Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: disinfection byproducts

17 Incidence of Trihalogenmethanes in Drinking Water

Authors: Frantisek Bozek, Lenka Jesonkova, Jiri Dvorak

Abstract:

Trihalogenmethanes are the most significant byproducts of the reaction of disinfection agent with organic precursors naturally present in ground and surface waters.Their incidence negatively affects the quality of drinking water in relation to their nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic and genotoxic effects on human health. Taking into consideration the considerable volatility of monitored contaminants it could be assumed that their incidence in drinking water would depend on the distance of sampling from the area of disinfection. Based on the concentration of trihalogenmethanes determined with the help of gas chromatography with mass detector and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) such dependence has been proved as statistically significant. The acquired outcomes will be used for assessing the non-carcinogenic and genotoxic risks to consumers.

Keywords: disinfection byproducts, drinking water, trihalogenmethanes

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16 Health Effects of Trihalomethanes as Chlorinated Disinfection by Products: A Review Article

Authors: M. R. Mohamadshafiee, L. Taghavi

Abstract:

Trihalomethanes (THMs) were among the first disinfection byproducts to be discovered in chlorinated water. The substances form during a reaction between chlorine and organic matter in the water. Trihalomethanes are suspected to have negative effects on birth such as, low birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation in term births, as well as gestational age and preterm delivery. There are also some evidences showing these by-products to be mutagenic and carcinogenic, the greatest amount of evidence being related to the bladder cancer. However, there exist inconsistencies regarding such effects of THMs as different studies have provided different results in this regard. The aim of the present study is to provide a review of the related researches about the above mentioned health effects of THMs.

Keywords: Trihalomethans, by-products, disinfection, carcinogenic

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15 Statistical Optimization of Process Conditions for Disinfection of Water Using Defatted Moringa oleifera Seed Extract

Authors: Suleyman A. Muyibi, Munirat, A. Idris, Saedi Jami, Parveen Jamal, Mohd Ismail Abdul Karim

Abstract:

In this study, statistical optimization design was used to study the optimum disinfection parameters using defatted crude Moringa oleifera seed extracts against Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacterial cells. The classical one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) and response surface methodology (RSM) was used. The possible optimum range of dosage, contact time and mixing rate from the OFAT study were 25mg/l to 200mg/l, 30minutes to 240 minutes and 100rpm to 160rpm respectively. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the statistical optimization using faced centered central composite design showed that dosage, contact time and mixing rate were highly significant. The optimum disinfection range was 125mg/l, at contact time of 30 minutes with mixing rate of 120 rpm. 

Keywords: E.coli, disinfection, Moringa oleifera, response surface methodology.

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14 Investigation of the Synthesis of Alcohols Byproducts in Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis on Modified Fe-Cu Catalyst: Reactivity and Mechanism

Authors: Wanyu Mao, Qiwen Sun, Weiyong Ying, Dingye Fang

Abstract:

The influence of copper promoters and reaction conditions on the formation of alcohols byproducts of a common Fischer-Tropsch synthesis used iron-based catalysts were investigated. A good compromise of 28%Cu/FeKLaSiO2 can lead to the optimization of an improved Fischer-Tropsch catalyst. The product distribution shifts towards hydrocarbons with increasing the reaction temperature, while pressure promotes the formation of alcohols. It was found that the production of either alcohols or hydrocarbons followed A-S-F distributions, and their α parameters were essentially different which indicated a competition in the growing chain between the two species. TPD after acetaldehyde adsorption gave strong evidence of the insertion of a C1 oxygen-containing species into an alkyl chain.

Keywords: Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, Fe-Cu catalyst, alcohols byproducts, reaction pathways

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13 Enhanced Coagulation of Disinfection By-Products Precursors in Porsuk Water Resource, Eskisehir

Authors: Zehra Yigit, Hatice Inan, Guven Seydioglu, Vedat Uyak

Abstract:

Natural organic matter (NOM) is heterogeneous mixture of organic compounds that enter the water media from animal and plant remains, domestic and industrial wastes. Researches showed that NOM is likely precursor material for disinfection by products (DBPs). Chlorine very commenly used for disinfection purposes and NOM and chlorine reacts then Trihalomethane (THM) and Haloacetic acids (HAAs) which are cancerogenics for human health are produced. The aim of the study is to search NOM removal by enhanced coagulation from drinking water source of Eskisehir which is supplied from Porsuk Dam. Recently, Porsuk dam water is getting highly polluted and therefore NOM concentration is increasing. Enhanced coagulation studies were evaluated by measurement of Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC), UV absorbance at 254 nm (UV254), and different trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) tests. Results of jar test experiments showed that NOM can be removed from water about 40-50 % of efficiency by enhanced coagulation. Optimum coagulant type and coagulant dosages were determined using FeCl3 and Alum.

Keywords: Chlorination, Disinfection by-products, DOC, Enhanced Coagulation, NOM, Porsuk, UV254.

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12 Pathogen Removal Under the Influence of Iron

Authors: Umapriya.R., S.Shrihari

Abstract:

Drinking water is one of the most valuable resources available to mankind. The presence of pathogens in drinking water is highly undesirable. Because of the Lateritic soil, the iron concentrations were high in ground water. High concentration of iron and other trace elements could restrict bacterial growth and modify their metabolic pattern as well. The bacterial growth rate reduced in the presence of iron in water. This paper presents the results of a controlled laboratory study conducted to assess the inhibition of micro-organism (pathogen) in well waters in the presence of dissolved iron concentrations. Synthetic samples were studied in the laboratory and the results compared with field samples. Predictive model for microbial inhibition in the presence of iron is presented. It was seen that the bore wells, open wells and the field results varied, probably due to the nature of micro-organism utilizing the iron in well waters.

Keywords: Disinfection, Disinfectant, Iron, Laterite.

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11 Characterisation of Fractions Extracted from Sorghum Byproducts

Authors: Prima Luna, Afroditi Chatzifragkou, Dimitris Charalampopoulos

Abstract:

Sorghum byproducts, namely bran, stalk, and panicle are examples of lignocellulosic biomass. These raw materials contain large amounts of polysaccharides, in particular hemicelluloses, celluloses, and lignins, which if efficiently extracted, can be utilised for the development of a range of added value products with potential applications in agriculture and food packaging sectors. The aim of this study was to characterise fractions extracted from sorghum bran and stalk with regards to their physicochemical properties that could determine their applicability as food-packaging materials. A sequential alkaline extraction was applied for the isolation of cellulosic, hemicellulosic and lignin fractions from sorghum stalk and bran. Lignin content, phenolic content and antioxidant capacity were also investigated in the case of the lignin fraction. Thermal analysis using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) revealed that the glass transition temperature (Tg) of cellulose fraction of the stalk was ~78.33 oC at amorphous state (~65%) and water content of ~5%. In terms of hemicellulose, the Tg value of stalk was slightly lower compared to bran at amorphous state (~54%) and had less water content (~2%). It is evident that hemicelluloses generally showed a lower thermal stability compared to cellulose, probably due to their lack of crystallinity. Additionally, bran had higher arabinose-to-xylose ratio (0.82) than the stalk, a fact that indicated its low crystallinity. Furthermore, lignin fraction had Tg value of ~93 oC at amorphous state (~11%). Stalk-derived lignin fraction contained more phenolic compounds (mainly consisting of p-coumaric and ferulic acid) and had higher lignin content and antioxidant capacity compared to bran-derived lignin fraction.

Keywords: Alkaline extraction, bran, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, sorghum, stalk.

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10 Formation of Byproducts during Regeneration of Various Graphitic Adsorbents in a Batch Electrochemical Reactor

Authors: S. N. Hussain, H. M. A. Asghar, H. Sattar, N. W. Brown, E. P. L. Roberts

Abstract:

A water treatment technology employing the adsorption of dissolved organic contaminants from water and their electrochemical regeneration has been commercialized by Arvia Technology Ltd, UK. This technology focuses the adsorption of pollutants onto the surface of low surface area graphite based adsorbents followed by the anodic oxidation of adsorbed species in an electrochemical cell. However, some of the adsorbed species may lead to the formation of intermediate breakdown products due to incomplete oxidation. The information regarding the formation of breakdown products during electrochemical regeneration of these adsorbents is important for the effective application of this process to water treatment. In the present paper, the formation of the break down products during electrochemical regeneration of various graphite based adsorbents has been demonstrated.

Keywords: Arvia®, Adsorption, Electrochemical Regeneration, Breakdown products.

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9 Effect of Environmental Factors on Photoreactivation of Microorganisms under Indoor Conditions

Authors: Shirin Shafaei, James R. Bolton, Mohamed Gamal El Din

Abstract:

Ultraviolet (UV) disinfection causes damage to the DNA or RNA of microorganisms, but many microorganisms can repair this damage after exposure to near-UV or visible wavelengths (310–480 nm) by a mechanism called photoreactivation. Photoreactivation is gaining more attention because it can reduce the efficiency of UV disinfection of wastewater several hours after treatment. The focus of many photoreactivation research activities on the single species has caused a considerable lack in knowledge about complex natural communities of microorganisms and their response to UV treatment. In this research, photoreactivation experiments were carried out on the influent of the UV disinfection unit at a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Edmonton, Alberta after exposure to a Medium-Pressure (MP) UV lamp system to evaluate the effect of environmental factors on photoreactivation of microorganisms in the actual municipal wastewater. The effect of reactivation fluence, temperature, and river water on photoreactivation of total coliforms was examined under indoor conditions. The results showed that higher effective reactivation fluence values (up to 20 J/cm2) and higher temperatures (up to 25 °C) increased the photoreactivation of total coliforms. However, increasing the percentage of river in the mixtures of the effluent and river water decreased the photoreactivation of the mixtures. The results of this research can help the municipal wastewater treatment industry to examine the environmental effects of discharging their effluents into receiving waters.

Keywords: Photoreactivation, reactivation fluence, river water, temperature, ultraviolet disinfection, wastewater effluent.

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8 TiO2/Clay Minerals (Palygorskite/Halloysite) Nanocomposite Coatings for Water Disinfection

Authors: Dionisios Panagiotaras, Dimitrios Papoulis, Elias Stathatos

Abstract:

Microfibrous palygorskite and tubular halloysite clay mineral combined with nanocrystalline TiO2 are incorporating in the preparation of nanocomposite films on glass substrates via sol-gel route at 450oC. The synthesis is employing nonionic surfactant molecule as pore directing agent along with acetic acid-based sol-gel route without addition of water molecules. Drying and thermal treatment of composite films ensure elimination of organic material lead to the formation of TiO2 nanoparticles homogeneously distributed on the palygorskite or halloysite surfaces. Nanocomposite films without cracks of active anatase crystal phase on palygorskite and halloysite surfaces are characterized by microscopy techniques, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and porosimetry methods in order to examine their structural properties.

The composite palygorskite-TiO2 and halloysite-TiO2 films with variable quantities of palygorskite and halloysite were tested as photocatalysts in the photo-oxidation of Basic Blue 41 azo dye in water. These nanocomposite films proved to be most promising photocatalysts and highly effective to dye’s decoloration in spite of small amount of palygorskite-TiO2 or halloysite-TiO2 catalyst immobilized onto glass substrates mainly due to the high surface area and uniform distribution of TiO2 on clay minerals avoiding aggregation.

Keywords: Halloysite, Palygorskite, Photocatalysis, Titanium Dioxide.

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7 Fungal Disinfection by Nanofiltration in Tomato Soilless Culture

Authors: R. Amooaghaie

Abstract:

Principally, plants grown in soilless culture may be attacked by the same pests and diseases as cultivated traditionally in soil. The most destructive phytopathogens are fungi, such as Phythium, Phytophthora and Fusarium, followed by viruses, bacteria and nematodes. We investigated effect of carbon nanotube filters on disease management of soilless culture. Tomato seedlings transplant in plastic pots filled with a soilless media of vermiculite. The crop irrigated and fertilized using a hydroponic nutrient solution. We used carbon nanotube filters for nutrient solution disinfection. Our results show that carbon nanotube filtration significantly reduces pathogens on tomato plants. Fungal elimination (Fusarium oxysporum and Pythium spp.) was usually successful at about 96 to 99.9% all over the cultural season. It is seem that in tomato soilless culture, nanofiltration constitutes a reliable method that allows control of the development of diseases caused by pathogenic fungi

Keywords: Fusarium oxysporum, Nanofilteration, Pythium spp., Soilless culture, Tomato

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6 Disinfection of Water by Adsorption with Electrochemical Regeneration

Authors: S. N. Hussain, H. M. A. Asghar, E. P. L. Roberts, N. W. Brown

Abstract:

Arvia®, a spin-out company of University of Manchester, UK is commercialising a water treatment technology for the removal of low concentrations of organics from water. This technology is based on the adsorption of organics onto graphite based adsorbents coupled with their electrochemical regeneration in a simple electrochemical cell. In this paper, the potential of the process to adsorb microorganisms and electrochemically disinfect them present in water has been demonstrated. Bench scale experiments have indicated that the process of adsorption using graphite adsorbents with electrochemical regeneration can be used for water disinfection effectively. The most likely mechanisms of disinfection of water through this process include direct electrochemical oxidation and electrochemical chlorination.

Keywords: Arvia, Adsorption, Electrochemical Regeneration, Nyex

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5 The Influence of Physical-Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Hemp Filling Materials by the Addition of Energy Byproducts

Authors: Sarka Keprdova, Jiri Bydzovsky

Abstract:

This article describes to what extent the addition of energy by-products into the structures of the technical hemp filling materials influence their properties. The article focuses on the changes in physical-mechanical and thermal technical properties of materials after the addition of ash or FBC ash or slag in the binding component of material. Technical hemp filling materials are made of technical hemp shives bonded by the mixture of cement and dry hydrate lime. They are applicable as fillers of vertical or horizontal structures or roofs. The research used eight types of energy by-products of power or heating plants in the Czech Republic. Secondary energy products were dispensed in three different percentage ratios as a replacement of cement in the binding component. Density, compressive strength and determination of the coefficient of thermal conductivity after 28, 60 and 90 days of curing in a laboratory environment were determined and subsequently evaluated on the specimens produced.

Keywords: Ash, binder, cement, energy by-product, FBC ash (fluidized bed combustion ash), filling materials, shives, slag, technical hemp.

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4 Utilization of Agro-Industrial Byproducts for Bacteriocin Production Using Newly Isolated Enterococcus faecium BS13

Authors: Vandana Bali, Manab B. Bera, Parmjit S. Panesar

Abstract:

Microbial production of antimicrobials as biopreservatives is the major area of focus nowadays due to increased interest of consumers towards natural and safe preservation of ready to eat food products. The agro-industrial byproduct based medium and optimized process conditions can contribute in economical production of bacteriocins. Keeping this in view, the present investigation was carried out on agro-industrial byproducts utilization for the production of bacteriocin using Enterococcus faecium BS13 isolated from local fermented food. Different agro-industrial byproduct based carbon sources (whey, potato starch liquor, kinnow peel, deoiledrice bran and molasses), nitrogen sources (soya okra, pea pod and corn steep liquor), metal ions and surfactants were tested for optimal bacteriocin production. The effect of various process parameters such as pH, temperature, inoculum level, agitation and time were also tested on bacteriocin production. The optimized medium containing whey, supplemented with 4%corn steep liquor and polysorbate-80 displayed maximum bacteriocin activity with 2% inoculum, at pH 6.5, temperature 40oC under shaking conditions (100 rpm).

Keywords: Bacteriocin, biopreservation, corn steep liquor, Enterococcus faecium, waste utilization, whey.

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3 Use of Opti-Jet Cs Md1mr Device for Biocide Aerosolisation in 3t Magnetic Resonance

Authors: Robert Pintaric, Joze Matela, Stefan Pintaric, Stanka Vadnjal

Abstract:

Introduction: This work is aimed to represent the use of the OPTI-JET CS MD1 MR prototype for application of neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water (NEOW) in magnetic resonance rooms. Material and Methods: We produced and used OPTI-JET CS MD1 MR aerosolisator whereby was performed aerosolization. The presence of microorganisms before and after the aerosolisation was recorded with the help of cyclone air sampling. Colony formed units (CFU) was counted. Results: The number of microorganisms in magnetic resonance 3T room was low as expected. Nevertheless, a possible CFU reduction of 87% was recorded. Conclusions: The research has shown that the use of EOW for the air and hard surface disinfection can considerably reduce the presence of microorganisms and consequently the possibility of hospital infections. It has also demonstrated that the use of OPTI-JET CS MD1 MR is very good. With this research, we started new guidelines for aerosolization in magnetic resonance rooms. Future work: We predict that presented technique works very good but we must focus also on time capacity sensors, and new appropriate toxicological studies.

Keywords: Biocide, electrolyzed oxidizing water (EOW), disinfection, microorganisms, OPTI-JET CS MD1MR.

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2 Utilization of Industrial Byproducts in Concrete Applications by Adopting Grey Taguchi Method for Optimization

Authors: V. K. Bansal, M. Kumar, P. P. Bansal, A. Batish

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation carried out to evaluate the effects of partial replacement of cement and fine aggregate with industrial waste by-products on concrete strength properties. The Grey Taguchi approach has been used to optimize the mix proportions for desired properties. In this research work, a ternary combination of industrial waste by-products has been used. The experiments have been designed using Taguchi's L9 orthogonal array with four factors having three levels each. The cement was partially replaced by ladle furnace slag (LFS), fly ash (FA) and copper slag (CS) at 10%, 25% and 40% level and fine aggregate (sand) was partially replaced with electric arc furnace slag (EAFS), iron slag (IS) and glass powder (GP) at 20%, 30% and 40% level. Three water to binder ratios, fixed at 0.40, 0.44 and 0.48, were used, and the curing age was fixed at 7, 28 and 90 days. Thus, a series of nine experiments was conducted on the specimens for water to binder ratios of 0.40, 0.44 and 0.48 at 7, 28 and 90 days of the water curing regime. It is evident from the investigations that Grey Taguchi approach for optimization helps in identifying the factors affecting the final outcomes, i.e. compressive strength and split tensile strength of concrete. For the materials and a range of parameters used in this research, the present study has established optimum mixes in terms of strength properties. The best possible levels of mix proportions were determined for maximization through compressive and splitting tensile strength. To verify the results, the optimal mix was produced and tested. The mixture results in higher compressive strength and split tensile strength than other mixes. The compressive strength and split tensile strength of optimal mixtures are also compared with the control concrete mixtures. The results show that compressive strength and split tensile strength of concrete made with partial replacement of cement and fine aggregate is more than control concrete at all ages and w/c ratios. Based on the overall observations, it can be recommended that industrial waste by-products in ternary combinations can effectively be utilized as partial replacements of cement and fine aggregates in all concrete applications.

Keywords: Analysis of variance, ANOVA, compressive strength, concrete, grey Taguchi method, industrial by-products, split tensile strength.

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1 Reducing Humic Acid and Disinfection By-products in Raw Water using a Bio-activated Carbon Filter

Authors: Wei-Pin Tseng, Jie-Chung Lou, Ming-Ching Wu, Huang-Ming Fang

Abstract:

For stricter drinking water regulations in the future, reducing the humic acid and disinfection byproducts in raw water, namely, trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) is worthy for research. To investigate the removal of waterborne organic material using a lab-scale of bio-activated carbon filter under different EBCT, the concentrations of humic acid prepared were 0.01, 0.03, 0.06, 0.12, 0.17, 0.23, and 0.29 mg/L. Then we conducted experiments using a pilot plant with in-field of the serially connected bio-activated carbon filters and hollow fiber membrane processes employed in traditional water purification plants. Results showed under low TOC conditions of humic acid in influent (0.69 to 1.03 mg TOC/L) with an EBCT of 30 min, 40 min, and 50 min, TOC removal rates increases with greater EBCT, attaining about 39 % removal rate. The removal rate of THMs and HAAs by BACF was 54.8 % and 89.0 %, respectively.

Keywords: Bio-activated carbon filter, hollow fiber membrane, humic acid, THMs, HAAs, Water Treatment

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