applied to a single-phase voltage source inverter and validated with the experiment results. The experiments show that the inverter supplies stable 60Hz 110V AC power with a total harmonic distortion of less than 1%, under the DC input variation from 190 V to 300 V and the output power variation from 0 to 600 W.

Keywords: Pulse width modulation, feedback dithering, linear quadratic control, inverter.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1760
68 Modeling of a Second Order Non-Ideal Sigma-Delta Modulator

Authors: Abdelghani Dendouga, Nour-Eddine Bouguechal, Souhil Kouda, Samir Barra

Abstract:

A behavioral model of a second order switchedcapacitor Sigma-Delta modulator is presented. The purpose of this work is the presentation of a behavioral model of a second order switched capacitor ΣΔ modulator considering (Error due to Clock Jitter, Thermal noise Amplifier Noise, Amplifier Slew-Rate, Non linearity of amplifiers, Gain error, Charge Injection, Clock Feedthrough, and Nonlinear on-resistance). A comparison between the use of MOS switches and the use transmission gate switches use is analyzed.

Keywords: Charge injection, clock feed through, Sigma Deltamodulators, Sigma Delta non-idealities, switched capacitor.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2723
67 An Engineering Approach to Forecast Volatility of Financial Indices

Authors: Irwin Ma, Tony Wong, Thiagas Sankar

Abstract:

By systematically applying different engineering methods, difficult financial problems become approachable. Using a combination of theory and techniques such as wavelet transform, time series data mining, Markov chain based discrete stochastic optimization, and evolutionary algorithms, this work formulated a strategy to characterize and forecast non-linear time series. It attempted to extract typical features from the volatility data sets of S&P100 and S&P500 indices that include abrupt drops, jumps and other non-linearity. As a result, accuracy of forecasting has reached an average of over 75% surpassing any other publicly available results on the forecast of any financial index.

Keywords: Discrete stochastic optimization, genetic algorithms, genetic programming, volatility forecast

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1421
66 Internal Node Stabilization for Voltage Sense Amplifiers in Multi-Channel Systems

Authors: Sanghoon Park, Ki-Jin Kim, Kwang-Ho Ahn

Abstract:

This paper discusses the undesirable charge transfer by the parasitic capacitances of the input transistors in a voltage sense amplifier. Due to its intrinsic rail-to-rail voltage transition, the input sides are inevitably disturbed. It can possible disturb the stabilities of the reference voltage levels. Moreover, it becomes serious in multi-channel systems by altering them for other channels, and so degrades the linearity of the systems. In order to alleviate the internal node voltage transition, the internal node stabilization technique is proposed by utilizing an additional biasing circuit. It achieves 47% and 43% improvements for node stabilization and input referred disturbance, respectively.

Keywords: Voltage sense amplifier, voltage transition, node stabilization, and biasing circuits.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2533
65 Stabilization Technique for Multi-Inputs Voltage Sense Amplifiers in Node Sharing Converters

Authors: Sanghoon Park, Ki-Jin Kim, Kwang-Ho Ahn

Abstract:

This paper discusses the undesirable charge transfer through the parasitic capacitances of the input transistors in a multi-inputs voltage sense amplifier. Its intrinsic rail-to-rail voltage transitions at the output nodes inevitably disturb the input sides through the capacitive coupling between the outputs and inputs. Then, it can possible degrade the stabilities of the reference voltage levels. Moreover, it becomes more serious in multi-channel systems by altering them for other channels, and so degrades the linearity of the overall systems. In order to alleviate the internal node voltage transition, the internal node stabilization techniques are proposed. It achieves 45% and 40% improvements for node stabilization and input referred disturbance, respectively.

Keywords: Voltage sense amplifier, multi-inputs, voltage transition, node stabilization, and biasing circuits.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2115
64 Applications of High-Order Compact Finite Difference Scheme to Nonlinear Goursat Problems

Authors: Mohd Agos Salim Nasir, Ahmad Izani Md. Ismail

Abstract:

Several numerical schemes utilizing central difference approximations have been developed to solve the Goursat problem. However, in a recent years compact discretization methods which leads to high-order finite difference schemes have been used since it is capable of achieving better accuracy as well as preserving certain features of the equation e.g. linearity. The basic idea of the new scheme is to find the compact approximations to the derivative terms by differentiating centrally the governing equations. Our primary interest is to study the performance of the new scheme when applied to two Goursat partial differential equations against the traditional finite difference scheme.

Keywords: Goursat problem, partial differential equation, finite difference scheme, compact finite difference

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1615
63 Determination of EDTA in Dairy Wastewater and Adjacent Surface Water

Authors: Congmin Z. Xie, Terry Healy, Peter Robinson, Kevin Stewart

Abstract:

An HPLC-UV analytical method was developed to determine ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in dairy wastewater and surface water. The optimizing separation was achieved by reversed–phase ion-pair liquid chromatography on a C18 column using methanol as mobile phase solvent, tetrabutylammonium bromide as the ion-pair reagent in pH 3.3 formate buffer solution at a flow rate of 0.9 mL min-1 with a UV detector at 265 nm. No interference of Ca, Mg or NO3 - was detected. Method performance was evaluated in terms of linearity, repeatability and reproducibility. The method detection limit was 5 μg L-1. The contents of EDTA in dairy effluents were 72 ~ 261 μg L-1 at a large dairy site. A change of EDTA concentration was observed downstream of the dairy effluent discharge, but this was well under the predicted no effect concentration for aquatic ecosystem.

Keywords: Dairy wastewater, EDTA, HPLC, surface water.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1687
62 A Semi-Cylindrical Capacitive Sensor Used for Soil Moisture Measurement

Authors: Subir Das, Tuhin Subhra Sarkar, Badal Chakraborty

Abstract:

Differing from the structure of traditional parallel plate capacitive sensor a semi cylindrical capacitive sensor has been introduced in this present work to measure the soil moisture conveniently. Here, the numerical analysis method to evaluate the capacitance from the semi-cylindrical capacitive sensor is analyzed and discussed. The changes of capacitance with the variation of soil moisture obtained linear in the nano farad range (nF) and which converted into voltage variation by using proper signal conditioning circuit. Experimental results depict the satisfactory performance of the sensor for measurement of soil moisture in the range of 0 to 70%. We investigated the linearity of 4% of FSO and sensitivity of 70 mV/unit percentage changes in soil moisture level (DB).

Keywords: Semi cylindrical Capacitive Sensor, Capacitance to Voltage converter Circuit, Soil Moisture.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4634
61 Effect of Low Frequency Memory on High Power 12W LDMOS Transistors Intermodulation Distortion

Authors: A. Alghanim, J. Benedikt, P. J. Tasker

Abstract:

The increasing demand for higher data rates in wireless communication systems has led to the more effective and efficient use of all allocated frequency bands. In order to use the whole bandwidth at maximum efficiency, one needs to have RF power amplifiers with a higher linear level and memory-less performance. This is considered to be a major challenge to circuit designers. In this thesis the linearity and memory are studied and examined via the behavior of the intermodulation distortion (IMD). A major source of the in-band distortion can be shown to be influenced by the out-of-band impedances presented at either the input or the output of the device, especially those impedances terminated the low frequency (IF) components. Thus, in order to regulate the in-band distortion, the out of-band distortion must be controllable. These investigations are performed on a 12W LDMOS device characterised at 2.1 GHz within a purpose built, high-power measurement system.

Keywords: Low Frequency Memory, IntermodulationDistortion (IMD).

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1748