Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 466

Search results for: Natural convection

466 Magnetohydrodynamic Damping of Natural Convection Flows in a Rectangular Enclosure

Authors: M. Battira, R. Bessaih

Abstract:

We numerically study the three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) stability of oscillatory natural convection flow in a rectangular cavity, with free top surface, filled with a liquid metal, having an aspect ratio equal to A=L/H=5, and subjected to a transversal temperature gradient and a uniform magnetic field oriented in x and z directions. The finite volume method was used in order to solve the equations of continuity, momentum, energy, and potential. The stability diagram obtained in this study highlights the dependence of the critical value of the Grashof number Grcrit , with the increase of the Hartmann number Ha for two orientations of the magnetic field. This study confirms the possibility of stabilization of a liquid metal flow in natural convection by application of a magnetic field and shows that the flow stability is more important when the direction of magnetic field is longitudinal than when the direction is transversal.

Keywords: Natural convection, Magnetic field, Oscillatory, Cavity, Liquid metal.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
465 Investigation of Enhancement of Heat Transfer in Natural Convection Utilizing of Nanofluids

Authors: S. Etaig, R. Hasan, N. Perera

Abstract:

This paper analyses the heat transfer performance and fluid flow using different nanofluids in a square enclosure. The energy equation and Navier-Stokes equation are solved numerically using finite volume scheme. The effect of volume fraction concentration on the enhancement of heat transfer has been studied icorporating the Brownian motion; the influence of effective thermal conductivity on the enhancement was also investigated for a range of volume fraction concentration. The velocity profile for different Rayleigh number. Water-Cu, water AL2O3 and water-TiO2 were tested.

Keywords: Computational fluid Dynamics, Natural convection, Nanofluid and Thermal conductivity.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
464 Natural and Mixed Convection Heat Transfer Cooling of Discrete Heat Sources Placed Near the Bottom on a PCB

Authors: Tapano Kumar Hotta, S P Venkateshan

Abstract:

Steady state experiments have been conducted for natural and mixed convection heat transfer, from five different sized protruding discrete heat sources, placed at the bottom position on a PCB and mounted on a vertical channel. The characteristic length ( Lh ) of heat sources vary from 0.005 to 0.011 m. The study has been done for different range of Reynolds number and modified Grashof number. From the experiment, the surface temperature distribution and the Nusselt number of discrete heat sources have been obtained and the effects of Reynold number and Richardson number on them have been discussed. The objective is to find the rate of heat dissipation from heat sources, by placing them at the bottom position on a PCB and to compare both modes of cooling of heat sources.

Keywords: Discrete heat source, mixed convection, natural convection, vertical channel

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
463 Natural Convection of Water-Based CuO Nanofluids in a Cylindrical Enclosure

Authors: Baha Tulu Tanju, Kamil Kahveci

Abstract:

Buoyancy driven heat transfer of nanofluids in a cylindrical enclosure used as a control unit in the subsea hydrocarbon injection wells is investigated in this study. The governing equations obtained with the Boussinesq approximation are solved using Comsol Multiphysics finite element analysis and simulation software. The base fluid is water and CuO is used as nanoparticles. Solution is obtained for nanoparticle solid volume fraction of 8% and for Rayleigh number in the range of 105-107. The results show that nanoparticle usage in the cylindrical electronic control unit has a significant effect on the flow and heat transfer.

Keywords: CuO, enclosure, nanofluid, natural convection

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
462 Entropy Generation Analyze Due to the Steady Natural Convection of Newtonian Fluid in a Square Enclosure

Authors: T. T. Naas, Y. Lasbet, C. Kezrane

Abstract:

The thermal control in many systems is widely accomplished applying mixed convection process due to its low cost, reliability and easy maintenance. Typical applications include the aircraft electronic equipment, rotating-disc heat exchangers, turbo machinery, and nuclear reactors, etc. Natural convection in an inclined square enclosure heated via wall heater has been studied numerically. Finite volume method is used for solving momentum and energy equations in the form of stream function–vorticity. The right and left walls are kept at a constant temperature, while the other parts are adiabatic. The range of the inclination angle covers a whole revolution. The method is validated for a vertical cavity. A general power law dependence of the Nusselt number with respect to the Rayleigh number with the coefficient and exponent as functions of the inclination angle is presented. For a fixed Rayleigh number, the inclination angle increases or decreases is found.

Keywords: Inclined enclosure, natural convection in enclosure, Nusselt number.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
461 Numerical Investigation of Natural Convection of Pine, Olive, and Orange Leaves

Authors: Ali Reza Tahavvor, Saeed Hosseini, Nazli Jowkar, Behnam Amiri

Abstract:

Heat transfer of leaves is a crucial factor in optimal operation of metabolic functions in plants. In order to quantify this phenomenon in different leaves and investigate the influence of leaf shape on heat transfer, natural convection for pine, orange and olive leaves was simulated as representatives of different groups of leaf shapes. CFD techniques were used in this simulation with the purpose to calculate heat transfer of leaves in similar environmental conditions. The problem was simulated for steady state and threedimensional conditions. From obtained results, it was concluded that heat fluxes of all three different leaves are almost identical, however, total rate of heat transfer have highest and lowest values for orange leaves, and pine leaves, respectively.

Keywords: Computational fluid dynamic, heat flux, heat transfer, natural convection.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
460 Effects of Roughness Elements on Heat Transfer during Natural Convection

Authors: M. Yousaf, S. Usman

Abstract:

The present study focused on the investigation of the effects of roughness elements on heat transfer during natural convection in a rectangular cavity using numerical technique. Roughness elements were introduced on the bottom hot wall with a normalized amplitude (A*/H) of 0.1. Thermal and hydrodynamic behaviors were studied using computational method based on Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). Numerical studies were performed for a laminar flow in the range of Rayleigh number (Ra) from 103 to 106 for a rectangular cavity of aspect ratio (L/H) 2.0 with a fluid of Prandtl number (Pr) 1.0. The presence of the sinusoidal roughness elements caused a minimum to maximum decrease in the heat transfer as 7% to 17% respectively compared to smooth enclosure. The results are presented for mean Nusselt number (Nu), isotherms and streamlines.

Keywords: Natural convection, Rayleigh number, surface roughness, Nusselt number, Lattice Boltzmann Method.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
459 Numerical Modeling of Natural Convection on Various Configuration of Rectangular Fin Arrays on Vertical Base Plates

Authors: H.R.Goshayeshi, M.Fahim inia, M.M.Naserian

Abstract:

In this research, the laminar heat transfer of natural convection on vertical surfaces has been investigated. Most of the studies on natural convection have been considered constantly whereas velocity and temperature domain, do not change with time, transient one are used a lot. Governing equations are solved using a finite volume approach. The convective terms are discretized using the power-law scheme, whereas for diffusive terms the central difference is employed. Coupling between the velocity and pressure is made with SIMPLE algorithm. The resultant system of discretized linear algebraic equations is solved with an alternating direction implicit scheme. Then a configuration of rectangular fins is put in different ways on the surface and heat transfer of natural convection on these surfaces without sliding is studied and finally optimization is done.

Keywords: Natural convection, vertical surfaces, SIMPLE algorithm, Rectangular fins.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
458 Analyses of Natural Convection Heat Transfer from a Heated Cylinder Mounted in Vertical Duct

Authors: H. Bhowmik, A. Faisal, Ahmed Al Yaarubi, Nabil Al Alawi

Abstract:

Experiments are conducted to analyze the steady-state and the power-on transient natural convection heat transfer from a horizontal cylinder mounted in a vertical up flow circular duct. The heat flux ranges from 177 W/m2 to 2426 W/m2 and the Rayleigh number ranges from 1×104 to 4.35×104. For natural air flow and constant heat flux condition, the effects of heat transfer around the cylinder under steady-state condition are investigated. The steady-state results compare favorably with that of the available data. The effects of transient heat transfer data on different angular position of the thermocouple (0o, 90o, 180o) are also reported. It is observed that the transient heat transfer around the cylinder is strongly affected by the position of thermocouples. In the transient region, the rate of heat transfer obtained at 90o and 180o are higher than that of stagnation point (0o). Finally, the dependence of the average Nusselt number on Rayleigh number for steady and transient natural convection heat transfer are analyzed, and a correlation equation is presented.

Keywords: Steady-state, transient, natural convection, Rayleigh number, Nusselt number, Fourier Number.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
457 Enhancement of Natural Convection Heat Transfer within Closed Enclosure Using Parallel Fins

Authors: F. A. Gdhaidh, K. Hussain, H. S. Qi

Abstract:

A numerical study of natural convection heat transfer in water filled cavity has been examined in 3-Dfor single phase liquid cooling system by using an array of parallel plate fins mounted to one wall of a cavity. The heat generated by a heat source represents a computer CPU with dimensions of 37.5∗37.5mm mounted on substrate. A cold plate is used as a heat sink installed on the opposite vertical end of the enclosure. The air flow inside the computer case is created by an exhaust fan. A turbulent air flow is assumed and k-ε model is applied. The fins are installed on the substrate to enhance the heat transfer. The applied power energy range used is between 15 - 40W. In order to determine the thermal behaviour of the cooling system, the effect of the heat input and the number of the parallel plate fins are investigated. The results illustrate that as the fin number increases the maximum heat source temperature decreases. However, when the fin number increases to critical value the temperature start to increase due to the fins are too closely spaced and that cause the obstruction of water flow. The introduction of parallel plate fins reduces the maximum heat source temperature by 10% compared to the case without fins. The cooling system maintains the maximum chip temperature at 64.68°C when the heat input was at 40W that is much lower than the recommended computer chips limit temperature of no more than 85°C and hence the performance of the CPU is enhanced.

Keywords: Chips limit temperature, closed enclosure, natural convection, parallel plate, single phase liquid.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
456 Simulation of Natural Convection Flow in an Inclined open Cavity using Lattice Boltzmann Method

Authors: H. Sajjadi, M. Gorji, GH.R. Kefayati, D. D. Ganji, M. Shayan nia

Abstract:

In this paper effects of inclination angle on natural convection flow in an open cavity has been analyzed with Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM).The angle of inclination varied from θ= - 45° to 45° with 15° intervals. Study has been conducted for Rayleigh numbers (Ra) 104 to 106. The comparisons show that the average Nusselt number increases with growth of Rayleigh number and the average Nusselt number increase as inclination angles increases at Ra=104.At Ra=105 and Ra=106 the average Nusselt number enhance as inclination angels varied from θ= -45° to θ= 0° and decrease as inclination angels increase in θ= 0° to θ= 45°.

Keywords: Lattice Boltzmann Method, Inclination angle, Opencavity, Natural convection

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
455 DQ Analysis of 3D Natural Convection in an Inclined Cavity Using an Velocity-Vorticity Formulation

Authors: D. C. Lo, S. S. Leu

Abstract:

In this paper, the differential quadrature method is applied to simulate natural convection in an inclined cubic cavity using velocity-vorticity formulation. The numerical capability of the present algorithm is demonstrated by application to natural convection in an inclined cubic cavity. The velocity Poisson equations, the vorticity transport equations and the energy equation are all solved as a coupled system of equations for the seven field variables consisting of three velocities, three vorticities and temperature. The coupled equations are simultaneously solved by imposing the vorticity definition at boundary without requiring the explicit specification of the vorticity boundary conditions. Test results obtained for an inclined cubic cavity with different angle of inclinations for Rayleigh number equal to 103, 104, 105 and 106 indicate that the present coupled solution algorithm could predict the benchmark results for temperature and flow fields. Thus, it is convinced that the present formulation is capable of solving coupled Navier-Stokes equations effectively and accurately.

Keywords: Natural convection, velocity-vorticity formulation, differential quadrature (DQ).

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
454 Simulation of Natural Convection in Concentric Annuli between an Outer Inclined Square Enclosure and an Inner Horizontal Cylinder

Authors: Sattar Al-Jabair, Laith J. Habeeb

Abstract:

In this work, the natural convection in a concentric annulus between a cold outer inclined square enclosure and heated inner circular cylinder is simulated for two-dimensional steady state. The Boussinesq approximation was applied to model the buoyancy-driven effect and the governing equations were solved using the time marching approach staggered by body fitted coordinates. The coordinate transformation from the physical domain to the computational domain is set up by an analytical expression. Numerical results for Rayleigh numbers 103 , 104 , 105 and 106, aspect ratios 1.5 , 3.0 and 4.5 for seven different inclination angles for the outer square enclosure 0o , -30o , -45o , -60o , -90o , -135o , -180o are presented as well. The computed flow and temperature fields were demonstrated in the form of streamlines, isotherms and Nusselt numbers variation. It is found that both the aspect ratio and the Rayleigh number are critical to the patterns of flow and thermal fields. At all Rayleigh numbers angle of inclination has nominal effect on heat transfer.

Keywords: natural convection, concentric annulus, square inclined enclosure

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
453 Spectral Analysis of Radiation-Induced Natural Convection in Littoral Waters

Authors: Yadan Mao, Chengwang Lei, John C. Patterson

Abstract:

The mixing of pollutions and sediments in near shore regions of natural water bodies depends heavily on the characteristics such as the strength and frequency of flow instability. In the present paper, the instability of natural convection induced by absorption of solar radiation in littoral regions is considered. Spectral analysis is conducted on the quasi-steady state flow to reveal the power and frequency modes of the instability at various positions. Results indicate that the power of instability, the number of frequency modes, the prominence of higher frequency modes, and the highest frequency mode increase with the offshore distance and/or Rayleigh number. Harmonic modes are present at relatively low Rayleigh numbers. For a given offshore distance, the position with the strongest power of instability is located adjacent to the sloping bottom while the frequency modes are the same over the local depth. As the Rayleigh number increases, the unstable region extends toward the shore.

Keywords: Instability, Littoral waters, natural convection, Spectral analysis

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
452 Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of MHD Natural Convection in a Nanofluid-Filled Enclosure with Non-Uniform Heating on Both Side Walls

Authors: Imen Mejri, Ahmed Mahmoudi, Mohamed A. Abbassi, Ahmed Omri

Abstract:

This paper examines the natural convection in a square enclosure filled with a water-Al2O3 nanofluid and is subjected to a magnetic field. The side walls of the cavity have spatially varying sinusoidal temperature distributions. The horizontal walls are adiabatic. Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is applied to solve the coupled equations of flow and temperature fields. This study has been carried out for the pertinent parameters in the following ranges: Rayleigh number of the base fluid, Ra=103 to 106, Hartmann number varied from Ha=0 to 90, phase deviation (γ=0, π/4, π/2, 3π/4 and π) and the solid volume fraction of the nanoparticles between Ø = 0 and 6%. The results show that the heat transfer rate increases with an increase of the Rayleigh number but it decreases with an increase of the Hartmann number. For γ=π/2 and Ra=105 the magnetic field augments the effect of nanoparticles. At Ha=0, the greatest effects of nanoparticles are obtained at γ = 0 and π/4 for Ra=104 and 105 respectively.

 

Keywords: Lattice Boltzmann Method, magnetic field, Natural convection, nanofluid, Sinusoidal temperature distribution.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
451 Experimental Investigation of Heat Pipe with Annular Fins under Natural Convection at Different Inclinations

Authors: Gangacharyulu Dasaroju, Sumeet Sharma, Sanjay Singh

Abstract:

Heat pipe is characterised as superconductor of heat because of its excellent heat removal ability. The operation of several engineering system results in generation of heat. This may cause several overheating problems and lead to failure of the systems. To overcome this problem and to achieve desired rate of heat dissipation, there is need to study the performance of heat pipe with annular fins under free convection at different inclinations. This study demonstrates the effect of different mass flow rate of hot fluid into evaporator section on the condenser side heat transfer coefficient with annular fins under natural convection at different inclinations. In this study annular fins are used for the experimental work having dimensions of length of fin, thickness of fin and spacing of fin as 10 mm, 1 mm and 6 mm, respectively. The main aim of present study is to discover at what inclination angles the maximum heat transfer coefficient shall be achieved. The heat transfer coefficient on the external surface of heat pipe condenser section is determined by experimental method and then predicted by empirical correlations. The results obtained from experimental and Churchill and Chu relation for laminar are in fair agreement with not more than 22% deviation. It is elucidated the maximum heat transfer coefficient of 31.2 W/(m2-K) at 25˚ tilt angle and minimal condenser heat transfer coefficient of 26.4 W/(m2-K) is seen at 45˚ tilt angle and 200 ml/min mass flow rate. Inclination angle also affects the thermal performance of heat pipe. Beyond 25o inclination, heat transport rate starts to decrease.

Keywords: Annular fins, condenser heat transfer coefficient, heat pipe, natural convection, tilt angle.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
450 Unsteady Natural Convection in a Square Cavity Partially Filled with Porous Media Using a Thermal Non-Equilibrium Model

Authors: Ammar Alsabery, Habibis Saleh, Norazam Arbin, Ishak Hashim

Abstract:

Unsteady natural convection and heat transfer in a square cavity partially filled with porous media using a thermal non-equilibrium model is studied in this paper. The left vertical wall is maintained at a constant hot temperature Th and the right vertical wall is maintained at a constant cold temperature Tc, while the horizontal walls are adiabatic. The governing equations are obtained by applying the Darcy model and Boussinesq approximation. COMSOL’s finite element method is used to solve the non-dimensional governing equations together with specified boundary conditions. The governing parameters of this study are the Rayleigh number (Ra = 10^5, and Ra = 10^6 ), Darcy namber (Da = 10^−2, and Da = 10^−3), the modified thermal conductivity ratio (10^−1 ≤ γ ≤ 10^4), the inter-phase heat transfer coefficien (10^−1 ≤ H ≤ 10^3) and the time dependent (0.001 ≤ τ ≤ 0.2). The results presented for values of the governing parameters in terms of streamlines in both fluid/porous-layer, isotherms of fluid in fluid/porous-layer, isotherms of solid in porous layer, and average Nusselt number.

Keywords: Unsteady natural convection, Thermal non-equilibrium model, Darcy model.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
449 Natural Convection in Wavy-Wall Cavities Filled with Power-Law Fluid

Authors: Cha’o-Kuang Chen, Ching-Chang Cho

Abstract:

This paper investigates the natural convection heat transfer performance in a complex-wavy-wall cavity filled with power-law fluid. In performing the simulations, the continuity, Cauchy momentum and energy equations are solved subject to the Boussinesq approximation using a finite volume method. The simulations focus specifically on the effects of the flow behavior index in the power-law model and the Rayleigh number on the flow streamlines, isothermal contours and mean Nusselt number within the cavity. The results show that pseudoplastic fluids have a better heat transfer performance than Newtonian or dilatant fluids. Moreover, it is shown that for Rayleigh numbers greater than Ra=103, the mean Nusselt number has a significantly increase as the flow behavior index is decreased.

Keywords: Non-Newtonian fluid, Power-law fluid, Natural convection, Heat transfer enhancement, Cavity, Wavy wall.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
448 Natural Convection in a Porous Medium Cavity with an Applied Vertical Magnetic Field using Lattice Boltzmann Method

Authors: H.A. Ashorynejad, M. Farhadi, K.Sedighi, A.Hasanpour

Abstract:

We report the results of an lattice Boltzmann simulation of magnetohydrodynamic damping of sidewall convection in a rectangular enclosure filled with a porous medium. In particular we investigate the suppression of convection when a steady magnetic field is applied in the vertical direction. The left and right vertical walls of the cavity are kept at constant but different temperatures while both the top and bottom horizontal walls are insulated. The effects of the controlling parameters involved in the heat transfer and hydrodynamic characteristics are studied in detail. The heat and mass transfer mechanisms and the flow characteristics inside the enclosure depended strongly on the strength of the magnetic field and Darcy number. The average Nusselt number decreases with rising values of the Hartmann number while this increases with increasing values of the Darcy number.

Keywords: Lattice Boltzmann method , Natural convection , Magnetohydrodynamic , Porous medium

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
447 Numerical Study of Transient Laminar Natural Convection Cooling of high Prandtl Number Fluids in a Cubical Cavity: Influence of the Prandtl Number

Authors: O. Younis, J. Pallares, F. X. Grau

Abstract:

This paper presents and discusses the numerical simulations of transient laminar natural convection cooling of high Prandtl number fluids in cubical cavities, in which the six walls of the cavity are subjected to a step change in temperature. The effect of the fluid Prandtl number on the heat transfer coefficient is studied for three different fluids (Golden Syrup, Glycerin and Glycerin-water solution 50%). The simulations are performed at two different Rayleigh numbers (5·106 and 5·107) and six different Prandtl numbers (3 · 105 ≥Pr≥ 50). Heat conduction through the cavity glass walls is also considered. The propsed correlations of the averaged heat transfer coefficient (N u) showed that it is dependant on the initial Ra and almost independent on P r. The instantaneous flow patterns, temperature contours and time evolution of volume averaged temperature and heat transfer coefficient are presented and analyzed.

Keywords: Transient natural convection, High Prandtl number, variable viscosity.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
446 Study of Natural Convection in a Triangular Cavity Filled with Water: Application of the Lattice Boltzmann Method

Authors: Imen Mejri, Ahmed Mahmoudi, Mohamed A. Abbassi, Ahmed Omri

Abstract:

The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) with double populations is applied to solve the steady-state laminar natural convective heat transfer in a triangular cavity filled with water. The bottom wall is heated, the vertical wall is cooled, and the inclined wall is kept adiabatic. The buoyancy effect was modeled by applying the Boussinesq approximation to the momentum equation. The fluid velocity is determined by D2Q9 LBM and the energy equation is discritized by D2Q4 LBM to compute the temperature field. Comparisons with previously published work are performed and found to be in excellent agreement. Numerical results are obtained for a wide range of parameters: the Rayleigh number from  to  and the inclination angle from 0° to 360°. Flow and thermal fields were exhibited by means of streamlines and isotherms. It is observed that inclination angle can be used as a relevant parameter to control heat transfer in right-angled triangular enclosures.

 

Keywords: Heat transfer, inclination angle, Lattice Boltzmann Method, Nusselt number, Natural convection, Rayleigh number.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
445 Natural Convection Heat Transfer from Inclined Cylinders: A Unified Correlation

Authors: Neetu Rani, Hema Setia, Marut Dutt. R.K. Wanchoo

Abstract:

An empirical correlation for predicting the heat transfer coefficient for a cylinder under free convection, inclined at any arbitrary angle with the horizontal has been developed in terms of Nusselt number, Prandtl number and Grashof number. Available experimental data was used to determine the parameters for the proposed correlation. The proposed correlation predicts the available data well within ±10%, for Prandtl number in the range 0.68-0.72 and Grashof number in the range 1.4×104–1.2×1010.

Keywords: Heat transfer, inclined cylinders, natural convection, Nusselt number, Prandtl number, Grashof number.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
444 Effect of Eccentricity on Conjugate Natural Convection in Vertical Eccentric Annuli

Authors: A. Jamal, M. A. I. El-Shaarawi, E. M. A. Mokheimer

Abstract:

Combined conduction-free convection heat transfer in vertical eccentric annuli is numerically investigated using a finitedifference technique. Numerical results, representing the heat transfer parameters such as annulus walls temperature, heat flux, and heat absorbed in the developing region of the annulus, are presented for a Newtonian fluid of Prandtl number 0.7, fluid-annulus radius ratio 0.5, solid-fluid thermal conductivity ratio 10, inner and outer wall dimensionless thicknesses 0.1 and 0.2, respectively, and dimensionless eccentricities 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7. The annulus walls are subjected to thermal boundary conditions, which are obtained by heating one wall isothermally whereas keeping the other wall at inlet fluid temperature. In the present paper, the annulus heights required to achieve thermal full development for prescribed eccentricities are obtained. Furthermore, the variation in the height of thermal full development as function of the geometrical parameter, i.e., eccentricity is also investigated.

Keywords: Conjugate natural convection, eccentricity, heat transfer, vertical eccentric annuli.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
443 Investigation of Heat Transfer by Natural Convection in an Open Channel

Authors: Mahmoud S. Ahmed, Hany A. Mohamed, Mohamed A. Omara, Mohamed F. Abdeen

Abstract:

Experimental study of natural convection heat transfer inside smooth and rough surfaces of vertical and inclined equilateral triangular channels of different inclination angles with a uniformly heated surface are performed. The inclination angle is changed from 15º to 90º. Smooth and rough surface of average roughness (0.02mm) are used and their effect on the heat transfer characteristics are studied. The local and average heat transfer coefficients and Nusselt number are obtained for smooth and rough channels at different heat flux values, different inclination angles and different Rayleigh numbers (Ra) 6.48 × 105 ≤ Ra ≤ 4.78 × 106. The results show that the local Nusselt number decreases with increase of axial distance from the lower end of the triangular channel to a point near the upper end of channel, and then, it slightly increases. Higher values of local Nusselt number for rough channel along the axial distance compared with the smooth channel. The average Nusselt number of rough channel is higher than that of smooth channel by about 8.1% for inclined case at θ = 45o and 10% for vertical case. The results obtained are correlated using dimensionless groups for both rough and smooth surfaces of the inclined and vertical triangular channels.

Keywords: Natural heat transfer convection, constant heat flux, open channels, heat transfer.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
442 Numerical Analysis of Turbulent Natural Convection in a Square Cavity using Large- Eddy Simulation in Lattice Boltzmann Method

Authors: H. Sajjadi, M. Gorji, GH.R. Kefayati, D. D. Ganji, M. Shayan Nia

Abstract:

In this paper Lattice Boltzmann simulation of turbulent natural convection with large-eddy simulations (LES) in a square cavity which is filled by water has been investigated. The present results are validated by finds of other investigations which have been done with different numerical methods. Calculations were performed for high Rayleigh numbers of Ra=108 and 109. The results confirm that this method is in acceptable agreement with other verifications of such a flow. In this investigation is tried to present Large-eddy turbulence flow model by Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) with a clear and simple statement. Effects of increase in Rayleigh number are displayed on streamlines, isotherm counters and average Nusselt number. Result shows that the average Nusselt number enhances with growth of the Rayleigh numbers.

Keywords: Turbulent natural convection, Large Eddy Simulation, Lattice Boltzmann Method

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
441 Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of Natural Convection Heat Transfer in an Inclined Open Ended Cavity

Authors: M.Jafari, A.Naysari, K.Bodaghi

Abstract:

In the present study, the lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) is applied for simulating of Natural Convection in an inclined open ended cavity. The cavity horizontal walls are insulated while the west wall is maintained at a uniform temperature higher than the ambient. Prandtl number is fixed to 0.71 (air) while Rayligh numbers, aspect ratio of the cavity are changed in the range of 103 to 104 and of 1-4, respectively. The numerical code is validated for the previously results for open ended cavities, and then the results of an inclined open ended cavity for various angles of rotating open ended cavity are presented. Result shows by increasing of aspect ratio, the average Nusselt number on hot wall decreases for all rotation angles. When gravity acceleration direction is opposite of standard gravity direction the convection heat transfer has a manner same as conduction.

Keywords: Lattice Boltzmann Method, Open Ended Cavity, Natural Convection, Inclined Cavity.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
440 Effect of Prandtl Number on Natural Convection Heat Transfer from a Heated Semi-Circular Cylinder

Authors: Avinash Chandra, R. P. Chhabra

Abstract:

Natural convection heat transfer from a heated horizontal semi-circular cylinder (flat surface upward) has been investigated for the following ranges of conditions; Grashof number, and Prandtl number. The governing partial differential equations (continuity, Navier-Stokes and energy equations) have been solved numerically using a finite volume formulation. In addition, the role of the type of the thermal boundary condition imposed at cylinder surface, namely, constant wall temperature (CWT) and constant heat flux (CHF) are explored. Natural convection heat transfer from a heated horizontal semi-circular cylinder (flat surface upward) has been investigated for the following ranges of conditions; Grashof number, and Prandtl number, . The governing partial differential equations (continuity, Navier-Stokes and energy equations) have been solved numerically using a finite volume formulation. In addition, the role of the type of the thermal boundary condition imposed at cylinder surface, namely, constant wall temperature (CWT) and constant heat flux (CHF) are explored. The resulting flow and temperature fields are visualized in terms of the streamline and isotherm patterns in the proximity of the cylinder. The flow remains attached to the cylinder surface over the range of conditions spanned here except that for and ; at these conditions, a separated flow region is observed when the condition of the constant wall temperature is prescribed on the surface of the cylinder. The heat transfer characteristics are analyzed in terms of the local and average Nusselt numbers. The maximum value of the local Nusselt number always occurs at the corner points whereas it is found to be minimum at the rear stagnation point on the flat surface. Overall, the average Nusselt number increases with Grashof number and/ or Prandtl number in accordance with the scaling considerations. The numerical results are used to develop simple correlations as functions of Grashof and Prandtl number thereby enabling the interpolation of the present numerical results for the intermediate values of the Prandtl or Grashof numbers for both thermal boundary conditions.

Keywords: Constant heat flux, Constant surface temperature, Grashof number, natural convection, Prandtl number, Semi-circular cylinder

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
439 Numerical Solution of Transient Natural Convection in Vertical Heated Rectangular Channel between Two Vertical Parallel MTR-Type Fuel Plates

Authors: Djalal Hamed

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to perform, by mean of the finite volume method, a numerical solution of the transient natural convection in a narrow rectangular channel between two vertical parallel Material Testing Reactor (MTR)-type fuel plates, imposed under a heat flux with a cosine shape to determine the margin of the nuclear core power at which the natural convection cooling mode can ensure a safe core cooling, where the cladding temperature should not reach a specific safety limits (90 °C). For this purpose, a computer program is developed to determine the principal parameters related to the nuclear core safety, such as the temperature distribution in the fuel plate and in the coolant (light water) as a function of the reactor core power. Throughout the obtained results, we noticed that the core power should not reach 400 kW, to ensure a safe passive residual heat removing from the nuclear core by the upward natural convection cooling mode.

Keywords: Buoyancy force, friction force, friction factor, finite volume method, transient natural convection, thermal hydraulic analysis, vertical heated rectangular channel.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
438 Steady State Natural Convection in Vertical Heated Rectangular Channel between Two Vertical Parallel MTR-Type Fuel Plates

Authors: Djalal Hamed

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to perform an analytic solution of steady state natural convection in a narrow rectangular channel between two vertical parallel MTR-type fuel plates, imposed under a cosine shape heat flux to determine the margin of the nuclear core power at which the natural convection cooling mode can ensure a safe core cooling, where the cladding temperature should not be reach the specific safety limits (90 °C). For this purpose, a simple computer program is developed to determine the principal parameter related to the nuclear core safety such as the temperature distribution in the fuel plate and in the coolant (light water) as a function of the reactor power. Our results are validated throughout a comparison against the results of another published work, which is considered like a reference of this study.

Keywords: Buoyancy force, friction force, friction factor, MTR-type fuel, natural convection, vertical heated rectangular channel.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
437 Free Convection in a Darcy Thermally Stratified Porous Medium That Embeds a Vertical Wall of Constant Heat Flux and Concentration

Authors: Maria Neagu

Abstract:

This paper presents the heat and mass driven natural convection succession in a Darcy thermally stratified porous medium that embeds a vertical semi-infinite impermeable wall of constant heat flux and concentration. The scale analysis of the system determines the two possible maps of the heat and mass driven natural convection sequence along the wall as a function of the process parameters. These results are verified using the finite differences method applied to the conservation equations.

Keywords: Finite difference method, natural convection, porous medium, scale analysis, thermal stratification.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF