Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 63

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63 Natural Emergence of a Core Structure in Networks via Clique Percolation

Authors: A. Melka, N. Slater, A. Mualem, Y. Louzoun

Abstract:

Networks are often presented as containing a “core” and a “periphery.” The existence of a core suggests that some vertices are central and form the skeleton of the network, to which all other vertices are connected. An alternative view of graphs is through communities. Multiple measures have been proposed for dense communities in graphs, the most classical being k-cliques, k-cores, and k-plexes, all presenting groups of tightly connected vertices. We here show that the edge number thresholds for such communities to emerge and for their percolation into a single dense connectivity component are very close, in all networks studied. These percolating cliques produce a natural core and periphery structure. This result is generic and is tested in configuration models and in real-world networks. This is also true for k-cores and k-plexes. Thus, the emergence of this connectedness among communities leading to a core is not dependent on some specific mechanism but a direct result of the natural percolation of dense communities.

Keywords: Networks, cliques, percolation, core structure, phase transition.

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62 Application of Rapidly Exploring Random Tree Star-Smart and G2 Quintic Pythagorean Hodograph Curves to the UAV Path Planning Problem

Authors: Luiz G. Véras, Felipe L. Medeiros, Lamartine F. Guimarães

Abstract:

This work approaches the automatic planning of paths for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) through the application of the Rapidly Exploring Random Tree Star-Smart (RRT*-Smart) algorithm. RRT*-Smart is a sampling process of positions of a navigation environment through a tree-type graph. The algorithm consists of randomly expanding a tree from an initial position (root node) until one of its branches reaches the final position of the path to be planned. The algorithm ensures the planning of the shortest path, considering the number of iterations tending to infinity. When a new node is inserted into the tree, each neighbor node of the new node is connected to it, if and only if the extension of the path between the root node and that neighbor node, with this new connection, is less than the current extension of the path between those two nodes. RRT*-smart uses an intelligent sampling strategy to plan less extensive routes by spending a smaller number of iterations. This strategy is based on the creation of samples/nodes near to the convex vertices of the navigation environment obstacles. The planned paths are smoothed through the application of the method called quintic pythagorean hodograph curves. The smoothing process converts a route into a dynamically-viable one based on the kinematic constraints of the vehicle. This smoothing method models the hodograph components of a curve with polynomials that obey the Pythagorean Theorem. Its advantage is that the obtained structure allows computation of the curve length in an exact way, without the need for quadratural techniques for the resolution of integrals.

Keywords: Path planning, path smoothing, Pythagorean hodograph curve, RRT*-Smart.

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61 Total Chromatic Number of Δ-Claw-Free 3-Degenerated Graphs

Authors: Wongsakorn Charoenpanitseri

Abstract:

The total chromatic number χ"(G) of a graph G is the minimum number of colors needed to color the elements (vertices and edges) of G such that no incident or adjacent pair of elements receive the same color Let G be a graph with maximum degree Δ(G). Considering a total coloring of G and focusing on a vertex with maximum degree. A vertex with maximum degree needs a color and all Δ(G) edges incident to this vertex need more Δ(G) + 1 distinct colors. To color all vertices and all edges of G, it requires at least Δ(G) + 1 colors. That is, χ"(G) is at least Δ(G) + 1. However, no one can find a graph G with the total chromatic number which is greater than Δ(G) + 2. The Total Coloring Conjecture states that for every graph G, χ"(G) is at most Δ(G) + 2. In this paper, we prove that the Total Coloring Conjectur for a Δ-claw-free 3-degenerated graph. That is, we prove that the total chromatic number of every Δ-claw-free 3-degenerated graph is at most Δ(G) + 2.

Keywords: Total colorings, the total chromatic number, 3-degenerated.

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60 An Improved Method to Compute Sparse Graphs for Traveling Salesman Problem

Authors: Y. Wang

Abstract:

The Traveling salesman problem (TSP) is NP-hard in combinatorial optimization. The research shows the algorithms for TSP on the sparse graphs have the shorter computation time than those for TSP according to the complete graphs. We present an improved iterative algorithm to compute the sparse graphs for TSP by frequency graphs computed with frequency quadrilaterals. The iterative algorithm is enhanced by adjusting two parameters of the algorithm. The computation time of the algorithm is O(CNmaxn2) where C is the iterations, Nmax is the maximum number of frequency quadrilaterals containing each edge and n is the scale of TSP. The experimental results showed the computed sparse graphs generally have less than 5n edges for most of these Euclidean instances. Moreover, the maximum degree and minimum degree of the vertices in the sparse graphs do not have much difference. Thus, the computation time of the methods to resolve the TSP on these sparse graphs will be greatly reduced.

Keywords: Frequency quadrilateral, iterative algorithm, sparse graph, traveling salesman problem.

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59 On Chvátal’s Conjecture for the Hamiltonicity of 1-Tough Graphs and Their Complements

Authors: Shin-Shin Kao, Yuan-Kang Shih, Hsun Su

Abstract:

In this paper, we show that the conjecture of Chv tal, which states that any 1-tough graph is either a Hamiltonian graph or its complement contains a specific graph denoted by F, does not hold in general. More precisely, it is true only for graphs with six or seven vertices, and is false for graphs with eight or more vertices. A theorem is derived as a correction for the conjecture.

Keywords: Complement, degree sum, Hamiltonian, tough.

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58 Efficient Filtering of Graph Based Data Using Graph Partitioning

Authors: Nileshkumar Vaishnav, Aditya Tatu

Abstract:

An algebraic framework for processing graph signals axiomatically designates the graph adjacency matrix as the shift operator. In this setup, we often encounter a problem wherein we know the filtered output and the filter coefficients, and need to find out the input graph signal. Solution to this problem using direct approach requires O(N3) operations, where N is the number of vertices in graph. In this paper, we adapt the spectral graph partitioning method for partitioning of graphs and use it to reduce the computational cost of the filtering problem. We use the example of denoising of the temperature data to illustrate the efficacy of the approach.

Keywords: Graph signal processing, graph partitioning, inverse filtering on graphs, algebraic signal processing.

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57 A Minimum Spanning Tree-Based Method for Initializing the K-Means Clustering Algorithm

Authors: J. Yang, Y. Ma, X. Zhang, S. Li, Y. Zhang

Abstract:

The traditional k-means algorithm has been widely used as a simple and efficient clustering method. However, the algorithm often converges to local minima for the reason that it is sensitive to the initial cluster centers. In this paper, an algorithm for selecting initial cluster centers on the basis of minimum spanning tree (MST) is presented. The set of vertices in MST with same degree are regarded as a whole which is used to find the skeleton data points. Furthermore, a distance measure between the skeleton data points with consideration of degree and Euclidean distance is presented. Finally, MST-based initialization method for the k-means algorithm is presented, and the corresponding time complexity is analyzed as well. The presented algorithm is tested on five data sets from the UCI Machine Learning Repository. The experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of the presented algorithm compared to three existing initialization methods.

Keywords: Degree, initial cluster center, k-means, minimum spanning tree.

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56 3D Object Model Reconstruction Based on Polywogs Wavelet Network Parametrization

Authors: Mohamed Othmani, Yassine Khlifi

Abstract:

This paper presents a technique for compact three dimensional (3D) object model reconstruction using wavelet networks. It consists to transform an input surface vertices into signals,and uses wavelet network parameters for signal approximations. To prove this, we use a wavelet network architecture founded on several mother wavelet families. POLYnomials WindOwed with Gaussians (POLYWOG) wavelet families are used to maximize the probability to select the best wavelets which ensure the good generalization of the network. To achieve a better reconstruction, the network is trained several iterations to optimize the wavelet network parameters until the error criterion is small enough. Experimental results will shown that our proposed technique can effectively reconstruct an irregular 3D object models when using the optimized wavelet network parameters. We will prove that an accurateness reconstruction depends on the best choice of the mother wavelets.

Keywords: 3D object, optimization, parametrization, Polywog wavelets, reconstruction, wavelet networks.

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55 Computing Maximum Uniquely Restricted Matchings in Restricted Interval Graphs

Authors: Swapnil Gupta, C. Pandu Rangan

Abstract:

A uniquely restricted matching is defined to be a matching M whose matched vertices induces a sub-graph which has only one perfect matching. In this paper, we make progress on the open question of the status of this problem on interval graphs (graphs obtained as the intersection graph of intervals on a line). We give an algorithm to compute maximum cardinality uniquely restricted matchings on certain sub-classes of interval graphs. We consider two sub-classes of interval graphs, the former contained in the latter, and give O(|E|^2) time algorithms for both of them. It is to be noted that both sub-classes are incomparable to proper interval graphs (graphs obtained as the intersection graph of intervals in which no interval completely contains another interval), on which the problem can be solved in polynomial time.

Keywords: Uniquely restricted matching, interval graph, design and analysis of algorithms, matching, induced matching, witness counting.

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54 3D Mesh Coarsening via Uniform Clustering

Authors: Shuhua Lai, Kairui Chen

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a fast and efficient mesh coarsening algorithm for 3D triangular meshes. Theis approach can be applied to very complex 3D meshes of arbitrary topology and with millions of vertices. The algorithm is based on the clustering of the input mesh elements, which divides the faces of an input mesh into a given number of clusters for clustering purpose by approximating the Centroidal Voronoi Tessellation of the input mesh. Once a clustering is achieved, it provides us an efficient way to construct uniform tessellations, and therefore leads to good coarsening of polygonal meshes. With proliferation of 3D scanners, this coarsening algorithm is particularly useful for reverse engineering applications of 3D models, which in many cases are dense, non-uniform, irregular and arbitrary topology. Examples demonstrating effectiveness of the new algorithm are also included in the paper.

Keywords: Coarsening, mesh clustering, shape approximation, mesh simplification.

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53 Building an Arithmetic Model to Assess Visual Consistency in Townscape

Authors: Dheyaa Hussein, Peter Armstrong

Abstract:

The phenomenon of visual disorder is prominent in contemporary townscapes. This paper provides a theoretical framework for the assessment of visual consistency in townscape in order to achieve more favourable outcomes for users. In this paper, visual consistency refers to the amount of similarity between adjacent components of townscape. The paper investigates parameters which relate to visual consistency in townscape, explores the relationships between them and highlights their significance. The paper uses arithmetic methods from outside the domain of urban design to enable the establishment of an objective approach of assessment which considers subjective indicators including users’ preferences. These methods involve the standard of deviation, colour distance and the distance between points. The paper identifies urban space as a key representative of the visual parameters of townscape. It focuses on its two components, geometry and colour in the evaluation of the visual consistency of townscape. Accordingly, this article proposes four measurements. The first quantifies the number of vertices, which are points in the three-dimensional space that are connected, by lines, to represent the appearance of elements. The second evaluates the visual surroundings of urban space through assessing the location of their vertices. The last two measurements calculate the visual similarity in both vertices and colour in townscape by the calculation of their variation using methods including standard of deviation and colour difference. The proposed quantitative assessment is based on users’ preferences towards these measurements. The paper offers a theoretical basis for a practical tool which can alter the current understanding of architectural form and its application in urban space. This tool is currently under development. The proposed method underpins expert subjective assessment and permits the establishment of a unified framework which adds to creativity by the achievement of a higher level of consistency and satisfaction among the citizens of evolving townscapes.

Keywords: Townscape, Urban Design, Visual Assessment, Visual Consistency.

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52 Malware Beaconing Detection by Mining Large-scale DNS Logs for Targeted Attack Identification

Authors: Andrii Shalaginov, Katrin Franke, Xiongwei Huang

Abstract:

One of the leading problems in Cyber Security today is the emergence of targeted attacks conducted by adversaries with access to sophisticated tools. These attacks usually steal senior level employee system privileges, in order to gain unauthorized access to confidential knowledge and valuable intellectual property. Malware used for initial compromise of the systems are sophisticated and may target zero-day vulnerabilities. In this work we utilize common behaviour of malware called ”beacon”, which implies that infected hosts communicate to Command and Control servers at regular intervals that have relatively small time variations. By analysing such beacon activity through passive network monitoring, it is possible to detect potential malware infections. So, we focus on time gaps as indicators of possible C2 activity in targeted enterprise networks. We represent DNS log files as a graph, whose vertices are destination domains and edges are timestamps. Then by using four periodicity detection algorithms for each pair of internal-external communications, we check timestamp sequences to identify the beacon activities. Finally, based on the graph structure, we infer the existence of other infected hosts and malicious domains enrolled in the attack activities.

Keywords: Malware detection, network security, targeted attack.

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51 Hamiltonian Related Properties with and without Faults of the Dual-Cube Interconnection Network and Their Variations

Authors: Shih-Yan Chen, Shin-Shin Kao

Abstract:

In this paper, a thorough review about dual-cubes, DCn, the related studies and their variations are given. DCn was introduced to be a network which retains the pleasing properties of hypercube Qn but has a much smaller diameter. In fact, it is so constructed that the number of vertices of DCn is equal to the number of vertices of Q2n +1. However, each vertex in DCn is adjacent to n + 1 neighbors and so DCn has (n + 1) × 2^2n edges in total, which is roughly half the number of edges of Q2n+1. In addition, the diameter of any DCn is 2n +2, which is of the same order of that of Q2n+1. For selfcompleteness, basic definitions, construction rules and symbols are provided. We chronicle the results, where eleven significant theorems are presented, and include some open problems at the end.

Keywords: Hypercubes, dual-cubes, fault-tolerant hamiltonian property, dual-cube extensive networks, dual-cube-like networks.

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50 Exploring Counting Methods for the Vertices of Certain Polyhedra with Uncertainties

Authors: Sammani Danwawu Abdullahi

Abstract:

Vertex Enumeration Algorithms explore the methods and procedures of generating the vertices of general polyhedra formed by system of equations or inequalities. These problems of enumerating the extreme points (vertices) of general polyhedra are shown to be NP-Hard. This lead to exploring how to count the vertices of general polyhedra without listing them. This is also shown to be #P-Complete. Some fully polynomial randomized approximation schemes (fpras) of counting the vertices of some special classes of polyhedra associated with Down-Sets, Independent Sets, 2-Knapsack problems and 2 x n transportation problems are presented together with some discovered open problems.

Keywords: Approximation, counting with uncertainties, mathematical programming, optimization, vertex enumeration.

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49 GPU-Accelerated Triangle Mesh Simplification Using Parallel Vertex Removal

Authors: Thomas Odaker, Dieter Kranzlmueller, Jens Volkert

Abstract:

We present an approach to triangle mesh simplification designed to be executed on the GPU. We use a quadric error metric to calculate an error value for each vertex of the mesh and order all vertices based on this value. This step is followed by the parallel removal of a number of vertices with the lowest calculated error values. To allow for the parallel removal of multiple vertices we use a set of per-vertex boundaries that prevent mesh foldovers even when simplification operations are performed on neighbouring vertices. We execute multiple iterations of the calculation of the vertex errors, ordering of the error values and removal of vertices until either a desired number of vertices remains in the mesh or a minimum error value is reached. This parallel approach is used to speed up the simplification process while maintaining mesh topology and avoiding foldovers at every step of the simplification.

Keywords: Computer graphics, half edge collapse, mesh simplification, precomputed simplification, topology preserving.

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48 A Further Study on the 4-Ordered Property of Some Chordal Ring Networks

Authors: Shin-Shin Kao, Hsiu-Chunj Pan

Abstract:

Given a graph G. A cycle of G is a sequence of vertices of G such that the first and the last vertices are the same. A hamiltonian cycle of G is a cycle containing all vertices of G. The graph G is k-ordered (resp. k-ordered hamiltonian) if for any sequence of k distinct vertices of G, there exists a cycle (resp. hamiltonian cycle) in G containing these k vertices in the specified order. Obviously, any cycle in a graph is 1-ordered, 2-ordered and 3- ordered. Thus the study of any graph being k-ordered (resp. k-ordered hamiltonian) always starts with k = 4. Most studies about this topic work on graphs with no real applications. To our knowledge, the chordal ring families were the first one utilized as the underlying topology in interconnection networks and shown to be 4-ordered. Furthermore, based on our computer experimental results, it was conjectured that some of them are 4-ordered hamiltonian. In this paper, we intend to give some possible directions in proving the conjecture.

Keywords: Hamiltonian cycle, 4-ordered, Chordal rings, 3-regular.

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47 A Genetic Based Algorithm to Generate Random Simple Polygons Using a New Polygon Merge Algorithm

Authors: Ali Nourollah, Mohsen Movahedinejad

Abstract:

In this paper a new algorithm to generate random simple polygons from a given set of points in a two dimensional plane is designed. The proposed algorithm uses a genetic algorithm to generate polygons with few vertices. A new merge algorithm is presented which converts any two polygons into a simple polygon. This algorithm at first changes two polygons into a polygonal chain and then the polygonal chain is converted into a simple polygon. The process of converting a polygonal chain into a simple polygon is based on the removal of intersecting edges. The experiments results show that the proposed algorithm has the ability to generate a great number of different simple polygons and has better performance in comparison to celebrated algorithms such as space partitioning and steady growth.

Keywords: Divide and conquer, genetic algorithm, merge polygons, Random simple polygon generation.

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46 Eccentric Connectivity Index, First and Second Zagreb Indices of Corona Graph

Authors: A. Kulandai Therese

Abstract:

The eccentric connectivity index based on degree and eccentricity of the vertices of a graph is a widely used graph invariant in mathematics. In this paper, we present the explicit eccentric connectivity index, first and second Zagreb indices for a Corona graph and sub divisionrelated corona graphs.

Keywords: Corona graph, Degree, Eccentricity, Eccentric Connectivity Index, First Zagreb index, Second Zagreb index and Subdivision graphs.

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45 Allocation of Mobile Units in an Urban Emergency Service System

Authors: Dimitra Alexiou

Abstract:

In an urban area the location allocation of emergency services mobile units, such as ambulances, police patrol cars must be designed so as to achieve a prompt response to demand locations. In this paper the partition of a given urban network into distinct sub-networks is performed such that the vertices in each component are close and simultaneously the sums of the corresponding population in the sub-networks are almost uniform. The objective here is to position appropriately in each sub-network a mobile emergency unit in order to reduce the response time to the demands. A mathematical model in framework of graph theory is developed. In order to clarify the corresponding method a relevant numerical example is presented on a small network.

Keywords: Distances, Emergency Service, Graph Partition, location.

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44 Holomorphic Prioritization of Sets within Decagram of Strategic Decision Making of POSM Using Operational Research (OR): Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) Analysis

Authors: Elias O. Tembe, Hussain A. Al-Salamin

Abstract:

There is decagram of strategic decisions of operations and production/service management (POSM) within operational research (OR) which must collate, namely: design, inventory, quality, location, process and capacity, layout, scheduling, maintain ace, and supply chain. This paper presents an architectural configuration conceptual framework of a decagram of sets decisions in a form of mathematical complete graph and abelian graph. Mathematically, a complete graph is undirected (UDG), and directed (DG) a relationship where every pair of vertices is connected, collated, confluent, and holomorphic. There has not been any study conducted which, however, prioritizes the holomorphic sets which of POMS within OR field of study. The study utilizes OR structured technique known as The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) analysis for organizing, sorting and prioritizing(ranking) the sets within the decagram of POMS according to their attribution (propensity), and provides an analysis how the prioritization has real-world application within the 21st century.

Keywords: AHP analysis, Decagram, Decagon, Holomorphic.

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43 On Chromaticity of Wheels

Authors: Zainab Yasir Al-Rekaby, Abdul Jalil M. Khalaf

Abstract:

Let the vertices of a graph such that every two adjacent vertices have different color is a very common problem in the graph theory. This is known as proper coloring of graphs. The possible number of different proper colorings on a graph with a given number of colors can be represented by a function called the chromatic polynomial. Two graphs G and H are said to be chromatically equivalent, if they share the same chromatic polynomial. A Graph G is chromatically unique, if G is isomorphic to H for any graph H such that G is chromatically equivalent to H. The study of chromatically equivalent and chromatically unique problems is called chromaticity. This paper shows that a wheel W12 is chromatically unique.

Keywords: Chromatic Polynomial, Chromatically Equivalent, Chromatically Unique, Wheel.

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42 An Advanced Nelder Mead Simplex Method for Clustering of Gene Expression Data

Authors: M. Pandi, K. Premalatha

Abstract:

The DNA microarray technology concurrently monitors the expression levels of thousands of genes during significant biological processes and across the related samples. The better understanding of functional genomics is obtained by extracting the patterns hidden in gene expression data. It is handled by clustering which reveals natural structures and identify interesting patterns in the underlying data. In the proposed work clustering gene expression data is done through an Advanced Nelder Mead (ANM) algorithm. Nelder Mead (NM) method is a method designed for optimization process. In Nelder Mead method, the vertices of a triangle are considered as the solutions. Many operations are performed on this triangle to obtain a better result. In the proposed work, the operations like reflection and expansion is eliminated and a new operation called spread-out is introduced. The spread-out operation will increase the global search area and thus provides a better result on optimization. The spread-out operation will give three points and the best among these three points will be used to replace the worst point. The experiment results are analyzed with optimization benchmark test functions and gene expression benchmark datasets. The results show that ANM outperforms NM in both benchmarks.

Keywords: Spread out, simplex, multi-minima, fitness function, optimization, search area, monocyte, solution, genomes.

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41 Nullity of t-Tupple Graphs

Authors: Khidir R. Sharaf, Didar A. Ali

Abstract:

The nullity η(G) of a graph is the occurrence of zero as an eigenvalue in its spectra. A zero-sum weighting of a graph G is real valued function, say f from vertices of G to the set of real numbers, provided that for each vertex of G the summation of the weights f(w) over all neighborhood w of v is zero for each v in G.A high zero-sum weighting of G is one that uses maximum number of non-zero independent variables. If G is graph with an end vertex, and if H is an induced subgraph of G obtained by deleting this vertex together with the vertex adjacent to it, then, η(G)= η(H). In this paper, a high zero-sum weighting technique and the endvertex procedure are applied to evaluate the nullity of t-tupple and generalized t-tupple graphs are derived  and determined for some special types of graphs,

 Also, we introduce and prove some important results about the t-tupple coalescence, Cartesian and Kronecker products of nut graphs.

Keywords: Graph theory, Graph spectra, Nullity of graphs.

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40 The Vertex and Edge Irregular Total Labeling of an Amalgamation of Two Isomorphic Cycles

Authors: Nurdin

Abstract:

Suppose G(V,E) is a graph, a function f : V \cup E \to \{1, 2, 3, \cdots, k\} is called the total edge(vertex) irregular k-labelling for G such that for each two edges are different having distinct weights. The total edge(vertex) irregularity strength of G, denoted by tes(G)(tvs(G), is the smallest k positive integers such that G has a total edge(vertex) irregular k-labelling. In this paper, we determined the total edge(vertex) irregularity strength of an amalgamation of two isomorphic cycles. The total edge irregularity strength and the total vertex irregularity strength of two isomorphic cycles on n vertices are \lceil (2n+2)/3 \rceil and \lceil 2n/3 \rceil for n \geq 3, respectively.

Keywords: Amalgamation of graphs, irregular labelling, irregularity strength.

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39 A New Effective Local Search Heuristic for the Maximum Clique Problem

Authors: S. Balaji

Abstract:

An edge based local search algorithm, called ELS, is proposed for the maximum clique problem (MCP), a well-known combinatorial optimization problem. ELS is a two phased local search method effectively £nds the near optimal solutions for the MCP. A parameter ’support’ of vertices de£ned in the ELS greatly reduces the more number of random selections among vertices and also the number of iterations and running times. Computational results on BHOSLIB and DIMACS benchmark graphs indicate that ELS is capable of achieving state-of-the-art-performance for the maximum clique with reasonable average running times.

Keywords: Maximum clique, local search, heuristic, NP-complete.

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38 Terminal Wiener Index for Graph Structures

Authors: J. Baskar Babujee, J. Senbagamalar,

Abstract:

The topological distance between a pair of vertices i and j, which is denoted by d(vi, vj), is the number of edges of the shortest path joining i and j. The Wiener index W(G) is the sum of distances between all pairs of vertices of a graph G. W(G) = i

Keywords: Graph, Degree, Distance, Pendent vertex, Wiener index, Tree.

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37 Image Segment Matching Using Affine- Invariant Regions

Authors: Ibrahim El rube'

Abstract:

In this paper, a method for matching image segments using triangle-based (geometrical) regions is proposed. Triangular regions are formed from triples of vertex points obtained from a keypoint detector (SIFT). However, triangle regions are subject to noise and distortion around the edges and vertices (especially acute angles). Therefore, these triangles are expanded into parallelogramshaped regions. The extracted image segments inherit an important triangle property; the invariance to affine distortion. Given two images, matching corresponding regions is conducted by computing the relative affine matrix, rectifying one of the regions w.r.t. the other one, then calculating the similarity between the reference and rectified region. The experimental tests show the efficiency and robustness of the proposed algorithm against geometrical distortion.

Keywords: Image matching, key point detection, affine invariant, triangle-shaped segments.

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36 The Frequency Graph for the Traveling Salesman Problem

Authors: Y. Wang

Abstract:

Traveling salesman problem (TSP) is hard to resolve when the number of cities and routes become large. The frequency graph is constructed to tackle the problem. A frequency graph maintains the topological relationships of the original weighted graph. The numbers on the edges are the frequencies of the edges emulated from the local optimal Hamiltonian paths. The simplest kind of local optimal Hamiltonian paths are computed based on the four vertices and three lines inequality. The search algorithm is given to find the optimal Hamiltonian circuit based on the frequency graph. The experiments show that the method can find the optimal Hamiltonian circuit within several trials.

Keywords: Traveling salesman problem, frequency graph, local optimal Hamiltonian path, four vertices and three lines inequality.

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35 ROI Based Embedded Watermarking of Medical Images for Secured Communication in Telemedicine

Authors: Baisa L. Gunjal, Suresh N. Mali

Abstract:

Medical images require special safety and confidentiality because critical judgment is done on the information provided by medical images. Transmission of medical image via internet or mobile phones demands strong security and copyright protection in telemedicine applications. Here, highly secured and robust watermarking technique is proposed for transmission of image data via internet and mobile phones. The Region of Interest (ROI) and Non Region of Interest (RONI) of medical image are separated. Only RONI is used for watermark embedding. This technique results in exact recovery of watermark with standard medical database images of size 512x512, giving 'correlation factor' equals to 1. The correlation factor for different attacks like noise addition, filtering, rotation and compression ranges from 0.90 to 0.95. The PSNR with weighting factor 0.02 is up to 48.53 dBs. The presented scheme is non blind and embeds hospital logo of 64x64 size.

Keywords: Compression, DWT, ROI, Scrambling, Vertices

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34 An Efficient Heuristic for the Minimum Connected Dominating Set Problem on Ad Hoc Wireless Networks

Authors: S. Balaji, N. Revathi

Abstract:

Connected dominating set (CDS) problem in unit disk graph has signi£cant impact on an ef£cient design of routing protocols in wireless sensor networks, where the searching space for a route is reduced to nodes in the set. A set is dominating if all the nodes in the system are either in the set or neighbors of nodes in the set. In this paper, a simple and ef£cient heuristic method is proposed for £nding a minimum connected dominating set (MCDS) in ad hoc wireless networks based on the new parameter support of vertices. With this parameter the proposed heuristic approach effectively £nds the MCDS of a graph. Extensive computational experiments show that the proposed approach outperforms the recently proposed heuristics found in the literature for the MCD

Keywords: ad hoc wireless networks, dominating sets, unit disk graphs, heuristic.

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