Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 180
180 An Application of the Data Mining Methods with Decision Rule

Authors: Xun Ge, Jianhua Gong

Abstract:

 

ankings for output of Chinese main agricultural commodity in the world for 1978, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2006, 2007 and 2008 have been released in United Nations FAO Database. Unfortunately, where the ranking of output of Chinese cotton lint in the world for 2008 was missed. This paper uses sequential data mining methods with decision rules filling this gap. This new data mining method will be help to give a further improvement for United Nations FAO Database.

Keywords: Ranking, output of the main agricultural commodity, gross domestic product, decision table, information system, data mining, decision rule

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179 Mechanical Quadrature Methods for Solving First Kind Boundary Integral Equations of Stationary Stokes Problem

Authors: Xin Luo, Jin Huang, Pan Cheng

Abstract:

By means of Sidi-Israeli’s quadrature rules, mechanical quadrature methods (MQMs) for solving the first kind boundary integral equations (BIEs) of steady state Stokes problem are presented. The convergence of numerical solutions by MQMs is proved based on Anselone’s collective compact and asymptotical compact theory, and the asymptotic expansions with the odd powers of the errors are provided, which implies that the accuracy of the approximations by MQMs possesses high accuracy order O (h3). Finally, the numerical examples show the efficiency of our methods.

Keywords: Stokes problem, boundary integral equation, mechanical quadrature methods, asymptotic expansions.

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178 Positive Solutions for Three-Point Boundary Value Problems of Third-Order Nonlinear Singular Differential Equations in Banach Space

Authors: Li Xiguang

Abstract:

In this paper, by constructing a special set and utilizing fixed point index theory, we study the existence of solution for singular differential equation in Banach space, which improved and generalize the result of related paper.

Keywords: Banach space, cone, fixed point index, singular differential equation.

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177 Improved Robust Stability Criteria of a Class of Neutral Lur’e Systems with Interval Time-Varying Delays

Authors: Longqiao Zhou, Zixin Liu, Shu Lü

Abstract:

This paper addresses the robust stability problem of a class of delayed neutral Lur’e systems. Combined with the property of convex function and double integral Jensen inequality, a new tripe integral Lyapunov functional is constructed to derive some new stability criteria. Compared with some related results, the new criteria established in this paper are less conservative. Finally, two numerical examples are presented to illustrate the validity of the main results.

Keywords: Lur’e system, Convex function, Jensen integral inequality, Triple-integral method, Exponential stability.

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176 Comparison of Two Types of Preconditioners for Stokes and Linearized Navier-Stokes Equations

Authors: Ze-Jun Hu, Ting-Zhu Huang, Ning-Bo Tan

Abstract:

To solve saddle point systems efficiently, several preconditioners have been published. There are many methods for constructing preconditioners for linear systems from saddle point problems, for instance, the relaxed dimensional factorization (RDF) preconditioner and the augmented Lagrangian (AL) preconditioner are used for both steady and unsteady Navier-Stokes equations. In this paper we compare the RDF preconditioner with the modified AL (MAL) preconditioner to show which is more effective to solve Navier-Stokes equations. Numerical experiments indicate that the MAL preconditioner is more efficient and robust, especially, for moderate viscosities and stretched grids in steady problems. For unsteady cases, the convergence rate of the RDF preconditioner is slightly faster than the MAL perconditioner in some circumstances, but the parameter of the RDF preconditioner is more sensitive than the MAL preconditioner. Moreover the convergence rate of the MAL preconditioner is still quite acceptable. Therefore we conclude that the MAL preconditioner is more competitive than the RDF preconditioner. These experiments are implemented with IFISS package. 

Keywords: Navier-Stokes equations, Krylov subspace method, preconditioner, dimensional splitting, augmented Lagrangian preconditioner.

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175 Positive Solutions of Initial Value Problem for the Systems of Second Order Integro-Differential Equations in Banach Space

Authors: Lv Yuhua

Abstract:

In this paper, by establishing a new comparison result, we investigate the existence of positive solutions for initial value problems of nonlinear systems of second order integro-differential equations in Banach space.We improve and generalize some results  (see[5,6]), and the results is new even in finite dimensional spaces.

Keywords: Systems of integro-differential equations, monotone iterative method, comparison result, cone.

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174 Almost Periodicity in a Harvesting Lotka-Volterra Recurrent Neural Networks with Time-Varying Delays

Authors: Yongzhi Liao

Abstract:

By using the theory of exponential dichotomy and Banach fixed point theorem, this paper is concerned with the problem of the existence and uniqueness of positive almost periodic solution in a delayed Lotka-Volterra recurrent neural networks with harvesting terms. To a certain extent, our work in this paper corrects some result in recent years. Finally, an example is given to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the main result.

Keywords: positive almost periodic solution, Lotka-Volterra, neural networks, Banach fixed point theorem, harvesting

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173 Minimization Problems for Generalized Reflexive and Generalized Anti-Reflexive Matrices

Authors: Yongxin Yuan

Abstract:

Let R ∈ Cm×m and S ∈ Cn×n be nontrivial unitary involutions, i.e., RH = R = R−1 = ±Im and SH = S = S−1 = ±In. A ∈ Cm×n is said to be a generalized reflexive (anti-reflexive) matrix if RAS = A (RAS = −A). Let ρ be the set of m × n generalized reflexive (anti-reflexive) matrices. Given X ∈ Cn×p, Z ∈ Cm×p, Y ∈ Cm×q and W ∈ Cn×q, we characterize the matrices A in ρ that minimize AX−Z2+Y HA−WH2, and, given an arbitrary A˜ ∈ Cm×n, we find a unique matrix among the minimizers of AX − Z2 + Y HA − WH2 in ρ that minimizes A − A˜. We also obtain sufficient and necessary conditions for existence of A ∈ ρ such that AX = Z, Y HA = WH, and characterize the set of all such matrices A if the conditions are satisfied. These results are applied to solve a class of left and right inverse eigenproblems for generalized reflexive (anti-reflexive) matrices.

Keywords: approximation, generalized reflexive matrix, generalized anti-reflexive matrix, inverse eigenvalue problem.

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172 Constructive Proof of Tychonoff’s Fixed Point Theorem for Sequentially Locally Non-Constant Functions

Authors: Yasuhito Tanaka

Abstract:

We present a constructive proof of Tychonoff’s fixed point theorem in a locally convex space for uniformly continuous and sequentially locally non-constant functions.

Keywords: sequentially locally non-constant functions, Tychonoff’s fixed point theorem, constructive mathematics.

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171 Automatic Generation Control of Multi-Area Electric Energy Systems Using Modified GA

Authors: Gayadhar Panda, Sidhartha Panda, C. Ardil

Abstract:

A modified Genetic Algorithm (GA) based optimal selection of parameters for Automatic Generation Control (AGC) of multi-area electric energy systems is proposed in this paper. Simulations on multi-area reheat thermal system with and without consideration of nonlinearity like governor dead band followed by 1% step load perturbation is performed to exemplify the optimum parameter search. In this proposed method, a modified Genetic Algorithm is proposed where one point crossover with modification is employed. Positional dependency in respect of crossing site helps to maintain diversity of search point as well as exploitation of already known optimum value. This makes a trade-off between exploration and exploitation of search space to find global optimum in less number of generations. The proposed GA along with decomposition technique as developed has been used to obtain the optimum megawatt frequency control of multi-area electric energy systems. Time-domain simulations are conducted with trapezoidal integration along with decomposition technique. The superiority of the proposed method over existing one is verified from simulations and comparisons.

Keywords: Automatic Generation Control (AGC), Reheat, Proportional Integral (PI) controller, Dead Band, Genetic Algorithm(GA).

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170 Perceived Constraints on Sport Participation among Young Koreans in Australia

Authors: Jae Won Kang

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to examine a broader range of sport constraints perceived by young Koreans in Australia who may need to adjust to changing behavioral expectations due to the socio-cultural transitions. Regardless of gender, in terms of quantitative findings, the most important participation constraints within the seven categories were resources, access, interpersonal, affective, religious, socio-cultural, and physical in that order. The most important constraining items were a lack of time, access, information, adaptive skills, and parental and family support in that order. Qualitative research found young Korean’s participation constraints among three categories (time, parental control and interpersonal constraints). It is possible that different ethnic groups would be constrained by different factors; however, this is outside the scope of this study.

Keywords: Constraints, cultural adjustment, Sport, Young Koreans in Australia.

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169 Cost Sensitive Analysis of Production Logistics Measures A Decision Making Support System for Evaluating Measures in the Production

Authors: Michael Grigutsch, Peter Nyhuis

Abstract:

Due to the volatile global economy, enterprises are increasingly focusing on logistics. By investing in suitable measures a company can increase their logistic performance and assert themselves over the competition. However, enterprises are also faced with the challenge of investing available capital for maximum profits. In order to be able to create an informed and quantifiably comprehensible basis for a decision, enterprises need a suitable model for logistically and monetarily evaluating measures in production. Previously, within the frame of Collaborate Research Centre 489 (SFB 489) at the Institute for Production Systems and Logistics, (IFA) a Logistic Information System was developed specifically for providing enterprises in the forging industry with support when making decisions. Based on this research, a new initiative referred to as ‘Transfer Project T7’, aims to develop a universal approach for logistically and monetarily evaluating production measures. This paper focuses on the structural measure echelon storage and their impact on the entire production system.

Keywords: Logistic Operating Curves, Transfer Functions, Production Logistics, Storages Echelon.

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168 An Analysis of Thermal Comfort for Indoor Environment of the New Assiut Housing in Egypt

Authors: Amr Sayed, Y. Hiroshi, T. Goto, N. Enteria, M. M. Radwan, M. Abdelsamei Eid

Abstract:

Climate considerations are essential dimensions in the assessment of thermal comfort and indoor environments inside Egyptian housing. The primary aim of this paper is to analyze the indoor environment of new housing in the new city of Assiut in the Southern Upper Egypt zone, in order to evaluate its thermal environment and determine the acceptable indoor operative temperatures. The psychrometric charts for ASHRAE Standard 55 and ACS used in this study would facilitate an overall representation of the climate in one of the hottest months in the summer season. This study helps to understand and deal with this problem and work on a passive cooling ventilation strategy in these contexts in future studies. The results that demonstrated the indoor temperature is too high, ranges between 31°C to 40°C in different natural ventilation strategies. This causes the indoor environment to be far from the optimum comfort operative temperature of ACS except when using air conditioners. Finally, this study is considered a base for developing a new system using natural ventilation with passive cooling strategies.

Keywords: Adaptive comfort standard (ACS), indoor environment, thermal comfort, ventilation.

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167 Hypogenic Karstification and Conduit System Controlling by Tectonic Pattern in Foundation Rocks of the Salman Farsi Dam in South-Western Iran

Authors: Mehran Koleini, Jan Louis Van Rooy, Adam Bumby

Abstract:

The Salman Farsi dam project is constructed on the Ghareh Agahaj River about 140km south of Shiraz city in the Zagros Mountains of southwestern Iran. This tectonic province of south-western Iran is characterized by a simple folded sedimentary sequence. The dam foundation rocks compose of the Asmari Formation of Oligo-miocene and generally comprise of a variety of karstified carbonate rocks varying from strong to weak rocks. Most of the rocks exposed at the dam site show a primary porosity due to incomplete diagenetic recrystallization and compaction. In addition to these primary dispositions to weathering, layering conditions (frequency and orientation of bedding) and the subvertical tectonic discontinuities channeled preferably the infiltrating by deep-sited hydrothermal solutions. Consequently the porosity results to be enlarged by dissolution and the rocks are expected to be karstified and to develop cavities in correspondence of bedding, major joint planes and fault zones. This kind of karsts is named hypogenic karsts which associated to the ascendant warm solutions. Field observations indicate strong karstification and vuggy intercalations especially in the middle part of the Asmari succession. The biggest karst in the dam axis which identified by speleological investigations is Golshany Cave with volume of about 150,000 m3. The tendency of the Asmari limestone for strong dissolution can alert about the seepage from the reservoir and area of the dam locality.      

Keywords: Asmari Limestone, Karstification, Salman Farsi Dam, Tectonic Pattern.

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166 The Creation of Contemporary Apparel Inspired by the Structural Pattern Sofa Vimanmek Mansion

Authors: Chanoknart Mayusoh

Abstract:

In most of apparel creation, the designer usually uses standard pattern as a fundamental of pattern making. In the design of each kind of apparel, standard pattern is starting point of production. The importance of standard pattern is that it is able to have the apparel fits to general people. Therefore, standard pattern is standardized to be the same. Regardless which type of apparel, its standard pattern will have similar production. Anyhow, the author sees that the apparel design, regardless for which type of apparel, has to stick on the standard pattern as a fundamental of apparel design and this seems to be a limitation of apparel design without any designing alternative being developed. In the research on the creation of contemporary apparel Inspired by the sofa’s pattern structure in Vimanmek Mansion. The author has applied the pattern of the sofa and armchair to be the principle in the apparel design, instead of standard pattern, to create new form of structures and shapes making the contemporary apparel becomes more interesting and different than previous, can be used in daily life, as well as being a new alternative for apparel design. Those who are interesting in such idea can apply and develop it to be more variety further.

Keywords: Contemporary Apparel, Sofa’s Pattern, Armchair’s Pattern, Vimanmek Mansion.

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165 Flexure of Cantilever Thick Beams Using Trigonometric Shear Deformation Theory

Authors: Yuwaraj M. Ghugal, Ajay G. Dahake

Abstract:

A trigonometric shear deformation theory for flexure of thick beams, taking into account transverse shear deformation effects, is developed. The number of variables in the present theory is same as that in the first order shear deformation theory. The sinusoidal function is used in displacement field in terms of thickness coordinate to represent the shear deformation effects. The noteworthy feature of this theory is that the transverse shear stresses can be obtained directly from the use of constitutive relations with excellent accuracy, satisfying the shear stress free conditions on the top and bottom surfaces of the beam. Hence, the theory obviates the need of shear correction factor. Governing differential equations and boundary conditions are obtained by using the principle of virtual work. The thick cantilever isotropic beams are considered for the numerical studies to demonstrate the efficiency of the. Results obtained are discussed critically with those of other theories.

Keywords: Trigonometric shear deformation, thick beam, flexure, principle of virtual work, equilibrium equations, stress.

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164 Leaf Pigments Help Almond Explants Tolerating Osmotic Stress

Authors: Soheil Karimi, Abbas Yadollahi, Kazem Arzani, Ali Imani

Abstract:

This study was conducted to evaluate the response of almond genotypes to osmotic stress in vitro in order to screen drought tolerance. Explants subjected to polyethyleneglycol osmotic stress (0, 3.5, and 7.0% WV) on the MS medium. Concentrations of photosynthesis pigments, anthocyanins, and carothenoids were significantly reduced under osmotic stress. Under osmotic stress, leaf water content, cellular membrane stability and pigments concentrations were significantly higher in the leaves of drought tolerant genotypes. The results revealed that carotenoids and anthocyanins may act as photoprotectant compounds in almond leaves and involved in drought tolerance system of the plant.

Keywords: Almond, Anthocianins, Carotenoids, in vitro; Leaf Osmotic Stress, Leaf Pigments, Polyethylene Glycol.

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163 Detection of Sags, Swells, and Transients Using Windowing Technique Based On Continuous S-Transform (CST)

Authors: K. Daud, A. F. Abidin, N. Hamzah, H. S. Nagindar Singh

Abstract:

This paper produces a new approach for power quality analysis using a windowing technique based on Continuous S-transform (CST). This half-cycle window technique approach can detect almost correctly for initial detection of disturbances i.e. voltage sags, swells, and transients. Samples in half cycle window has been analyzed based continuous S-transform for entire disturbance waveform. The modified parameter has been produced by MATLAB programming m-file based on continuous s-transform. CST has better time frequency and localization property than traditional and also has ability to detect the disturbance under noisy condition correctly. The excellent time-frequency resolution characteristic of the CST makes it the most an attractive candidate for analysis of power system disturbances signals.

Keywords: Power quality disturbances, initial detection, half cycle windowing, continuous S-transform.

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162 Studies on Various Parameters Involved in Conjugation of Starch with Lysine for Excellent Emulsification Properties Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Sourish Bhattacharya, Priyanka Singh

Abstract:

The process parameters, starch-water ratio (A, (w/v) %), pH of suspension (B), Temperature(C, °C) and Time (D, hrs.)., were optimized for the preparation of starch-lysine conjugate and studying their effect on stability of emulsions by calculating emulsion stability index using response surface methodology. The optimized conditions are pH 9.0, temperature 60oC, reaction time 6 hrs, starch:water ratio 1:2.5, having emulsion stability index was 0.72.

Keywords: Emulsion stability index, pH of suspension, Starch-water ratio, Temperature, Time.

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161 Effects of Signaling on the Performance of Directed Diffusion Routing Protocol

Authors: Apidet Booranawong

Abstract:

In an original directed diffusion routing protocol, a sink requests sensing data from a source node by flooding interest messages to the network. Then, the source finds the sink by sending exploratory data messages to all nodes that generate incoming interest messages. This protocol signaling can cause heavy traffic in the network, an interference of the radio signal, collisions, great energy consumption of sensor nodes, etc. According to this research problem, this paper investigates the effect of sending interest and exploratory data messages on the performance of directed diffusion routing protocol. We demonstrate the research problem occurred from employing directed diffusion protocol in mobile wireless environments. For this purpose, we perform a set of experiments by using NS2 (network simulator 2). The radio propagation models; Two-ray ground reflection with and without shadow fading are included to investigate the effect of signaling. The simulation results show that the number of times of sent and received protocol signaling in the case of sending interest and exploratory data messages are larger than the case of sending other protocol signals, especially in the case of shadowing model. Additionally, the number of exploratory data message is largest in one round of the protocol procedure.

Keywords: Directed diffusion, Flooding, Interest message, Exploratory data message, Radio propagation model.

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160 Solvent Effect on Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic Content of Betula alba and Convolvulus arvensi

Authors: Mohd Azman A. Nurul, Husni Shafik, Almajano P. Maria, Gallego G. Maria

Abstract:

The potential of using herbal Betula alba (BA) and Convolvulus arvensis (CA) as a natural antioxidant for food applications were investigated. Each plant extract was prepared by using pure ethanol, different concentration of ethanol aqueous solutions, including 50% and 75%, 50% methanol aqueous and water. Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using Folin–Ciocalteau method and antioxidant activity were analyzed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) respectively. Ethanol extract of CA exhibited the highest TPC and antioxidant activity; however BA showed varies of antioxidant activity value in each assay. The BA and CA exhibit the potential sources of natural antioxidant for food commodities.

Keywords: Solvent effect, Antioxidant activity, Betula Alba, Convolvulus arvensis, Total Phenolic Content.

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159 On Properties of Generalized Bi-Γ-Ideals of Γ-Semirings

Authors: Teerayut Chomchuen, Aiyared Iampan

Abstract:

The notion of Γ-semirings was introduced by Murali Krishna Rao as a generalization of the notion of Γ-rings as well as of semirings. We have known that the notion of Γ-semirings is a generalization of the notion of semirings. In this paper, extending Kaushik, Moin and Khan’s work, we generalize the notion of generalized bi-Γ-ideals of Γ-semirings and investigate some related properties of generalized bi-Γ-ideals.

Keywords: Γ-semiring, bi-Γ-ideal, generalized bi-Γ-ideal.

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158 IS Flexibility Planning for IT/Business Strategy Alignment via Future Oriented POC Analysis

Authors: Masaru Furukawa, Shigeki Hirobayashi, Tadanobu Misawa

Abstract:

Nowadays, IT/Business strategy alignment is still a key topic of concern among managers worldwide. Change has always being considered the primary challenge affecting the strategy alignment. Planning for alignment in uncertain and dynamic changing environments is burdened with risk as organizations seek to understand how much flexibility to build in their management information system so as to maintain high levels of alignment. The literature review showed that there is a tight relationship between IT infrastructure flexibility and the strategy alignment with strategic information systems (SIS) planning serving as a moderator of this relationship, and that emphasized the needs for organizations to use SIS planning consistently and to monitor the relationship between IS flexibility and the alignment. This paper presents the procedure of SIS planning with IS flexibility renovation via future oriented analysis of POC (penalty of change) as a function of cost and time. Using this SIS planning and monitoring IS flexibility and the alignment during periods of increased change in dynamic and uncertain environments reduces the risk that could transform IT into an inhibitor rather than an enabler of change.

Keywords: IT/Business strategy alignment, strategic information systems (SIS) planning, IS flexibility, penalty of change (POC).

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157 Residential Self-Selection and Its Effects on Urban Commute Travels in Iranian Cities Compared to US, UK, and Germany

Authors: Houshmand E. Masoumi

Abstract:

Residential self-selection has gained increasing attention in the Western travel behavior research during the past decade. Many studies in the US, UK, and Germany conclude that the role of individuals’ residential location choice on commute travel behavior is more important than that of the built environment or at least it has considerable effects. However the effectiveness of location choice in many countries and cultures like Iran is unclear. This study examines the self-selections in two neighborhoods in Tehran. As a part of a research about the influences of land use on travel behavior information about people’s location preferences was collected by direct questioning. The findings show that the main reasons for selecting the location of residential units are related to socio-economic factors such as rise of house price and affordability of house prices. Transportation has little impacts on location decisions. Moreover, residential self-selection accounts for only 3 to 7.5 percent of the pedestrian, PT, and car trips.

Keywords: Residential self-selection, Tehran, travel behavior, urban transportation.

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156 An Efficient Burst Errors Combating for Image Transmission over Mobile WPANs

Authors: Mohsen A. M. El-Bendary, Mostafa A. R. El-Tokhy

Abstract:

This paper presents an efficient burst error spreading tool. Also, it studies a vital issue in wireless communications, which is the transmission of images over wireless networks. IEEE ZigBee 802.15.4 is a short-range communication standard that could be used for small distance multimedia transmissions. In fact, the ZigBee network is a Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN), which needs a strong interleaving mechanism for protection against error bursts. Also, it is low power technology and utilized in the Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) implementation. This paper presents the chaotic interleaving scheme as a data randomization tool for this purpose. This scheme depends on the chaotic Baker map. The mobility effects on the image transmission are studied with different velocity through utilizing the Jakes’ model. A comparison study between the proposed chaotic interleaving scheme and the traditional block and convolutional interleaving schemes for image transmission over a correlated fading channel is presented. The simulation results show the superiority of the proposed chaotic interleaving scheme over the traditional schemes.

Keywords: WPANs, Burst Errors, Mobility, Interleaving Techniques, Fading channels.

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155 Survival Model for Partly Interval-Censored Data with Application to Anti D in Rhesus D Negative Studies

Authors: F. A. M. Elfaki, Amar Abobakar, M. Azram, M. Usman

Abstract:

This paper discusses regression analysis of partly interval-censored failure time data, which is occur in many fields including demographical, epidemiological, financial, medical and sociological studies. For the problem, we focus on the situation where the survival time of interest can be described by the additive hazards model in the present of partly interval-censored. A major advantage of the approach is its simplicity and it can be easily implemented by using R software. Simulation studies are conducted which indicate that the approach performs well for practical situations and comparable to the existing methods. The methodology is applied to a set of partly interval-censored failure time data arising from anti D in Rhesus D negative studies.

Keywords: Anti D in Rhesus D negative, Cox’s model, EM algorithm.

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154 Benefits from a SMED Application in a Punching Machine

Authors: Eric Costa, Sara Bragança, Rui Sousa, Anabela Alves

Abstract:

This paper presents an application of the Single-Minute Exchange of Die (SMED) methodology to a turret punching machine in an elevators company, in Portugal. The work was developed during five months, in the ambit of a master thesis in Industrial Engineering and Management. The Lean Production tool SMED was applied to reduce setup times in order to improve the production flexibility of the machine. The main results obtained were a reduction of 64% in setup time (from 15.1 to 5.4min), 50% in work-in-process amount (from 12.8 to 6.4 days) and 99% in the distance traveled by the operator during the internal period (from 136.7 to 1.7m). These improvements correspond to gains of about €7,315.38 per year.

Keywords: Lean production, setup process, SMED.

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153 The Potency of Sandfish (Holothuria scraba) as a Source of Natural Aphrodisiacs

Authors: Etty Riani, Endang Gumbira-Said, Kashwar Syamsu, Kustiariyah, Kaseno, Muhammad Reza Cordova

Abstract:

Sandfish is one of marine biota that has a biomedicine (bioactive compound) potency. People in Gorontalo Province, Indonesia, have been sandfish as an aphrodisiac for men as it is believed that sandfish has a steroid hormone potency. This research aims at studying using the steroid hormone potency from every fraction of sandfish (meat and innards) and its activity of male reproduction (rooster) as an aphrodisiac. Steroid extraction was done using Touchstone and Kasparow method, and then it was utilized to study the effectiveness of bioassay of rooster. This research had five treatments and was done in complete randomized design. Based on Lieberman-Burchard and bioassay test, the author found that sandfish extract contains steroid hormone. Sandfish extract was able to enrich testosterone and cholesterol concentration in blood serum; fastening secondary reproduction characteristics of the rooster, and increasing growth as well as improving rooster’s comb. Therefore, sandfish steroid is potential to be used as an aphrodisiac for men.

Keywords: Aphrodisiac, sandfish, secondary reproduction characteristic, steroid.

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152 Backcalculation of HMA Stiffness Based On Finite Element Model

Authors: Md Rashadul Islam, Umme Amina Mannan, Rafiqul A. Tarefder

Abstract:

Stiffness of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) in flexible pavement is largely dependent of temperature, mode of testing and age of pavement. Accurate measurement of HMA stiffness is thus quite challenging. This study determines HMA stiffness based on Finite Element Model (FEM) and validates the results using field data. As a first step, stiffnesses of different layers of a pavement section on Interstate 40 (I-40) in New Mexico were determined by Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) test. Pavement temperature was not measured at that time due to lack of temperature probe. Secondly, a FE model is developed in ABAQUS. Stiffness of the base, subbase and subgrade were taken from the FWD test output obtained from the first step. As HMA stiffness largely varies with temperature it was assigned trial and error approach. Thirdly, horizontal strain and vertical stress at the bottom of the HMA and temperature at different depths of the pavement were measured with installed sensors on the whole day on December 25th, 2012. Fourthly, outputs of FEM were correlated with measured stress-strain responses. After a number of trials a relationship was developed between the trial stiffness of HMA and measured mid-depth HMA temperature. At last, the obtained relationship between stiffness and temperature is verified by further FWD test when pavement temperature was recorded. A promising agreement between them is observed. Therefore, conclusion can be drawn that linear elastic FEM can accurately predict the stiffness and the structural response of flexible pavement.

Keywords: Asphalt pavement, falling weight deflectometer test, field instrumentation, finite element model, horizontal strain, temperature probes.

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151 Predicting Crack Initiation Due to Ratchetting in Rail Heads Using Critical Element Analysis

Authors: I. U. Wickramasinghe, D. J. Hargreaves, D. V. De Pellegrin

Abstract:

This paper presents a strategy to predict the lifetime of rails subjected to large rolling contact loads that induce ratchetting strains in the rail head. A critical element concept is used to calculate the number of loading cycles needed for crack initiation to occur in the rail head surface. In this technique the finite element method (FEM) is used to determine the maximum equivalent ratchetting strain per load cycle, which is calculated by combining longitudinal and shear stains in the critical element. This technique builds on a previously developed critical plane concept that has been used to calculate the number of cycles to crack initiation in rolling contact fatigue under ratchetting failure conditions. The critical element concept simplifies the analytical difficulties of critical plane analysis. Finite element analysis (FEA) is used to identify the critical element in the mesh, and then the strain values of the critical element are used to calculate the ratchetting rate analytically. Finally, a ratchetting criterion is used to calculate the number of cycles to crack initiation from the ratchetting rate calculated.

Keywords: Critical element analysis, finite element modeling (FEM), wheel/rail contact.

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150 Effect of pH and Ionic Exchange on the Reactivity of Bioglass/Chitosan Composites Used as a Bone Graft Substitute

Authors: Samira Jebahi, Hassane Oudadesse, Eric Wers, Jiheun Elleuch, Hafedh Elfekih, Hassib Keskes, Xuan Vuong Bui, Abdelfatteh Elfeki

Abstract:

Chitosan (CH) material reinforced by bioactive glass (46S6) was fabricated. 46S6 containing 17% wt% CH was studied in vitro and in vivo. Physicochemical techniques, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) analysis were used. The behavior of 46S6CH17 was studied by measuring the in situ pH in a SBF solution. The 46S6CH17 was implanted in the rat femoral condyl. In vitro 46S6CH17 gave an FTIR - spectrum in which three absorption bands with the maxima at 565, 603 and 1039cm-1 after 3 days of soaking in physiological solution. They are assigned to stretching vibrations of PO4^3- group in phosphate crystalline. Moreover, the pH measurement was decreased in the SBF solution. The stability of the calcium phosphate precipitation depended on the pH value. In vivo, a rise in the Ca and phosphate P ions concentrations in the implanted microenvironment was determined.

Keywords: Bioglass, Chitosan, pH measurement, Hydroxyapatite Carbonateted Layer.

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149 Experimental Study on Quasi-Static Response of Multi-layer Sandwich Composite Structures

Authors: S. Jedari Salami

Abstract:

In this paper the effects of adding an extra layer within a sandwich panel and core- types in top and bottom cores on quasi- static loading are studied experimentally. The panel includes polymer composite laminated sheets for faces and the internal laminated sheet called extra layer sheet, and two types of crushable foams are selected as the core material. Quasi- static tests were done by ZWICK testing machine on fully backed specimens with two foam cores, Poly Urethane Rigid (PUR) and Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC). It was found that the core material type has made significant role on improving the sandwich panel’s behavior compared with the effect of extra layer location.

Keywords: Multi-layer sandwich structures, Internal sheet, Crushable foam, Top core, Bottom core.

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148 Web Application Security, Attacks and Mitigation

Authors: Ayush Chugh, Gaurav Gupta

Abstract:

Today’s technology is heavily dependent on web applications. Web applications are being accepted by users at a very rapid pace. These have made our work efficient. These include webmail, online retail sale, online gaming, wikis, departure and arrival of trains and flights and list is very long. These are developed in different languages like PHP, Python, C#, ASP.NET and many more by using scripts such as HTML and JavaScript. Attackers develop tools and techniques to exploit web applications and legitimate websites. This has led to rise of web application security; which can be broadly classified into Declarative Security and Program Security. The most common attacks on the applications are by SQL Injection and XSS which give access to unauthorized users who totally damage or destroy the system. This paper presents a detailed literature description and analysis on Web Application Security, examples of attacks and steps to mitigate the vulnerabilities.

Keywords: Attacks, Injection, JavaScript, SQL, Vulnerability, XSS.

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147 Proton and Neutron Magnetic Moments Based On Bag Models

Authors: G. R. Boroun, R. Harami

Abstract:

Using form factors of the proton and the neutron for different of Q2, bag radius of the proton and the neutron can be obtained based on bag models. Then using static bag radius, magnetic moments of the proton and the neutron can be obtained and compared with other results.

Keywords: MIT bag model, proton and neutron, magnetic moment.

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146 Hemodynamic Characteristics in the Human Carotid Artery Model Induced by Blood-Arterial Wall Interactions

Authors: Taewon Seo

Abstract:

The characteristics of physiological blood flow in human carotid arterial bifurcation model have been numerically studied using a fully coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analysis. This computational model with the fluid-structure interaction is constructed to investigate the flow characteristics and wall shear stress in the carotid artery. As the flow begins to decelerate after the peak flow, a large recirculation zone develops at the non-divider wall of both internal carotid artery (ICA) and external carotid artery (ECA) in FSI model due to the elastic energy stored in the expanding compliant wall. The calculated difference in wall shear stress (WSS) in both Non-FSI and FSI models is a range of between 5 and 11% at the mean WSS. The low WSS corresponds to regions of carotid artery that are more susceptible to atherosclerosis.

Keywords: Carotid artery, Fluid-structure interaction, Hemodynamics, Wall shear stress.

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145 The Statistical Properties of Filtered Signals

Authors: Ephraim Gower, Thato Tsalaile, Monageng Kgwadi, Malcolm Hawksford.

Abstract:

In this paper, the statistical properties of filtered or convolved signals are considered by deriving the resulting density functions as well as the exact mean and variance expressions given a prior knowledge about the statistics of the individual signals in the filtering or convolution process. It is shown that the density function after linear convolution is a mixture density, where the number of density components is equal to the number of observations of the shortest signal. For circular convolution, the observed samples are characterized by a single density function, which is a sum of products.

Keywords: Circular Convolution, linear Convolution, mixture density function.

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144 The Direct Ansaz Method for Finding Exact Multi-Wave Solutions to the (2+1)-Dimensional Extension of the Korteweg de-Vries Equation

Authors: Chuanjian Wang, Changfu Liu, Zhengde Dai

Abstract:

In this paper, the direct AnsAz method is used for constructing the multi-wave solutions to the (2+1)-dimensional extension of the Korteweg de-Vries (shortly EKdV) equation. A new breather type of three-wave solutions including periodic breather type soliton solution, breather type of two-solitary solution are obtained. Some cases with specific values of the involved parameters are plotted for each of the three-wave solutions. Mechanical features of resonance interaction among the multi-wave are discussed. These results enrich the variety of the dynamics of higher-dimensional nonlinear wave field.

Keywords: EKdV equation, Breather, Soliton, Bilinear form, The direct AnsAz method.

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143 The Convergence Results between Backward USSOR and Jacobi Iterative Matrices

Authors: Zuan-De Wang, Hou-biao Li, Zhong-xi Gao

Abstract:

In this paper, the backward Ussor iterative matrix is proposed. The relationship of convergence between the backward Ussor iterative matrix and Jacobi iterative matrix is obtained, which makes the results in the corresponding references be improved and refined.Moreover,numerical examples also illustrate the effectiveness of these conclusions.

Keywords: Backward USSOR iterative matrix, Jacobi iterative matrix, convergence, spectral radius

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142 Numerical Solution of Volterra Integro-differential Equations of Fractional Order by Laplace Decomposition Method

Authors: Changqing Yang, Jianhua Hou

Abstract:

In this paper the Laplace Decomposition method is developed to solve linear and nonlinear fractional integro- differential equations of Volterra type.The fractional derivative is described in the Caputo sense.The Laplace decomposition method is found to be fast and accurate.Illustrative examples  are included to demonstrate the validity and applicability of presented technique and comparasion is made with exacting results.

Keywords: Integro-differential equations, Laplace transform, fractional derivative, adomian polynomials, pade appoximants.

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141 Stability Analysis in a Fractional Order Delayed Predator-Prey Model

Authors: Changjin Xu, Peiluan Li

Abstract:

In this paper, we study the stability of a fractional order delayed predator-prey model. By using the Laplace transform, we introduce a characteristic equation for the above system. It is shown that if all roots of the characteristic equation have negative parts, then the equilibrium of the above fractional order predator-prey system is Lyapunov globally asymptotical stable. An example is given to show the effectiveness of the approach presented in this paper.

Keywords: Fractional predator-prey model, laplace transform, characteristic equation.

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140 The Growth of the Watermelons with Geometric Shapes and Comparing Retention between Cubic and Hexagonal Forms

Authors: M. Malekyarand, M. Shariati Ghalehno, A. Mokhber Dezfuli, H. Saebi Monfared, S. R. Ghoraishi K.

Abstract:

Shape and form of the watermelon fruits are important factors to save spaces and reducing damage during storing of the fruits. In order to save spaces and prevent fruit damage in watermelon the following experiment was carried out in the farm. The fruits were boxed when they were approximately one cm less than the box diameter. The cubic, hexagonal forms were compared in this research. To do this, different boxes were designed with different holes on the sides to holes the watermelons fruits for shaping. The shapes of the boxes were hexagonal and cubic. The boxes holes sizes were the same with 10mm diameter each. Each side of the boxes had different holes including: without holes to 75 holes. The result showed that the best shape for watermelon storing to save space and prevent fruit damage was hexagonal form. The percentages of the fruit damage were 33 to 80 respectively.

Keywords: Cubic form, fruit damage, hexagonal, watermelon shape.

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139 Characterization, Classification and Agricultural Potentials of Soils on a Toposequence in Southern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria

Authors: B. A. Lawal, A. G. Ojanuga, P. A. Tsado, A. Mohammed

Abstract:

This work assessed some properties of three pedons on a toposequence in Ijah-Gbagyi district in Niger State, Nigeria. The pedons were designated as JG1, JG2 and JG3 representing the upper, middle and lower slopes respectively. The surface soil was characterized by dark yellowish brown (10YR3/4) color at the JG1 and JG2 and very dark grayish brown (10YR3/2) color at JG3. Sand dominated the mineral fraction and its content in the surface horizon decreased down the slope, whereas silt content increased down the slope due to sorting by geological and pedogenic processes. Although organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN) and available phosphorus (P) were rated high, TN and available P decreased down the slope. High cation exchange capacity (CEC) was an indication that the soils have high potential for plant nutrients retention. The pedons were classified as Typic Haplustepts/ Haplic Cambisols (Eutric), Plinthic Petraquepts/ Petric Plinthosols (Abruptic) and Typic Endoaquepts/ Endogleyic Cambisols (Endoclayic).

Keywords: Ecological region, landscape positions, soil characterization, soil classification.

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138 Strict Stability of Fuzzy Differential Equations with Impulse Effect

Authors: Sanjay K.Srivastava, Bhanu Gupta

Abstract:

In this paper some results on strict stability heve beeb extended for fuzzy differential equations with impulse effect using Lyapunov functions and Razumikhin technique.

Keywords: Fuzzy differential equations, Impulsive differential equations, Strict stability, Lyapunov function, Razumikhin technique.

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137 Determination of Sensitive Transmission Lines Due to the Effect of Protection System Hidden Failure in a Critical System Cascading Collapse

Authors: N. A. Salim, M. M. Othman, I. Musirin, M. S. Serwan

Abstract:

Protection system hidden failures have been identified as one of the main causes of system cascading collapse resulting to power system instability. In this paper, a systematic approach is presented in order to identify the probability of a system cascading collapse by taking into consideration the effect of protection system hidden failure. This includes the accurate calculation of the probability of hidden failure as it will provide significant impinge on the findings of the probability of system cascading collapse. The probability of a system cascading collapse is then used to identify the initial tripping of sensitive transmission lines which will contribute to a critical system cascading collapse. Based on the results obtained from this study, it is important to decide on the accurate value of the hidden failure probability as it will affect the probability of a system cascading collapse.

Keywords: Critical system cascading collapse, hidden failure, probability of cascading collapse, sensitive transmission lines.

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136 Prime Cordial Labeling on Graphs

Authors: S. Babitha, J. Baskar Babujee

Abstract:

A prime cordial labeling of a graph G with vertex set V is a bijection f from V to {1, 2, ..., |V |} such that each edge uv is assigned the label 1 if gcd(f(u), f(v)) = 1 and 0 if gcd(f(u), f(v)) > 1, then the number of edges labeled with 0 and the number of edges labeled with 1 differ by at most 1. In this paper we exhibit some characterization results and new constructions on prime cordial graphs.

Keywords: Prime cordial, tree, Euler, bijective, function.

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135 Terminal Wiener Index for Graph Structures

Authors: J. Baskar Babujee, J. Senbagamalar,

Abstract:

The topological distance between a pair of vertices i and j, which is denoted by d(vi, vj), is the number of edges of the shortest path joining i and j. The Wiener index W(G) is the sum of distances between all pairs of vertices of a graph G. W(G) = i

Keywords: Graph, Degree, Distance, Pendent vertex, Wiener index, Tree.

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134 A New Effective Local Search Heuristic for the Maximum Clique Problem

Authors: S. Balaji

Abstract:

An edge based local search algorithm, called ELS, is proposed for the maximum clique problem (MCP), a well-known combinatorial optimization problem. ELS is a two phased local search method effectively £nds the near optimal solutions for the MCP. A parameter ’support’ of vertices de£ned in the ELS greatly reduces the more number of random selections among vertices and also the number of iterations and running times. Computational results on BHOSLIB and DIMACS benchmark graphs indicate that ELS is capable of achieving state-of-the-art-performance for the maximum clique with reasonable average running times.

Keywords: Maximum clique, local search, heuristic, NP-complete.

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133 Two Iterative Algorithms to Compute the Bisymmetric Solution of the Matrix Equation A1X1B1 + A2X2B2 + ... + AlXlBl = C

Authors: A.Tajaddini

Abstract:

In this paper, two matrix iterative methods are presented to solve the matrix equation A1X1B1 + A2X2B2 + ... + AlXlBl = C the minimum residual problem l i=1 AiXiBi−CF = minXi∈BRni×ni l i=1 AiXiBi−CF and the matrix nearness problem [X1, X2, ..., Xl] = min[X1,X2,...,Xl]∈SE [X1,X2, ...,Xl] − [X1, X2, ..., Xl]F , where BRni×ni is the set of bisymmetric matrices, and SE is the solution set of above matrix equation or minimum residual problem. These matrix iterative methods have faster convergence rate and higher accuracy than former methods. Paige’s algorithms are used as the frame method for deriving these matrix iterative methods. The numerical example is used to illustrate the efficiency of these new methods.

Keywords: Bisymmetric matrices, Paige’s algorithms, Least square.

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132 On Constructing Approximate Convex Hull

Authors: M. Zahid Hossain, M. Ashraful Amin

Abstract:

The algorithms of convex hull have been extensively studied in literature, principally because of their wide range of applications in different areas. This article presents an efficient algorithm to construct approximate convex hull from a set of n points in the plane in O(n + k) time, where k is the approximation error control parameter. The proposed algorithm is suitable for applications preferred to reduce the computation time in exchange of accuracy level such as animation and interaction in computer graphics where rapid and real-time graphics rendering is indispensable.

Keywords: Convex hull, Approximation algorithm, Computational geometry, Linear time.

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131 Constructing Distinct Kinds of Solutions for the Time-Dependent Coefficients Coupled Klein-Gordon-Schrödinger Equation

Authors: Anupma Bansal

Abstract:

We seek exact solutions of the coupled Klein-Gordon-Schrödinger equation with variable coefficients with the aid of Lie classical approach. By using the Lie classical method, we are able to derive symmetries that are used for reducing the coupled system of partial differential equations into ordinary differential equations. From reduced differential equations we have derived some new exact solutions of coupled Klein-Gordon-Schrödinger equations involving some special functions such as Airy wave functions, Bessel functions, Mathieu functions etc.

Keywords: Klein-Gordon-Schödinger Equation, Lie Classical Method, Exact Solutions

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130 Traveling Wave Solutions for Shallow Water Wave Equation by (G'/G)-Expansion Method

Authors: Anjali Verma, Ram Jiwari, Jitender Kumar

Abstract:

This paper presents a new function expansion method for finding traveling wave solution of a non-linear equation and calls it the (G'/G)-expansion method. The shallow water wave equation is reduced to a non linear ordinary differential equation by using a simple transformation. As a result the traveling wave solutions of shallow water wave equation are expressed in three forms: hyperbolic solutions, trigonometric solutions and rational solutions.

Keywords: Shallow water wave equation, Exact solutions, (G'/G) expansion method.

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129 A Direct Probabilistic Optimization Method for Constrained Optimal Control Problem

Authors: Akbar Banitalebi, Mohd Ismail Abd Aziz, Rohanin Ahmad

Abstract:

A new stochastic algorithm called Probabilistic Global Search Johor (PGSJ) has recently been established for global optimization of nonconvex real valued problems on finite dimensional Euclidean space. In this paper we present convergence guarantee for this algorithm in probabilistic sense without imposing any more condition. Then, we jointly utilize this algorithm along with control parameterization technique for the solution of constrained optimal control problem. The numerical simulations are also included to illustrate the efficiency and effectiveness of the PGSJ algorithm in the solution of control problems.

Keywords: Optimal Control Problem, Constraints, Direct Methods, Stochastic Algorithm

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128 Fabric Printing Design, an Inspired from the Five-Color Porcelain (Benjarong)

Authors: Suwit Sadsunk

Abstract:

The study is about the designed and decorative fabric printing that derived from the Five-color porcelain (Benjarong). The researcher examined the pattern and creativity of the decorative design of the Five-color porcelain (Benjarong) by the artists in order to apply for contemporary arts so that young generation will acknowledge the importance of the Five-color porcelain (Benjarong). The research methodology is both quantitative and qualitative. The researcher conducted an in-depth interview with the operator of five-color porcelain (Benjarong) at Ampawa, Samutsongkram. The information from the interview can be useful and implemented for designing the fabric patterns. The researcher found that there were many formats and designs of the Five-color porcelain (Benjarong) from the past to the present. Its unique design can be applied for the fabric patterns and ready-to-wear clothes properly. After advertising and showing the work of the Five-color porcelain (Benjarong) publicly, there were more young people interested in the Five-color porcelain (Benjarong) than expected which exceeded the objective with positive attitudes towards the Five-color porcelain (Benjarong).

Keywords: Decorative fabric printing, Five-color porcelain (Benjarong).

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127 Lower Order Harmonics Minimisation in CHB Inverter Using GA and Decomposition by WT

Authors: V. Joshi Manohar, P. Sujatha, K. S. R. Anjaneyulu

Abstract:

Nowadays Multilevel inverters are widely using in various applications. Modulation strategy at fundamental switching frequency like, SHEPWM is prominent technique to eliminate lower order of harmonics with less switching losses and better harmonic profile. The equations which are formed by SHE are highly nonlinear transcendental in nature, there may exist single, multiple or even no solutions for a particular MI. However, some loads such as electrical drives, it is required to operate in whole range of MI. In order to solve SHE equations for whole range of MI, intelligent techniques are well suited to solve equations so as to produce lest %THDV. Hence, this paper uses Continuous genetic algorithm for minimising harmonics. This paper also presents wavelet based analysis of harmonics. The developed algorithm is simulated and %THD from FFT analysis and Wavelet analysis are compared. MATLAB programming environment and SIMULINK models are used whenever necessary.

Keywords: Cascade H-Bridge Inverter (CHB), Continuous Genetic Algorithm (C-GA), Selective Harmonic Elimination Pulse Width Modulation (SHEPWM), Total Harmonic Distortion (%THDv), Wavelet Transform (WT).

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126 A Comparative Analysis of Modulation Control Strategies for Cascade H-Bridge 11-Level Inverter

Authors: Joshi Manohar. V., Sujatha. P., Anjaneyulu K. S. R

Abstract:

The range of the output power is a very important and evident limitation of two-level inverters. In order to overcome this disadvantage, multilevel inverters are introduced. Recently, Cascade H-Bridge inverters have emerged as one of the popular converter topologies used in numerous industrial applications. The modulation switching strategies such as phase shifted carrier based Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) technique and Stair case modulation with Selective Harmonic Elimination (SHE) PWM technique are generally used. NR method is used to solve highly non linear transcendental equations which are formed by SHEPWM method. Generally NR method has a drawback of requiring good initial guess but in this paper a new approach is implemented for NR method with any random initial guess. A three phase CHB 11-level inverter is chosen for analysis. MATLAB/SIMULINK programming environment and harmonic profiles are compared. Finally this paper presents a method at fundamental switching frequency with least % THDV.

Keywords: Cascade H-bridge 11- level Inverter, NR method, Phase shifted carrier based pulse width modulation (PSCPWM), Selective Harmonic Elimination Pulse Width Modulation (SHEPWM), Total Harmonic Distortion (%THDv).

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125 Identification of Regulatory Mechanism of Orthostatic Response

Authors: E. Hlavacova, J. Chrenova, Z. Rausova, M. Vlcek, A. Penesova, L. Dedik

Abstract:

En bloc assumes modeling all phases of the orthostatic test with the only one mathematical model, which allows the complex parametric view of orthostatic response. The work presents the implementation of a mathematical model for processing of the measurements of systolic, diastolic blood pressure and heart rate performed on volunteers during orthostatic test. The original assumption of model hypothesis that every postural change means only one Stressor, did not complying with the measurements of physiological circulation factor-time profiles. Results of the identification support the hypothesis that second postural change of orthostatic test causes induced Stressors, with the observation of a physiological regulation mechanism. Maximal demonstrations are on the heart rate and diastolic blood pressure-time profile, minimal are for the measurements of the systolic blood pressure. Presented study gives a new view on orthostatic test with impact on clinical practice.

Keywords: En bloc modeling, physiological circulatory factor, postural change, stressor

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124 Analysis of Rubber Waste Utilization at Pandora Production Company Limited

Authors: S. Pechpoothong, M. Kopystecki

Abstract:

The eco-efficient use of “waste" makes sense from economic, social, and environmental perspectives. By efficiency diverting “waste" products back into useful and/or profitable inputs, industries and entire societies can reap the benefits of improved financial profit, decreased environmental degradation, and overall well-being of humanity. In this project, several material flows at Company Limited were investigated. Principles of "industrial ecology" were applied to improve the management of waste rubbers that are used in the jewelry manufacturing process. complete this project, a brief engineering analysis stream, and investigated eco-efficient principles for more efficient handling of the materials and wastes were conducted, and the result were used to propose implementation strategies.

Keywords: Rubber, ecology, waste.

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123 Energy Efficient Cooperative Caching in WSN

Authors: Narottam Chand

Abstract:

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of number of tiny, low cost and low power sensor nodes to monitor some physical phenomenon. The major limitation in these networks is the use of non-rechargeable battery having limited power supply. The main cause of energy consumption in such networks is communication subsystem. This paper presents an energy efficient Cluster Cooperative Caching at Sensor (C3S) based upon grid type clustering. Sensor nodes belonging to the same cluster/grid form a cooperative cache system for the node since the cost for communication with them is low both in terms of energy consumption and message exchanges. The proposed scheme uses cache admission control and utility based data replacement policy to ensure that more useful data is retained in the local cache of a node. Simulation results demonstrate that C3S scheme performs better in various performance metrics than NICoCa which is existing cooperative caching protocol for WSNs.

Keywords: Cooperative caching, cache replacement, admission control, WSN, clustering.

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122 Object Recognition on Horse Riding Simulator System

Authors: Kyekyung Kim, Sangseung Kang, Suyoung Chi, Jaehong Kim

Abstract:

In recent years, IT convergence technology has been developed to get creative solution by combining robotics or sports science technology. Object detection and recognition have mainly applied to sports science field that has processed by recognizing face and by tracking human body. But object detection and recognition using vision sensor is challenge task in real world because of illumination. In this paper, object detection and recognition using vision sensor applied to sports simulator has been introduced. Face recognition has been processed to identify user and to update automatically a person athletic recording. Human body has tracked to offer a most accurate way of riding horse simulator. Combined image processing has been processed to reduce illumination adverse affect because illumination has caused low performance in detection and recognition in real world application filed. Face has recognized using standard face graph and human body has tracked using pose model, which has composed of feature nodes generated diverse face and pose images. Face recognition using Gabor wavelet and pose recognition using pose graph is robust to real application. We have simulated using ETRI database, which has constructed on horse riding simulator.

Keywords: Horse riding simulator, Object detection, Object recognition, User identification, Pose recognition.

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121 Ripper and Sugar Effects on Hydroxymethylfurfural Formation in Gingerbread Biscuits

Authors: A. Komarovska, V. Kreicbergs, F. Diminš

Abstract:

Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is formed by thermally treating products rich in carbohydrates. HMF and other furan derivatives are toxic. The aim of the research was to establish the content of HMF in gingerbread biscuits with honey and sugar syrup additives by using three leavening agents— ammonium carbonate (NH4HCO3 and (NH4)2CO3), baking powder, and baking soda (NaHCO3). The content of HMF is significantly affected by the leavening agent used. The content of HMF with honey where ammonium carbonate was used as additive range from 5.7 to 27.3mg 100g-1, but when sugar syrup is used the content varies from 2.3 to 7.4mg 100g-1. When baking powder and baking soda are used as leavening agents, the content of HMF exceeds 4mg 100g-1 in the event honey had been added and the baking time had been longer (10 minutes at 180°C or 9 minutes at 200°C).

Keywords: gingerbread biscuits, honey, hydroxymethylfurfural, rippers.

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120 Principal Component Regression in Noninvasive Pineapple Soluble Solids Content Assessment Based On Shortwave Near Infrared Spectrum

Authors: K. S. Chia, H. Abdul Rahim, R. Abdul Rahim

Abstract:

The Principal component regression (PCR) is a combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR). The objective of this paper is to revise the use of PCR in shortwave near infrared (SWNIR) (750-1000nm) spectral analysis. The idea of PCR was explained mathematically and implemented in the non-destructive assessment of the soluble solid content (SSC) of pineapple based on SWNIR spectral data. PCR achieved satisfactory results in this application with root mean squared error of calibration (RMSEC) of 0.7611 Brix°, coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.5865 and root mean squared error of crossvalidation (RMSECV) of 0.8323 Brix° with principal components (PCs) of 14.

Keywords: Pineapple, Shortwave near infrared, Principal component regression, Non-invasive measurement; Soluble solids content

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119 Problems and Obstacles to Value Creation of Thai Monk-s Bowls: The Case Study of Ban-Baat Village, Bangkok

Authors: Pirada Techaratpong

Abstract:

This research aims to study value-creation process of producing monk-s bowls, Thai traditional handicrafts, which is facing problems in adapting to the changing society. It also aims to identify problems and obstacles to value creation. This research is based on a case study of monk-s bowl manufactures from Ban-Baat Village, Bangkok. The conceptual framework is based on the model of value chain to analyze the process. The research methodology is qualitative. This research found that the value-creation process of monk-s bowls consists of eight activities contributing to adding value to the products and increasing profits to the producers in return. Five major problems and obstacles are found. The research suggests that these problems and obstacles limit the manufacturers- potential for creating more valued product and lead to business stagnation. These problems should be addressed and solved with collaboration among the government, the private sector and the manufacturers.

Keywords: Craft manufacturing, problems and obstacles, value chain, value creation.

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118 Investigation of Economic and Social Effects of the Dairy Cattle Support Project to Regional Economy via Cooperatives: Example of Isparta Province

Authors: Mevlüt Gül, Hilal Yılmaz, M. Göksel Akpınar, Ayse Karadağ Gürsoy, Özge Bayındır

Abstract:

Milk is a very important nutrient. Low productivity is a problem of Turkish dairy farming. During recent years, Turkish government has supported cooperatives that assist milk producers and encouraged farmers to become cooperative members. Turkish government established several ways to support specially smallholders. For example Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs (MARA) provided two to four cows to villagers on a grant or loan basis with a long repayment period at low interest rates by cooperatives. Social Support Project in Rural Areas (SSPRA) is another support program targeting only disadvantaged people, especially poor villager. Both programs have a very strong social support component and similar objectives. But there are minor differences between them in terms of target people, terms and conditions of the credit supplied Isparta province in Mediterranean region of Turkey is one of the supported regions. MARA distributed dairy cows to 1072 farmers through 16 agricultural cooperatives in Isparta province in the context of SSPRA. In this study, economic-social impacts on dairy cattle project implemented through cooperatives were examined in Isparta. Primary data were collected from 12 cooperatives- president. The data were obtained by personal interview through a questionnaire and to cooperatives and given to farms benefiting from the project in order to reveal the economic and social developments. Finding of the study revealed that project provided new job opportunities and improved quality of livestock. It was found that producers who benefited from the project were more willing to participate in cooperative or other producer organizations.

Keywords: ooperative, Dairy Cattle, Economic Impact, Livestock Support Project, Social Impact.

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117 The Design of English Materials to communication the Identity of Amphawa District, Samut Songkram Province, for Sustainable Tourism

Authors: K. Praraththajariya

Abstract:

The main purpose of this research was to study how to communicate the identity of the Amphawa district, Samut Songkram province for sustainable tourism. The qualitative data was collected through studying related materials, exploring the area, in-depth interviews with three groups of people: three directly responsible officers who were key informants of the district, twenty foreign tourists and five Thai tourist guides. A content analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data. The two main findings of the study were as follows: 1. The identity of the Amphawa District, Samut Songkram province is the area controlled by Amphawa sub district (submunicipality). The working unit which runs and looks after Amphawa sub district administration is known as the Amphawa mayor. This establishment was built to be a resort for normal people and tourists visiting the Amphawa district near the Maekong River consisting of rest accommodations. Along the river there is a restaurant where food and drinks are served, rich mangrove forests, a learning center, fireflies and cork trees. The Amphawa district was built to honor and commemorate King Rama II and is where the greatest number of fireflies and cork trees can be seen in Thailand from May to October each year. 2. The communication of the identity of Amphawa District, Samut Songkram Province which the researcher could find and design to present in English materials can be summed up in 5 items: 1) The history of the Amphawa District, Samut Songkram province 2) The history of King Rama II Memorial Park 3) The identity of Amphawa Floating Market 4) The Learning center of Ecosystem: Fireflies and Cork Trees 5) How to keep Amphawa District, Samut Songkram Province for sustainable tourism.

Keywords: Foreigner tourists, signified, semiotics, sustainable tourism.

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116 Wavelet-Based Data Compression Technique for Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: P. Kumsawat, N. Pimpru, K. Attakitmongcol, A.Srikaew

Abstract:

In this paper, we proposed an efficient data compression strategy exploiting the multi-resolution characteristic of the wavelet transform. We have developed a sensor node called “Smart Sensor Node; SSN". The main goals of the SSN design are lightweight, minimal power consumption, modular design and robust circuitry. The SSN is made up of four basic components which are a sensing unit, a processing unit, a transceiver unit and a power unit. FiOStd evaluation board is chosen as the main controller of the SSN for its low costs and high performance. The software coding of the implementation was done using Simulink model and MATLAB programming language. The experimental results show that the proposed data compression technique yields recover signal with good quality. This technique can be applied to compress the collected data to reduce the data communication as well as the energy consumption of the sensor and so the lifetime of sensor node can be extended.

Keywords: Wireless sensor network, wavelet transform, data compression, ZigBee, skipped high-pass sub-band.

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115 Experimental Study of Specific Cross Beam Types Appropriate for Modular Bridges

Authors: Seung-Kyung Kye, Young-Hyo Son, Jin-Woong Choi, Dooyong Cho, Sun-Kyu Park

Abstract:

Recently in the field of bridges that are newly built or repaired, fast construction is required more than ever. For these reasons, precast prefabricated bridge that enables rapid construction is actively discussed and studied today. In South Korea, it is called modular bridge. Cross beam is an integral component of modular bridge. It functions for load distribution, reduction of bending moment, resistance of horizontal strength on lateral upper structure. In this study, the structural characteristics of domestic and foreign cross beam types were compared. Based on this, alternative cross beam connection types suitable for modular bridge were selected. And bulb-T girder specimens were fabricated with each type of connection. The behavior of each specimen was analyzed under static loading, and cross beam connection type which is expected to be best suited to modular bridge proposed.

Keywords: Bulb-T girder, Cross beam, Modular bridge.

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114 Automated Detection of Alzheimer Disease Using Region Growing technique and Artificial Neural Network

Authors: B. Al-Naami, N. Gharaibeh, A. AlRazzaq Kheshman

Abstract:

Alzheimer is known as the loss of mental functions such as thinking, memory, and reasoning that is severe enough to interfere with a person's daily functioning. The appearance of Alzheimer Disease symptoms (AD) are resulted based on which part of the brain has a variety of infection or damage. In this case, the MRI is the best biomedical instrumentation can be ever used to discover the AD existence. Therefore, this paper proposed a fusion method to distinguish between the normal and (AD) MRIs. In this combined method around 27 MRIs collected from Jordanian Hospitals are analyzed based on the use of Low pass -morphological filters to get the extracted statistical outputs through intensity histogram to be employed by the descriptive box plot. Also, the artificial neural network (ANN) is applied to test the performance of this approach. Finally, the obtained result of t-test with confidence accuracy (95%) has compared with classification accuracy of ANN (100 %). The robust of the developed method can be considered effectively to diagnose and determine the type of AD image.

Keywords: Alzheimer disease, Brain MRI analysis, Morphological filter, Box plot, Intensity histogram, ANN.

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113 Viewers of Advertisements in Television and Cinema in the Shadow of Visuality

Authors: Mete Kazaz

Abstract:

Despite the internet, which is one of the mass media that has become quite common in recent years, the relationship of Advertisement with Television and Cinema, which have always drawn attention of researchers as basic media and where visual use is in the foreground, have also become the subject of various studies. Based on the assumption that the known fundamental effects of advertisements on consumers are closely related to the creative process of advertisements as well as the nature and characteristics of the medium where they are used, these basic mass media (Television and Cinema) and the consumer motivations of the advertisements they broadcast have become a focus of study. Given that the viewers of the mass media in question have shifted from a passive position to a more active one especially in recent years and approach contents of advertisements, as they do all contents, in a more critical and “pitiless" manner, it is possible to say that individuals make more use of advertisements than in the past and combine their individual goals with the goals of the advertisements. This study, which aims at finding out what the goals of these new individual advertisement use are, how they are shaped by the distinct characteristics of Television and Cinema, where visuality takes precedence as basic mass media, and what kind of places they occupy in the minds of consumers, has determined consumers- motivations as: “Entertainment", “Escapism", “Play", “Monitoring/Discovery", “Opposite Sex" and “Aspirations and Role Models". This study intends to reveal the differences or similarities among the needs and hence the gratifications of viewers who consume advertisements on Television or at the Cinema, which are two basic media where visuality is prioritized.

Keywords: Cinema, Television, Viewers of Advertisements.

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112 A Field Research for Investigating the Effect of Strategic Management on Institutionalization Levels of Enterprises

Authors: Kemalettin Eryeşil, Aykut Bedük, Mehtap Fındık

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to determine the effect of strategic management implementations on the institutionalization levels. In this regard a field study has been made over 31 stone quarry enterprises in cement producing sector in Konya by using survey method. In this study, institutionalization levels of the enterprises have been evaluated regarding three dimensions: professionalization, management approach, participation in decisions and delegation of authority. According to the results of the survey, there is a highly positive and statistically significant relationship between the strategic management implementations and institutionalization levels of the enterprises. Additionally,-considering the results of regression analysis made for establishing the relationship between strategic management and institutionalization levels- it has been determined that strategic management implementations of the enterprises can be used as a variable to explain the institutionalization levels of them, and also strategic management implementations of the enterprises increase the institutionalization levels of them.

Keywords: Institutionalization, Management, Strategic Management.

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111 Thermophoretic Deposition of Nanoparticles Due Toa Permeable Rotating Disk: Effects of Partial Slip, Magnetic Field, Thermal Radiation, Thermal-Diffusion, and Diffusion-Thermo

Authors: M. M. Rahman

Abstract:

The present contribution deals with the thermophoretic deposition of nanoparticles over a rapidly rotating permeable disk in the presence of partial slip, magnetic field, thermal radiation, thermal-diffusion, and diffusion-thermo effects. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations such as continuity, momentum, energy and concentration are transformed into nonlinear ordinary differential equations using similarity analysis, and the solutions are obtained through the very efficient computer algebra software MATLAB. Graphical results for non-dimensional concentration and temperature profiles including thermophoretic deposition velocity and Stanton number (thermophoretic deposition flux) in tabular forms are presented for a range of values of the parameters characterizing the flow field. It is observed that slip mechanism, thermal-diffusion, diffusion-thermo, magnetic field and radiation significantly control the thermophoretic particles deposition rate. The obtained results may be useful to many industrial and engineering applications.

Keywords: Boundary layer flows, convection, diffusion-thermo, rotating disk, thermal-diffusion, thermophoresis.

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110 European Union Funds at Public Universities in the Czech Republic – Example of Promoting Human Resources for New Research Infrastructure

Authors: Jan Sedlacek

Abstract:

The paper focuses on the implementation phase of the strategy of the European Union and the national strategy of the Czech Republic to promote academic and research staff with the potential to produce results that provide innovation useful for economic growth. It deals with the use of financial resources of the Operational Program Education for Competitiveness at the University of West Bohemia in Pilsen. The author presents an example of two strategic projects in the field of human resources – Excellence in Human Resources as a Source of Competitiveness and New Excellence of Human Resources. The subject of this paper is the potential contribution of newly recruited postdoctoral within these projects for the University of West Bohemia in Pilsen and its internal environment.

Keywords: EU funds, public universities, human resources, results of research, funding.

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109 Performance Evaluation of Hybrid Intelligent Controllers in Load Frequency Control of Multi Area Interconnected Power Systems

Authors: Surya Prakash, Sunil Kumar Sinha

Abstract:

This paper deals with the application of artificial neural network (ANN) and fuzzy based Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System(ANFIS) approach to Load Frequency Control (LFC) of multi unequal area hydro-thermal interconnected power system. The proposed ANFIS controller combines the advantages of fuzzy controller as well as quick response and adaptability nature of ANN. Area-1 and area-2 consists of thermal reheat power plant whereas area-3 and area-4 consists of hydro power plant with electric governor. Performance evaluation is carried out by using intelligent controller like ANFIS, ANN and Fuzzy controllers and conventional PI and PID control approaches. To enhance the performance of intelligent and conventional controller sliding surface is included. The performances of the controllers are simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK package. A comparison of ANFIS, ANN, Fuzzy, PI and PID based approaches shows the superiority of proposed ANFIS over ANN & fuzzy, PI and PID controller for 1% step load variation.

Keywords: Load Frequency Control (LFC), ANFIS, ANN & Fuzzy, PI, PID Controllers, Area Control Error (ACE), Tie-line, MATLAB / SIMULINK.

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108 Numerical Simulation of a Pressure Regulated Valve to Find Out the Characteristics of Passive Control Circuit

Authors: Binod Kumar Saha

Abstract:

The objective of the present paper is a numerical analysis of the flow forces acting on spool surfaces of a pressure regulated valve. The transient, compressible and turbulent flow structures inside the valve are simulated using ANSYS FLUENT coupled with a special UDF. Here, valve inlet pressure is varied in a stepwise manner. For every value of inlet pressure, transient analysis leads to a quasi-static flow through the valve. Spool forces are calculated based on different pressures at inlet. From this information of spool forces, pressure characteristic of the passive control circuit has been derived.

Keywords: Pressure Regulating Valve, Spool Opening, Spool Movement, Force Balance, CFD.

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107 Service and Actions of Representatives of the National Intelligentsia on a Way of Independence of the Autonomous State

Authors: Zh. Kumganbayev, U. Ahatov, A. Darkenbayev

Abstract:

This article refers to the action of Kazakh intelligentsia towards the formation of national state and their attempt for reconstruction of national independence and building the way to nowadays- independence through reviewing the history of our national ideology.

Keywords: Kazakh intelligentsia's activity, Kazakh intellectuals, independence of Kazakhstan, Kazakh nation, Alashorda.

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106 Analysis of the Effect of 1980 Transformation on the Foreign Trade of Turkey with Chow Test

Authors: Zeynep Karaçor, Savaş Erdoğan, Perihan Hazel Er

Abstract:

While import-substituting industrialization policy constitute the basis for the industrialization strategies of the 1960s and 1970s in Turkey, this policy was no longer sustainable by the 1980s. For this reason, export-oriented industrialization policy was adopted with the decisions taken on January 24, 1980. In other words, the post-1980 period, Turkey's economy has adopted outwardoriented industrialization strategy. In this study, it is aimed to analyze the effect of the change in economic structure on foreign trade with the transformation of foreign trade and industrialization policies in the post-1980 period. In this respect, in order to analyze the relationship between import, export and economic growth by using variables of the 1960-2011 period, Chow test was applied. In the analysis the reason for using Chow test is whether there is any difference in economic terms between import-substituting industrialization policy applied in the 1960-1980 period and the 1981-2011 period during which exportoriented industrialization policy was applied as a result of the structural transformation.

Keywords: Chow Test, Export-Oriented Industrialization Policy, Import-Substituting Industrialization Policy, Turkey.

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105 Performance Evaluation of a Limited Round-Robin System

Authors: Yoshiaki Shikata

Abstract:

Performance of a limited Round-Robin (RR) rule is studied in order to clarify the characteristics of a realistic sharing model of a processor. Under the limited RR rule, the processor allocates to each request a fixed amount of time, called a quantum, in a fixed order. The sum of the requests being allocated these quanta is kept below a fixed value. Arriving requests that cannot be allocated quanta because of such a restriction are queued or rejected. Practical performance measures, such as the relationship between the mean sojourn time, the mean number of requests, or the loss probability and the quantum size are evaluated via simulation. In the evaluation, the requested service time of an arriving request is converted into a quantum number. One of these quanta is included in an RR cycle, which means a series of quanta allocated to each request in a fixed order. The service time of the arriving request can be evaluated using the number of RR cycles required to complete the service, the number of requests receiving service, and the quantum size. Then an increase or decrease in the number of quanta that are necessary before service is completed is reevaluated at the arrival or departure of other requests. Tracking these events and calculations enables us to analyze the performance of our limited RR rule. In particular, we obtain the most suitable quantum size, which minimizes the mean sojourn time, for the case in which the switching time for each quantum is considered.

Keywords: Limited RR rule, quantum, processor sharing, sojourn time, performance measures, simulation, loss probability.

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104 A Learning-Community Recommendation Approach for Web-Based Cooperative Learning

Authors: Jian-Wei Li, Yao-Tien Wang, Yi-Chun Chang

Abstract:

Cooperative learning has been defined as learners working together as a team to solve a problem to complete a task or to accomplish a common goal, which emphasizes the importance of interactions among members to promote the whole learning performance. With the popularity of society networks, cooperative learning is no longer limited to traditional classroom teaching activities. Since society networks facilitate to organize online learners, to establish common shared visions, and to advance learning interaction, the online community and online learning community have triggered the establishment of web-based societies. Numerous research literatures have indicated that the collaborative learning community is a critical issue to enhance learning performance. Hence, this paper proposes a learning community recommendation approach to facilitate that a learner joins the appropriate learning communities, which is based on k-nearest neighbor (kNN) classification. To demonstrate the viability of the proposed approach, the proposed approach is implemented for 117 students to recommend learning communities. The experimental results indicate that the proposed approach can effectively recommend appropriate learning communities for learners.

Keywords: k-nearest neighbor classification, learning community, Cooperative/Collaborative Learning and Environments.

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103 A Quantum Algorithm of Constructing Image Histogram

Authors: Yi Zhang, Kai Lu, Ying-hui Gao, Mo Wang

Abstract:

Histogram plays an important statistical role in digital image processing. However, the existing quantum image models are deficient to do this kind of image statistical processing because different gray scales are not distinguishable. In this paper, a novel quantum image representation model is proposed firstly in which the pixels with different gray scales can be distinguished and operated simultaneously. Based on the new model, a fast quantum algorithm of constructing histogram for quantum image is designed. Performance comparison reveals that the new quantum algorithm could achieve an approximately quadratic speedup than the classical counterpart. The proposed quantum model and algorithm have significant meanings for the future researches of quantum image processing.

Keywords: Quantum Image Representation, Quantum Algorithm, Image Histogram.

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102 Financial Regulations in the Process of Global Financial Crisis and Macroeconomics Impact of Basel III

Authors: M. Okan Tasar

Abstract:

Basel III (or the Third Basel Accord) is a global regulatory standard on bank capital adequacy, stress testing and market liquidity risk agreed upon by the members of the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision in 2010-2011, and scheduled to be introduced from 2013 until 2018. Basel III is a comprehensive set of reform measures. These measures aim to; (1) improve the banking sector-s ability to absorb shocks arising from financial and economic stress, whatever the source, (2) improve risk management and governance, (3) strengthen banks- transparency and disclosures. Similarly the reform target; (1) bank level or micro-prudential, regulation, which will help raise the resilience of individual banking institutions to periods of stress. (2) Macro-prudential regulations, system wide risk that can build up across the banking sector as well as the pro-cyclical implication of these risks over time. These two approaches to supervision are complementary as greater resilience at the individual bank level reduces the risk system wide shocks. Macroeconomic impact of Basel III; OECD estimates that the medium-term impact of Basel III implementation on GDP growth is in the range -0,05 percent to -0,15 percent per year. On the other hand economic output is mainly affected by an increase in bank lending spreads as banks pass a rise in banking funding costs, due to higher capital requirements, to their customers. Consequently the estimated effects on GDP growth assume no active response from monetary policy. Basel III impact on economic output could be offset by a reduction (or delayed increase) in monetary policy rates by about 30 to 80 basis points. The aim of this paper is to create a framework based on the recent regulations in order to prevent financial crises. Thus the need to overcome the global financial crisis will contribute to financial crises that may occur in the future periods. In the first part of the paper, the effects of the global crisis on the banking system examine the concept of financial regulations. In the second part; especially in the financial regulations and Basel III are analyzed. The last section in this paper explored the possible consequences of the macroeconomic impacts of Basel III.

Keywords: Banking Systems, Basel III, Financial regulation, Global Financial Crisis.

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101 Energy Efficient Clustering and Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Surender Kumar Soni

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are wireless networks consisting of number of tiny, low cost and low power sensor nodes to monitor various physical phenomena like temperature, pressure, vibration, landslide detection, presence of any object, etc. The major limitation in these networks is the use of nonrechargeable battery having limited power supply. The main cause of energy consumption WSN is communication subsystem. This paper presents an efficient grid formation/clustering strategy known as Grid based level Clustering and Aggregation of Data (GCAD). The proposed clustering strategy is simple and scalable that uses low duty cycle approach to keep non-CH nodes into sleep mode thus reducing energy consumption. Simulation results demonstrate that our proposed GCAD protocol performs better in various performance metrics.

Keywords: Ad hoc network, Cluster, Grid base clustering, Wireless sensor network.

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100 Does Leisure Time Use Contribute to a Wage Increase of the Thai People?

Authors: Siriwan Saksiriruthai

Abstract:

This paper develops models to analyze the relationship between leisure time and wage change. Using Thailand-s Time Use Survey and Labor Force Survey data, the estimation of wage changes in response to leisure time change indicates that media receiving, personal care and social participation and volunteer activities are the ones that significantly raise hourly wages. Thus, the finding suggests the stimulation in time use for media access to enhance knowledge and productivity, personal care for attractiveness and healthiness in order to raise productivity, and social activities to develop connections for possible future opportunities including wage increase. These activities should be promoted for productive leisure time and for welfare improvement.

Keywords: Leisure, wage, time use, Thailand.

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99 Behavior of Optical Fiber Aged in CTAC Solutions

Authors: R. El Abdi, A. D. Rujinski, R. M. Boumbimba, M. Poulain

Abstract:

The evolution of silica optical fiber strength aged in cetyltrimethylammonium chloride solution (CTAC) has been investigated. If the solution containing surfactants presents appreciable changes in physical and chemical properties at the critical micelle concentration (CMC), a non negligible mechanical behavior fiber change is observed for silica fiber aged in cationic surfactants as CTAC which can lead to optical fiber reliability questioning. The purpose of this work is to study the mechanical behavior of silica coated and naked optical fibers in contact with CTAC solution at different concentrations. Result analysis proves that the immersion in CTAC drastically decreases the fiber strength and specially near the CMC point. Beyond CMC point, a small increase of fiber strength is analyzed and commented.

Keywords: Optical fiber, CMC point, CTAC surfactant, fiber strength.

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98 Sensitizing Rules for Fuzzy Control Charts

Authors: N. Pekin Alakoç, A. Apaydın

Abstract:

Quality control charts indicate out of control conditions if any nonrandom pattern of the points is observed or any point is plotted beyond the control limits. Nonrandom patterns of Shewhart control charts are tested with sensitizing rules. When the processes are defined with fuzzy set theory, traditional sensitizing rules are insufficient for defining all out of control conditions. This is due to the fact that fuzzy numbers increase the number of out of control conditions. The purpose of the study is to develop a set of fuzzy sensitizing rules, which increase the flexibility and sensitivity of fuzzy control charts. Fuzzy sensitizing rules simplify the identification of out of control situations that results in a decrease in the calculation time and number of evaluations in fuzzy control chart approach.

Keywords: Fuzzy set theory, Quality control charts, Run Rules, Unnatural patterns.

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97 The Influence of Pad Thermal Diffusivity over Heat Transfer into the PCBs Structure

Authors: Mihai Brânzei, Ioan Plotog, Ion Pencea

Abstract:

The Pads have unique values of thermophysical properties (THP) having important contribution over heat transfer into the PCB structure. Materials with high thermal diffusivity (TD) rapidly adjust their temperature to that of their surroundings, because the HT is quick in compare to their volumetric heat capacity (VHC). In the paper is presenting the diffusivity tests (ASTM E1461 flash method) for PCBs with different core materials. In the experiments, the multilayer structure of PCBA was taken into consideration, an equivalent property referring to each of experimental structure be practically measured. Concerning to entire structure, the THP emphasize the major contribution of substrate in establishing of reflow soldering process (RSP) heat transfer necessities. This conclusion offer practical solution for heat transfer time constant calculation as function of thickness and substrate material diffusivity with an acceptable error estimation.

Keywords: heat transfer time constant, packaging, reflowsoldering process, thermal diffusivity.

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96 Suitability of Entry into the Euro Area: An Excursion in Selected Economies

Authors: Ludk Benada, Jindika Sedova

Abstract:

The current situation in the eurozone raises a number of topics for discussion and to help in finding an answer to the question of whether a common currency is a more suitable means of coping with the impact of the financial crisis or whether national currencies are better suited to this. The economic situation in the EU is now considerably volatile and, due to problems with the fulfilment of the Maastricht convergence criteria, it is now being considered whether, in their further development, new member states will decide to distance themselves from the euro or will, in an attempt to overcome the crisis, speed up the adoption of the euro. The Czech Republic is one country with little interest in adopting the euro, justified by the fact that a better alternative to dealing with this crisis is an independent monetary policy and its ability to respond flexibly to the economic situation not only in Europe, but around the world. One attribute of the crisis in the Czech Republic and its mitigation is the freely floating exchange rate of the national currency. It is not only the Czech Republic that is attempting to alleviate the impact of the crisis, but also new EU member countries facing fresh questions to which theory have yet to provide wholly satisfactory answers. These questions undoubtedly include the problem of inflation targeting and the choice of appropriate instruments for achieving financial stability. The difficulty lies in the fact that these objectives may be contradictory and may require more than one means of achieving them. In this respect we may assume that membership of the euro zone might not in itself mitigate the development of the recession or protect the nation from future crises. We are of the opinion that the decisive factor in the development of any economy will continue to be the domestic economic policy and the operability of market economic mechanisms. We attempt to document this fact using selected countries as examples, these being the Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia.

Keywords: Currency exchange rate, Maastricht convergence criteria, monetary union, public finances.

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95 Feasible Traits of TV and Web as Media for Advertisements and Their Influences on Buying Behavior– A Comparative Study on Indian Perspective

Authors: K. Pongiannan

Abstract:

Advertising is one of the important marketing strategies and the choice of media is an important aspect of effectiveness of advertising media. The two most popular advertising media, TV and web media are highly effective in creating successful advertisements as they influence the purchase decision of the viewers. Although TV and web are electronic media, they are unique in their features and traits of advertising. Hence, the present study attempts to analyze the influence of these two media towards buying behavior of the viewers. The two media are analyzed separately to determine its level of influence towards buying behavior and finally a comparative analysis of these media is attempted to find the difference in their level of influence.

Keywords: Buying Behavior, TV, web, media for advertisements.

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94 The Highest Art Tasks of the World and Humans Transforming

Authors: K. Khalykov, G. Begalinova

Abstract:

In the given article the creative arts is being investigated in the modern era and from the aspect of the artistic interrelationship, having created by the character of his personality and as the viewer. A study in the identity formation terms, the definition of its being unique, unity and similarity as a global issue of the XXI century has been conducted by the analyzing the definitions which characterize the human nature in the arts. Spiritual universality and human existence have been considered in the art system as a human who is a creator, as the man hero and as the character who is the recipient as well as the analyses which have been conducted along with the worldwide cultural and historical processes.

Keywords: author, being, creative function of art, recipient and cultural contexts.

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93 A GA-Based Role Assignment Approach for Web-based Cooperative Learning Environments

Authors: Yi-Chun Chang, Jian-Wei Li

Abstract:

Web-based cooperative learning focuses on (1) the interaction and the collaboration of community members, and (2) the sharing and the distribution of knowledge and expertise by network technology to enhance learning performance. Numerous research literatures related to web-based cooperative learning have demonstrated that cooperative scripts have a positive impact to specify, sequence, and assign cooperative learning activities. Besides, literatures have indicated that role-play in web-based cooperative learning environments enhances two or more students to work together toward the completion of a common goal. Since students generally do not know each other and they lack the face-to-face contact that is necessary for the negotiation of assigning group roles in web-based cooperative learning environments, this paper intends to further extend the application of genetic algorithm (GA) and propose a GA-based algorithm to tackle the problem of role assignment in web-based cooperative learning environments, which not only saves communication costs but also reduces conflict between group members in negotiating role assignments.

Keywords: genetic algorithm (GA), role assignment, role-play; web-based cooperative learning.

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92 Optimization of Pretreatment and Enzymatic Saccharification of Cogon Grass Prior Ethanol Production

Authors: Jhalique Jane R. Fojas, Ernesto J. Del Rosario

Abstract:

The dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic substrate, cogon grass (Imperata cylindrical, L.) was optimized prior ethanol fermentation using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) method. The optimum pretreatment conditions, temperature, sulfuric acid concentration, and reaction time were evaluated by determining the maximum sugar yield at constant enzyme loading. Cogon grass, at 10% w/v substrate loading, has optimum pretreatment conditions of 126°C, 0.6% v/v H2SO4, and 20min reaction time. These pretreatment conditions were used to optimize enzymatic saccharification using different enzyme combinations. The maximum saccharification yield of 36.68mg/mL (71.29% reducing sugar) was obtained using 25FPU/g-cellulose cellulase complex combined with 1.1% w/w of cellobiase, ß-glucosidase, and 0.225% w/w of hemicellulase complex, after 96 hours of saccharification. Using the optimum pretreatment and saccharification conditions, SSF of treated substrates was done at 37°C for 120 hours using industrial yeast strain HBY3, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The ethanol yield for cogon grass at 4% w/w loading was 9.11g/L with 5.74mg/mL total residual sugar.

Keywords: Acid pretreatment, bioethanol, biomass, cogon grass, fermentation, lignocellylose, SSF.

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91 Texture Feature-Based Language Identification Using Wavelet-Domain BDIP and BVLC Features and FFT Feature

Authors: Ick Hoon Jang, Hoon Jae Lee, Dae Hoon Kwon, Ui Young Pak

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a texture feature-based language identification using wavelet-domain BDIP (block difference of inverse probabilities) and BVLC (block variance of local correlation coefficients) features and FFT (fast Fourier transform) feature. In the proposed method, wavelet subbands are first obtained by wavelet transform from a test image and denoised by Donoho-s soft-thresholding. BDIP and BVLC operators are next applied to the wavelet subbands. FFT blocks are also obtained by 2D (twodimensional) FFT from the blocks into which the test image is partitioned. Some significant FFT coefficients in each block are selected and magnitude operator is applied to them. Moments for each subband of BDIP and BVLC and for each magnitude of significant FFT coefficients are then computed and fused into a feature vector. In classification, a stabilized Bayesian classifier, which adopts variance thresholding, searches the training feature vector most similar to the test feature vector. Experimental results show that the proposed method with the three operations yields excellent language identification even with rather low feature dimension.

Keywords: BDIP, BVLC, FFT, language identification, texture feature, wavelet transform.

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90 Value of Sharing: Viral Advertisement

Authors: Duygu Aydın, Aşina Gülerarslan, Süleyman Karaçor, Tarık Doğan

Abstract:

Sharing motivations of viral advertisements by consumers and the impacts of these advertisements on the perceptions for brand will be questioned in this study. Three fundamental questions are answered in the study. These are advertisement watching and sharing motivations of individuals, criteria of liking viral advertisement and the impact of individual attitudes for viral advertisement on brand perception respectively. This study will be carried out via a viral advertisement which was practiced in Turkey. The data will be collected by survey method and the sample of the study consists of individuals who experienced the practice of sample advertisement. Data will be collected by online survey method and will be analyzed by using SPSS statistical package program. Recently traditional advertisement mind have been changing. New advertising approaches which have significant impacts on consumers have been argued. Viral advertising is a modernist advertisement mind which offers significant advantages to brands apart from traditional advertising channels such as television, radio and magazines. Viral advertising also known as Electronic Word-of- Mouth (eWOM) consists of free spread of convincing messages sent by brands among interpersonal communication. When compared to the traditional advertising, a more provocative thematic approach is argued. The foundation of this approach is to create advertisements that are worth sharing with others by consumers. When that fact is taken into consideration, in a manner of speaking it can also be stated that viral advertising is media engineering. The content worth sharing makes people being a volunteer spokesman of a brand and strengthens the emotional bonds among brand and consumer. Especially for some sectors in countries which are having traditional advertising channel limitations, viral advertising creates vital advantages.

Keywords: Viral advertising, marketing, consumers, brands.

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89 Trust In Ad Media

Authors: Duygu Aydin

Abstract:

Advertising today has already become an integral part of human life as a building block of the consumer community. A component of the value chain of the media, advertising sector is struggling increasingly harder to find new methods to reach consumers. The tendency towards experimental marketing practices is increasing day by day, especially to divert consumers from the idea “They are selling something to me.” It is therefore considered a good idea to investigate the trust in ad media of consumers, who are today exposed to a great bulk of information from advertising sector. In this study, the current value of ad media for the young consumer will be investigated. Data on various ad media reliability will be comparatively analyzed and young consumers will be traced by including university students in the study. In this research, which will be performed on students studying at the Selçuk University (Turkey) by random sampling method, data will be obtained by survey technique and evaluated by a statistical analysis.

Keywords: Trust in advertising, ad medium, media.

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88 Cost Based Warranty Optimisation Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Dragan D. Stamenkovic, Vladimir M. Popovic

Abstract:

Warranty is a powerful marketing tool for the manufacturer and a good protection for both the manufacturer and the customer. However, warranty always involves additional costs to the manufacturer, which depend on product reliability characteristics and warranty parameters. This paper presents an approach to optimisation of warranty parameters for known product failure distribution to reduce the warranty costs to the manufacturer while retaining the promotional function of the warranty. Combination free replacement and pro-rata warranty policy is chosen as a model and the length of free replacement period and pro-rata policy period are varied, as well as the coefficients that define the pro-rata cost function. Multiparametric warranty optimisation is done by using genetic algorithm. Obtained results are guideline for the manufacturer to choose the warranty policy that minimises the costs and maximises the profit.

Keywords: costs, genetic algorithm, optimisation, warranty.

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87 An Experimental Study on Behavior of Transverse Connection Appropriate for Modular Girder Bridge

Authors: Dong-Hyun Kim, Jin-Woong Choi, Hyeong-Yeol Kim, Sun-Kyu Park

Abstract:

This study is to evaluate the behavior of integral and segmental specimens through static and cyclic tests. Integral specimens were made with the same size to be compared with segmental specimens that were made by connected precast members. To evaluate its bending performance and serviceability, 1 integral and 3 segmental specimens were tested under static load. And 1 integral and 2 segmental specimens were tested under cyclic load, respectively. Different load ranges were considered in the cyclic tests to evaluate the safety and serviceability. The test results showed that under static loading, segmental specimens had about 94% of the integral specimen's maximum moment, averagely. Under cyclic loading, the segmental specimens showed that had enough safety in the range of higher than service load and enough serviceability. In conclusion, the maximum crack width (0.16mm) satisfied the allowable crack width (0.30mm) in the range of service load.

Keywords: Modular bridge, Transverse connection, Precast concrete, Static and cyclic test.

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86 Selection and Design of an Axial Flow Fan

Authors: D. Almazo, C. Rodríguez, M. Toledo

Abstract:

This work presents a methodology for the selection and design of propeller oriented to the experimental verification of theoretical results. The problem of propeller selection and design usually present itself in the following manner: a certain air volume and static pressure are required for a certain system. Once the necessity of fan design on a theoretical basis has been recognized, it is possible to determinate the dimensions for a fan unit so that it will perform in accordance with a certain set of specifications. The same procedures in this work then can be applied in other propeller selection.

Keywords: airfoil, axial flow, blade, fan, hub, mathematical algorithm, propeller design, simulation, wheel.

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85 Thermodynamic, Structural and Transport Properties of Molten Copper-Thallium Alloys

Authors: D. Adhikari, R. P. Koirala, B.P. Singh

Abstract:

A self-association model has been used to understand the concentration dependence of free energy of mixing (GM), heat of mixing (HM), entropy of mixing (SM), activity (a) and microscopic structures, such as concentration fluctuation in long wavelength limit (Scc(0)) and Warren-Cowley short range order parameter ( 1 α )for Cu- Tl molten alloys at 1573K. A comparative study of surface tension of the alloys in the liquid state at that temperature has also been carried out theoretically as function of composition in the light of Butler-s model, Prasad-s model and quasi-chemical approach. Most of the computed thermodynamic properties have been found in agreement with the experimental values. The analysis reveals that the Cu-Tl molten alloys at 1573K represent a segregating system at all concentrations with moderate interaction. Surface tensions computed from different approaches have been found to be comparable to each other showing increment with the composition of copper.

Keywords: Concentration fluctuations, surface tension, thermodynamic properties, Quasi-chemical approximation.

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84 Dynamic Variational Multiscale LES of Bluff Body Flows on Unstructured Grids

Authors: Carine Moussaed, Stephen Wornom, Bruno Koobus, Maria Vittoria Salvetti, Alain Dervieux,

Abstract:

The effects of dynamic subgrid scale (SGS) models are investigated in variational multiscale (VMS) LES simulations of bluff body flows. The spatial discretization is based on a mixed finite element/finite volume formulation on unstructured grids. In the VMS approach used in this work, the separation between the largest and the smallest resolved scales is obtained through a variational projection operator and a finite volume cell agglomeration. The dynamic version of Smagorinsky and WALE SGS models are used to account for the effects of the unresolved scales. In the VMS approach, these effects are only modeled in the smallest resolved scales. The dynamic VMS-LES approach is applied to the simulation of the flow around a circular cylinder at Reynolds numbers 3900 and 20000 and to the flow around a square cylinder at Reynolds numbers 22000 and 175000. It is observed as in previous studies that the dynamic SGS procedure has a smaller impact on the results within the VMS approach than in LES. But improvements are demonstrated for important feature like recirculating part of the flow. The global prediction is improved for a small computational extra cost.

Keywords: variational multiscale LES, dynamic SGS model, unstructured grids, circular cylinder, square cylinder.

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83 The Relationship between Depression Interpersonal Communication and Media Using Among International Students

Authors: Birol Gülnar, Hacer Aker

Abstract:

Student-s movements have been going increasing in last decades. International students can have different psychological and sociological problems in their adaptation process. Depression is one of the most important problems in this procedure. This research purposed to reveal level of foreign students- depression, kinds of interpersonal communication networks (host/ethnic interpersonal communication) and media usage (host/ethnic media usage). Additionally study aimed to display the relationship between depression and communication (host/ethnic interpersonal communication and host/ethnic media usage) among foreign university students. A field research was performed among 283 foreign university students who have been attending 8 different universities in Turkey. A purposeful sampling technique was used in this research cause of data collect facilities. Results indicated that 58.3% of foreign students- depression stage was “intermediate" while 33.2% of foreign students- depression level was “low". Add to this, host interpersonal communication behaviors and Turkish web sites usages were negatively and significantly correlated with depression.

Keywords: International students, depression, interpersonal communication behaviors, media using.

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82 Quality of Life: Expectations and Achievements of Middle Class in Kazakhstan

Authors: Nazym Shedenova, Aigul Beimisheva

Abstract:

The improvement of quality of life is the main visible integrated indicator of state well-being. More and more states pay attention to define and to achieve social standards of quality of life as social-economic strategy of development. These standards are determinate by state features, complex of needs and interests of individual, family and society. It still remains in open question: “What is middle class" in contemporary Kazakhstan. Appearance of new social standards of quality of life is important indicator of its successful establishment. The middle class as agent of social, politic and economic reforms promotes to improve the quality of life of the country. But if consider a low and a middle stratums of middle class, we can see that high social expectations and real achievements are still significantly different. The article relies on the sociological data, collected during of search of household-s standards of living in Almaty city and Almaty region, and case-study of cottage city “Jana Kuat".

Keywords: the quality of life, the social standards of life, the middle class of Kazakhstan, the economic behavior of households.

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81 Magnesium Borate Synthesis by Microwave Method Using MgCl2.6H2O and H3BO3

Authors: A. S. Kipcak, P. Gurses, K. Kunt, E. Moroydor Derun, S. Piskin

Abstract:

There are many kinds of metal borates found not only in nature but also synthesized in the laboratory such as magnesium borates. Due to its excellent properties, as remarkable ceramic materials, they have also application areas in anti-wear and friction reducing additives as well as electro-conductive treating agents. The synthesis of magnesium borate powders can be fulfilled simply with two different methods, hydrothermal and thermal synthesis. Microwave assisted method, also another way of producing magnesium borate, can be classified into thermal synthesis because of using the principles of solid state synthesis. It also contributes producing particles with small size and high purity in nano-size material synthesize. In this study the production of magnesium borates, are aimed using MgCl2.6H2O and H3BO3. The identification of both starting materials and products were made by the equipments of, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). After several synthesis steps magnesium borates were synthesized and characterized by XRD and FT-IR, as well.

Keywords: FT-IR, magnesium borates, microwave method, XRD.

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80 Low Temperature Solid-State Zinc Borate Synthesis from ZnO and H3BO3

Authors: A. S. Kipcak, N. Baran Acarali, E. Moroydor Derun, N. Tugrul, S. Piskin

Abstract:

Zinc borates can be used as multi-functional synergistic additives with flame retardant additives in polymers. Zinc borate is white, non-hygroscopic and powder type product. The most important properties are low solubility in water and high dehydration temperature. Zinc borates dehydrate above 290°C and anhydrous zinc borate has thermal resistance about 400°C. Zinc borates can be synthesized using several methods such as hydrothermal and solidstate processes. In this study, the solid-state method was applied at low temperatures of 600oC and 700oC using the starting materials of ZnO and H3BO3 with several mole ratios. The reaction time was determined as 4 hours after some preliminary experiments. After the synthesis, the crystal structure and the morphology of the products were examined by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). As a result the forms of ZnB4O7, Zn3(BO3)2, ZnB2O4 were synthesized and obtained along with the unreacted ZnO.

Keywords: FT-IR, solid-state method, zinc borate, XRD.

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79 Women Entrepreneurship and Problems in Turkey

Authors: Aykut Bedük, Kemalettin Eryeşil

Abstract:

Together with the industrialization, women began to be included in business life by peeling off of the tasks given them by society and they have become a factor of production creating value in economic and social sense. Thus, women have taken place in the labor market, majority of which has been formed by men. In this study, the experiences of women entrepreneurs, who succeed in business activities, will be analyzed. By the study, current state of the women entrepreneurs in the labor market of Turkey will be put down, as a result of interferences obtained from the shared experiences of women entrepreneurs. Findings obtained at the end of the study are thought to light the way of future studies for increasing women entrepreneurship.

Keywords: Women Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurship, Turkey.

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78 Improved Plasmonic Demultiplexer Based on Tapered and Rectangular Slot MIM Waveguide

Authors: Aso Rahimzadegan, Seyyed Poorya Hosseini, Kamran Qaderi

Abstract:

In this paper, we have proposed two novel plasmonic demultiplexing structures based on metal-insulator-metal surfaces which, beside their compact size, have a very good transmission spectrum. The impact of the key internal parameters on the transmission spectrum is numerically analyzed by using the twodimensional (2D) finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The proposed structures could be used to develop ultra-compact photonic wavelength demultiplexing devices for large-scale photonic integration.

Keywords: Photonic integrated devices, Plasmonics, Metalinsulator- metal (MIM) waveguide, Demultiplexers.

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77 Meaning Chasing Kiddies: Children-s Perception of Metaphors Used in Printed Advertisements

Authors: Asina Gülerarslan

Abstract:

Today-s children, who are born into a more colorful, more creative, more abstract and more accessible communication environment than their ancestors as a result of dizzying advances in technology, have an interesting capacity to perceive and make sense of the world. Millennium children, who live in an environment where all kinds of efforts by marketing communication are more intensive than ever are, from their early childhood on, subject to all kinds of persuasive messages. As regards advertising communication, it outperforms all the other marketing communication efforts in creating little consumer individuals and, as a result of processing of codes and signs, plays a significant part in building a world of seeing, thinking and understanding for children. Children who are raised with metaphorical expressions such as tales and riddles also meet that fast and effective meaning communication in advertisements. Children-s perception of metaphors, which help grasp the “product and its promise" both verbally and visually and facilitate association between them is the subject of this study. Stimulating and activating imagination, metaphors have unique advantages in promoting the product and its promise especially in regard to print advertisements, which have certain limitations. This study deals comparatively with both literal and metaphoric versions of print advertisements belonging to various product groups and attempts to discover to what extent advertisements are liked, recalled, perceived and are persuasive. The sample group of the study, which was conducted in two elementary schools situated in areas that had different socioeconomic features, consisted of children aged 12.

Keywords: Children, metaphor, perception, print advertisements, recall.

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76 Fuzzy Logic Based Improved Range Free Localization for Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Ashok Kumar, Vinod Kumar

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are used to monitor/observe vast inaccessible regions through deployment of large number of sensor nodes in the sensing area. For majority of WSN applications, the collected data needs to be combined with geographic information of its origin to make it useful for the user; information received from remote Sensor Nodes (SNs) that are several hops away from base station/sink is meaningless without knowledge of its source. In addition to this, location information of SNs can also be used to propose/develop new network protocols for WSNs to improve their energy efficiency and lifetime. In this paper, range free localization protocols for WSNs have been proposed. The proposed protocols are based on weighted centroid localization technique, where the edge weights of SNs are decided by utilizing fuzzy logic inference for received signal strength and link quality between the nodes. The fuzzification is carried out using (i) Mamdani, (ii) Sugeno, and (iii) Combined Mamdani Sugeno fuzzy logic inference. Simulation results demonstrate that proposed protocols provide better accuracy in node localization compared to conventional centroid based localization protocols despite presence of unintentional radio frequency interference from radio frequency (RF) sources operating in same frequency band.

Keywords: localization, range free, received signal strength, link quality indicator, Mamdani fuzzy logic inference, Sugeno fuzzy logic inference.

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75 Hydrated Magnesium Borate Synthesis from MgCl2.6H2O at 80oC by Hydrothermal Method

Authors: A. S. Kipcak, P. Gurses, E. Moroydor Derun, S. Piskin

Abstract:

Borate minerals have attracted considerable attention in the past years due to their structural chemistry and mechanical properties in several industries. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the use of; synthetically produced magnesium borates as catalysts reinforcing material for plastics, the conversion of hydrocarbons, electro-conductive treating agent, anti-wear and anti-corrosion materials. Magnesium borates can be synthesized by several methods such as; hydrothermal and solid-state (thermal) processes. In this study the hydrothermal production method was applied at the modest temperature of 80C along with convenient crystal growth. Using MgCl2.6H2O, H3BO3, and NaOH as starting materials, 30, 60, 120, 240 minutes of reaction times were studied. After all, the crystal structure and the morphology of the products were examined by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). As a result the forms of Admontite and Mcallisterite minerals were synthesized.

Keywords: FT-IR, hydrothermal method, magnesium borates, XRD.

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74 The Impact of an Air-Supply Guide Vane on the Indoor Air Distribution

Authors: C.-C. Tsao, S.-W. Nien, W.-H. Chen , Y.-C. Shih

Abstract:

Indoor air distribution has great impact on people-s thermal sensation. Therefore, how to remove the indoor excess heat becomes an important issue to create a thermally comfortable indoor environment. To expel the extra indoor heat effectively, this paper used a dynamic CFD approach to study the effect of an air-supply guide vane swinging periodically on the indoor air distribution within a model room. The numerical results revealed that the indoor heat transfer performance caused by the swing guide vane had close relation with the number of vortices developing under the inlet cold jet. At larger swing amplitude, two smaller vortices continued to shed outward under the cold jet and remove the indoor heat load more effectively. As a result, it can be found that the average Nusselt number on the floor increased with the increase of the swing amplitude of the guide vane.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), dynamic mesh, heat transfer, indoor air distribution, thermal comfort.

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73 Seat Assignment Problem Optimization

Authors: Mohammed Salem Alzahrani

Abstract:

In this paper the optimality of the solution of an existing real word assignment problem known as the seat assignment problem using Seat Assignment Method (SAM) is discussed. SAM is the newly driven method from three existing methods, Hungarian Method, Northwest Corner Method and Least Cost Method in a special way that produces the easiness & fairness among all methods that solve the seat assignment problem.

Keywords: Assignment Problem, Hungarian Method, Least Cost Method, Northwest Corner Method, Seat Assignment Method (SAM), A Real Word Assignment Problem.

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72 The Optimized Cascade PI Controllers of the Generator Control Unit in the Aircraft Power System

Authors: W. Chayinthu, K-N. Areerak, K-L. Areerak, A. Srikaew

Abstract:

This paper presents the optimal controller design of the generator control unit in the aircraft power system. The adaptive tabu search technique is applied to tune the controller parameters until the best terminal output voltage of generator is achieved. The output response from the system with the controllers designed by the proposed technique is compared with those from the conventional method. The transient simulations using the commercial software package show that the controllers designed from the adaptive tabu search algorithm can provide the better output performance compared with the result from the classical method. The proposed design technique is very flexible and useful for electrical aircraft engineers.

Keywords: Cascade PI controllers, DQ method, Adaptive tabusearch, Generator control unit, Aircraft power system, Modeling, Simulation, Artificial Intelligence.

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71 Numerical Investigation of Flow Patterns and Thermal Comfort in Air-Conditioned Lecture Rooms

Authors: Taher M. Abou-deif, Mahmoud A. Fouad, Essam E. Khalil

Abstract:

The present paper was concerned primarily with the analysis, simulation of the air flow and thermal patterns in a lecture room. The paper is devoted to numerically investigate the influence of location and number of ventilation and air conditioning supply and extracts openings on air flow properties in a lecture room. The work focuses on air flow patterns, thermal behaviour in lecture room where large number of students. The effectiveness of an air flow system is commonly assessed by the successful removal of sensible and latent loads from occupants with additional of attaining air pollutant at a prescribed level to attain the human thermal comfort conditions and to improve the indoor air quality; this is the main target during the present paper. The study is carried out using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation techniques as embedded in the commercially available CFD code (FLUENT 6.2). The CFD modelling techniques solved the continuity, momentum and energy conservation equations in addition to standard k – ε model equations for turbulence closure. Throughout the investigations, numerical validation is carried out by way of comparisons of numerical and experimental results. Good agreement is found among both predictions.

Keywords: Air Conditioning, CFD, Lecture Rooms, Thermal Comfort

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70 Effects of Irradiation to Morphological, Physicochemical and Biocompatibility Properties of Carrageenan

Authors: Jhalique Jane R. Fojas, Rizalinda L. De Leon, Lucille V. Abad

Abstract:

The characterization of κ-carrageenan could provide a better understanding of its functions in biological, medical and industrial applications. Chemical and physical analyses of carrageenan from seaweeds, Euchema cottonii L., were done to offer information on its properties and the effects of Co-60 γ-irradiation on its thermochemical characteristics. The structural and morphological characteristics of κ-carrageenan were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) while the composition, molecular weight and thermal properties were determined using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Further chemical analysis was done using hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) and functional characteristics in terms of biocompatibility were evaluated using cytotoxicity test.

Keywords: Biocompatibility, carrageenan, DSC, FTIR, GPC, irradiation, NMR, physicochemical, SEM, TGA.

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69 Changes in Subjective and Objective Measures of Performance in Ramadan

Authors: H. Alabed, K. Abuzayan, J. Waterhouse

Abstract:

The Muslim faith requires individuals to fast between the hours of sunrise and sunset during the month of Ramadan. Our recent work has concentrated on some of the changes that take place during the daytime when fasting. A questionnaire was developed to assess subjective estimates of physical, mental and social activities, and fatigue. Four days were studied: in the weeks before and after Ramadan (control days) and during the first and last weeks of Ramadan (experimental days). On each of these four days, this questionnaire was given several times during the daytime and once after the fast had been broken and just before individuals retired at night. During Ramadan, daytime mental, physical and social activities all decreased below control values but then increased to abovecontrol values in the evening. The desires to perform physical and mental activities showed very similar patterns. That is, individuals tried to conserve energy during the daytime in preparation for the evenings when they ate and drank, often with friends. During Ramadan also, individuals were more fatigued in the daytime and napped more often than on control days. This extra fatigue probably reflected decreased sleep, individuals often having risen earlier (before sunrise, to prepare for fasting) and retired later (to enable recovery from the fast). Some physiological measures and objective measures of performance (including the response to a bout of exercise) have also been investigated. Urine osmolality fell during the daytime on control days as subjects drank, but rose in Ramadan to reach values at sunset indicative of dehydration. Exercise performance was also compromised, particularly late in the afternoon when the fast had lasted several hours. Self-chosen exercise work-rates fell and a set amount of exercise felt more arduous. There were also changes in heart rate and lactate accumulation in the blood, indicative of greater cardiovascular and metabolic stress caused by the exercise in subjects who had been fasting. Daytime fasting in Ramadan produces widespread effects which probably reflect combined effects of sleep loss and restrictions to intakes of water and food.

Keywords: Drinking, Eating, Mental Performance, Physical Performance, Social Activity, Sleepiness.

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68 Reducing Stock-out Incidents at a Hospital Using Six Sigma

Authors: Lina Al-Qatawneh, Abdallah Abdallah, Salam Zalloum

Abstract:

In managing healthcare logistics, cost is not the only factor to be considered. The level of items- criticality used in patient care services plays an important role as well. A stock-out incident of a high critical item could threaten a patient's life. In this paper, the DMAIC (Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control) methodology is used to drive improvement projects based on customer driven critical to quality characteristics at a Jordanian hospital. This paper shows how the application of Six Sigma improves the performance of the case hospital logistics system by reducing the number of stock-out incidents.

Keywords: Criticality level, Healthcare, Logistics, and Six Sigma.

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67 Influence of Silica Fume on the Properties of Self Compacting Concrete

Authors: Salem Alsanusi

Abstract:

A self-compacting concrete (SCC) is the one that can be placed in the form and can go through obstructions by its own weight and without the need of vibration. Since its first development in Japan in 1988, SCC has gained wider acceptance in Japan, Europe and USA due to its inherent distinct advantages. Although there are visible signs of its gradual acceptance in the North Africa through its limited use in construction, Libya has yet to explore the feasibility and applicability of SCC in new construction. The contributing factors to this reluctance appear to be lack of any supportive evidence of its suitability with local aggregates and the harsh environmental conditions. The primary aim of this study is to explore the feasibility of using SCC made with local aggregates of Eastern Province of Libya by examining its basic properties characteristics. This research consists of: (i) Development of a suitable mix for SCC such as the effect of water to cement ratio, limestone and silica fume that would satisfy the requirements of the plastic state; (ii) Casting of concrete samples and testing them for compressive strength and unit weight. Local aggregates, cement, admixtures and industrial waste materials were used in this research. The significance of this research lies in its attempt to provide some performance data of SCC made in the Eastern Province of Libya so as to draw attention to the possible use of SCC.

Keywords: Silica fume, self compacting concrete, workability, coarse and fine aggregate.

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66 The Effect of Canard Configurations to the Aerodynamics of the Blended Wing Body

Authors: Zurriati Mohd Ali, Wahyu Kuntjoro, Wirachman Wisnoe

Abstract:

The aerodynamics characteristics of a blended-wing body (BWB) aircraft were obtained in Universiti Teknologi MARA low speed wind tunnel. The scaled-down of BWB model consisted of a canard as its horizontal stabilizer. There were four canards with different aspect ratio used in the experiments. Canard setting angles were varied from -20q to 20q. All tests were conducted at velocity of 35 m/s, with Mach number 0.1. At low angles of attacks, the increment of lift slope for various canards aspect ratio is small and almost constant. Higher canard aspect ratio will cause higher drag. However, canard has a high effect to the moment at zero lift, CM,0.The visualization using mini tuff was performed to observe the airflow at the upper surface of canard. KeywordsAerodynamics,blended-wing body, canard, wind tunnel.

Keywords: Aerodynamics, blended-wing body, canard, wind tunnel.

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65 Analytical Approach of the In-Pipe Robot on Branched Pipe Navigation and Its Solution

Authors: Yoon Koo Kang, Jung wan Park, Hyun Seok Yang

Abstract:

This paper determines most common model of in-pipe robots to derive its degree of freedom in order to compare with the necessary degree of freedom required for a system to move inside pipelines freely in order to derive analytical reason for losing control of in-pipe robots at branched pipe. DOF of most common mechanism in in-pipe robots can be calculated by considering the robot as a parallel manipulator. A new design based on previously researched in-pipe robot PAROYS has been suggested, and its possibility to overcome branched section has been simulated.

Keywords: Branched pipe, Degree of freedom, In-pipe robot, Parallel manipulator.

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64 Producing New Composite Materials by Using Tragacanth and Waste Ash

Authors: Yasar Bicer, Serif Yilmaz

Abstract:

In present study, two kinds of thermal power plant ashes; one the fly ash and the other waste ash are mixed with adhesive tragacanth and cement to produce new composite materials. 48 new samples are produced by varying the percentages of the fly ash, waste ash, cement and tragacanth. The new samples are subjected to some tests to find out their properties such as thermal conductivity, compressive strength, tensile strength and sucking capability of water. It is found that; the thermal conductivity decreases with increasing amount of tragacanth in the mixture. The compressive, tensile strength increases when the rate of tragacanth is up to 1%, whilst as the amount of tragacanth increases up to 1.5%, the compressive, tensile strength decreases slightly. The rate of water absorption of samples was more than 30%. From this result, it is concluded that these materials can not be used as external plaster or internal plaster material that faces to water. They can be used in internal plaster unless touching water and they can be used as cover plaster under roof and riprap material in sandwich panels. It is also found that, these materials can be cut with saw, drilled with screw and painted with any kind of paint.

Keywords: Fly ash, tragacanth, cement, composite material.

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63 Modeling and Control of a Quadrotor UAV with Aerodynamic Concepts

Authors: Wei Dong, Guo-Ying Gu, Xiangyang Zhu, Han Ding

Abstract:

This paper presents preliminary results on modeling and control of a quadrotor UAV. With aerodynamic concepts, a mathematical model is firstly proposed to describe the dynamics of the quadrotor UAV. Parameters of this model are identified by experiments with Matlab Identify Toolbox. A group of PID controllers are then designed based on the developed model. To verify the developed model and controllers, simulations and experiments for altitude control, position control and trajectory tracking are carried out. The results show that the quadrotor UAV well follows the referenced commands, which clearly demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Keywords: Quadrotor UAV, Modeling, Control, Aerodynamics, System Identification.

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62 Molecular Docking Studies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis RNA Polymerase β Subunit (rpoB) Receptor

Authors: Virupakshaiah DBM, Madiha Ahmed, Smita T. Patil, Chandrakanth Kelmani

Abstract:

Tuberculosis (TB) is a bacterial infectious disease caused by the obligate human pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a global reality that threatens tuberculosis control. Resistance to antibiotic Rifampicin, occurs in 95% of cases through nucleotide substitutions in an 81-bp core region of the rpoB i.e; beta subunit of DNA dependant RNA polymerase. In this paper, we studied the Rifampicin-rpoB receptor interactions In silico. First, homology modeling was performed to obtain the three dimensional structure of Mycobacterium rpoB. Sixty analogs of Rifampicin were prepared using Marvin sketch software. Both original Rifampicin and the analogs were docked with rpoB and energy values were obtained. Out of sixty analogs, 43 analogs had lesser energy values than conventional Rifampicin and hence are predicted to have greater binding affinity to rpoB. Thus, this study offers a route for the development of Rifampicin analogs against multi drug resistant Mycobacterium rpoB.

Keywords: Marvin Sketch, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Rifampicin, rpoB.

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61 The Costume Design by the Inspiration of The Figurehead of Thai Royal Barges

Authors: Taechit Cheuypoung

Abstract:

The purpose of this research was to design costume by the inspiration from the configurations, colors and decorations of Thai Royal Barges. The researcher investigated the bibliographies and the important of the Thai Royal Water-Course Procession, configurations and decoration techniques of four Royal Barges history. Furthermore, the researcher combined the contemporary architecture which became part of the four costumes with four patterns in this research. The four costumes designed by applied the physical configuration of the Royal Barge with the fold techniques which create the geometry pattern that are part of the Royal Barge-s decoration and contemporary architecture. Therefore, the researcher united each identity color of the barges with each costume composed with the original patterns by adjusted new layout and resized. Lastly, the new attractive patterns appeared. Nevertheless, the beauty of Thai traditional still remain by using Thai painting figure with black and white color which are the prevalent colors for the contemporary architectures.

Keywords: Costume Design, Figurehead, Thai Royal Barges.

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60 First Aid Application on Mobile Device

Authors: Komwit Surachat, Supasit Kajkamhaeng, Kasikrit Damkliang, Watanyoo Tiprat, Taninnuch Wacharanimit

Abstract:

An accident is an unexpected and unplanned situation that happens and affects human in a negative outcome. The accident can cause an injury to a human biological organism. Thus, the provision of initial care for an illness or injury is very important move to prepare the patients/victims before sending to the doctor. In this paper, a First Aid Application is developed to give some directions for preliminary taking care of patient/victim via Android mobile device. Also, the navigation function using Google Maps API is implemented in this paper for searching a suitable path to the nearest hospital. Therefore, in the emergency case, this function can be activated and navigate patients/victims to the hospital with the shortest path.

Keywords: First Aid Application, Android, Google Maps API, Navigation System.

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59 Economic Assessment of Green House for Cultivation of Float Based Seedling Production in India

Authors: Srinath Ramakkrushnan, Aswathaman Vijayan

Abstract:

In conventional seedling production, the seedlings are being grown in the open field under natural conditions. Here they are susceptible to sudden changes in climate were their quality and yield is affected. Quality seedlings are essential for good growth and performance of crops in main field; they serve as a foundation for the economic returns to the farmer. Producing quality seedling demands usage of hybrid seeds as they have the ability to result in better yield, greater uniformity, improved color, disease resistance, and so forth. Hybrid seed production poses major operational challenge and its seed use efficiency plays an important role. Thus in order to overcome the difficulties currently present in conventional seedling production and to efficiently use hybrid seeds, ITC Limited Agri Business Divisions - Sustainability Cell as conceptualized a novel method of seedling production unit for farmers in West Godavari District of Andhra Pradesh. The “Green House based Float Seedling" methodology aims at a protected cultivation technique wherein the micro climate surrounding the plant/seedling body is controlled partially or fully as per the requirement of the species. This paper reports on the techno economic evaluation of green house for cultivation of float based seedling production with experimental results that was attained from the pilot implementation in West Godavari District, Rajahmundry region of India.

Keywords: Economic Assessment, Float Seedling, Green House, ITC Limited, Payback period.

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58 Surviving Abiotic Stress: The Relationship between High Light and High Salt Tolerance

Authors: Rutanachai Thaipratum

Abstract:

The mechanism of abiotic stress tolerance is crucial for plants to survive in harsh condition and the knowledge of this mechanism can be use to solve the problem of declining productivity of plants or crops around the world. However in-depth description is still unclear and it is argued, in particular that there is a relationship between high salinity tolerance and the ability to tolerate high light condition. In this study, Dunaliella salina, which can withstand high salt was used as a model. Chlorophyll fluorometer for nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) measurement and high-performance liquid chromatography for pigment determination was used. The results show that NPQ value and the amount of pigment were increased along with the levels of salinity. However, it establish a clear relationship between high salt and high light but the further study to optimized the solutions mentioned above is still required.

Keywords: Abiotic stress tolerance, Dunaliella salina, Nonphotochemical quenching, Zeaxanthin.

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57 A Fast HRRP Synthesis Algorithm with Sensing Dictionary in GTD Model

Authors: R. Fan, Q. Wan, H. Chen, Y.L. Liu, Y.P. Liu

Abstract:

In the paper, a fast high-resolution range profile synthetic algorithm called orthogonal matching pursuit with sensing dictionary (OMP-SD) is proposed. It formulates the traditional HRRP synthetic to be a sparse approximation problem over redundant dictionary. As it employs a priori that the synthetic range profile (SRP) of targets are sparse, SRP can be accomplished even in presence of data lost. Besides, the computation complexity decreases from O(MNDK) flops for OMP to O(M(N + D)K) flops for OMP-SD by introducing sensing dictionary (SD). Simulation experiments illustrate its advantages both in additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) and noiseless situation, respectively.

Keywords: GTD-based model, HRRP, orthogonal matching pursuit, sensing dictionary.

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56 Sparse Frequencies Extracting from Partial Phase-Only Measurements

Authors: R. Fan, Q. Wan, H. Chen, Y.L. Liu, Y.P. Liu

Abstract:

This paper considers a robust recovery of sparse frequencies from partial phase-only measurements. With the proposed method, sparse frequencies can be reconstructed, which makes full use of the sparse distribution in the Fourier representation of the complex-valued time signal. Simulation experiments illustrate the proposed method-s advantages over conventional methods in both noiseless and additive white Gaussian noise cases.

Keywords: Sparse signal recovery, phase-only measurements, Compressive sensing, convex relaxation.

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55 English Language Learning Strategies Used by University Students: A Case Study of English and Business English Major at Suan Sunandha Rajabhat in Bangkok

Authors: Pranee Pathomchaiwat

Abstract:

The purposes of this research are 1) to study English language learning strategies used by the fourth-year students majoring in English and Business English, 2) to study the English language learning strategies which have an affect on English learning achievement, and 3) to compare the English language learning strategies used by the students majoring in English and Business English. The population and sampling comprise of 139 university students of the Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. Research instruments are language learning strategies questionnaire which was constructed by the researcher and improved on by three experts and the transcripts that show the results of English learning achievement. The questionnaire includes 1) Language Practice Strategy 2)Memory Strategy 3) Communication Strategy 4)Making an Intelligent Guess or Compensation Strategy 5) Self-discipline in Learning Management Strategy 6) Affective Strategy 7)Self-Monitoring Strategy 8) Self-studySkill Strategy. Statistics used in the study are mean, standard deviation, T-test and One Way ANOVA, Pearson product moment correlation coefficient and Regression Analysis. The results of the findings reveal that the English language learning strategies most frequently used by the students are affective strategy, making an intelligent guess or compensation strategy, self-studyskill strategy and self-monitoring strategy respectively. The aspect of making an intelligent guess or compensation strategy had the most significant affect on English learning achievement. It is found that the English language learning strategies mostly used by the Business English major students and moderately used by the English major students. Their language practice strategies uses were significantly different at the 0.05 level and their communication strategies uses were significantly different at the 0.01 level. In addition, it is found that the poor students and the fair ones most frequently used affective strategy while the good ones most frequently used making an intelligent guess or compensation strategy. KeywordsEnglish language, language learning strategies, English learning achievement, and students majoring in English, Business English. Pranee Pathomchaiwat is an Assistant Professor in Business English Program, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Bangkok, Thailand (e-mail: [email protected]).

Keywords: English language, language learning strategies, English learning achievement, students majoring in English, Business English

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54 Effects of the Sintering Process on Properties of Triaxial Electrical Porcelain from Ugandan Ceramic Minerals

Authors: Peter W. Olupot, Stefan Jonsson, Joseph K. Byaruhanga

Abstract:

Porcelain specimens were fired at 6C/min to 1250C (dwell time 0.5-3h) and cooled at 6C/min to room temperature. Additionally, three different slower firing/cooling cycles were tried. Sintering profile and effects on MOR, crystalline phase content and morphology were investigated using dilatometry, 4-point bending strength, XRD and FEG-SEM respectively. Industrial-sized specimens prepared using the promising cycle were tested basing on the ANSI standards. Increasing dwell time from 1h to 3h at peak temperature of 1250C resulted in neither a significant effect on the quartz and mullite content nor MOR. Reducing the firing/cooling rate to below 6C/min, for peak temperature of 1250C (dwell time of 1h) does not result in improvement of strength of porcelain. The industrial sized specimen exhibited flashover voltages of 20.3kV (dry) and 9.3kV (wet) respectively, transverse strength of 12.5kN and bulk density of 2.27g/cm3, which are satisfactory. There was however dye penetration during porosity test. KeywordsDwell time, Microstructure, Porcelain, Strength.

Keywords: Dwell time, Microstructure, Porcelain, Strength.

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53 Study of Aerodynamic Characteristics of the Unmanned Aircraft in the Wake

Authors: O. Solovyov, S. Eryomenko, V. Kobrin, V. Chmovzh

Abstract:

The methodology of numerical simulation and calculation of aerodynamic characteristics of aircraft taking into account impact of wake on it has been developed. The results of numerical experiment in comparison with the data obtained in the wind tunnel are presented. Efficiency of methodology of calculation and the reliability of the results is shown.

Keywords: Unmanned aircraft, vortex wake, aerodynamic characteristics.

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52 Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Flow and Heat Transfer of a Semi-Cylindrical Obstacle Located in a Channel

Authors: Omer F. Can, Nevin Celik

Abstract:

In this study, a semi-cylinder obstacle placed in a channel is handled to determine the effect of flow and heat transfer around the obstacle. Both faces of the semi-cylinder are used in the numerical analysis. First, the front face of the semi-cylinder is stated perpendicular to flow, than the rear face is placed. The study is carried out numerically, by using commercial software ANSYS 11.0. The well-known κ-ε model is applied as the turbulence model. Reynolds number is in the range of 104 to 105 and air is assumed as the flowing fluid. The results showed that, heat transfer increased approximately 15 % in the front faze case, while it enhanced up to 28 % in the rear face case.

Keywords: External flow, semi-cylinder obstacle, heat transfer, friction.

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51 The Use of Recommender Systems in Decision Support–A Case Study on Used Car Dealers

Authors: Nalinee Sophatsathit

Abstract:

This research focuses on the use of a recommender system in decision support by means of a used car dealer case study in Bangkok Metropolitan. The goal is to develop an effective used car purchasing system for dealers based on the above premise. The underlying principle rests on content-based recommendation from a set of usability surveys. A prototype was developed to conduct buyers- survey selected from 5 experts and 95 general public. The responses were analyzed to determine the mean and standard deviation of buyers- preference. The results revealed that both groups were in favor of using the proposed system to assist their buying decision. This indicates that the proposed system is meritorious to used car dealers.

Keywords: Recommender Systems, Decision Support, Content- Based Recommendation, used car dealer.

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50 Temperature Effect on the Solid-State Synthesis of Dehydrated Zinc Borates

Authors: N. Tugrul, N. Baran Acarali, A. S. Kipcak, E. Moroydor Derun, S. Piskin

Abstract:

Turkey has 72 % of total world boron reserves on the basis of B2O3.Borates that is a refined form of boron minerals have a wide range of applications. Zinc borates can be used as multifunctional synergistic additives. The most important properties are low solubility in water and high dehydration temperature. Zinc borates dehydrate above 290°C and anhydrous zinc borate has thermal resistance about 400°C. Zinc borates can be synthesized using several methods such as hydrothermal and solid-state processes. In this study, the solid-state method was applied between 500 and 800°C using the starting materials of ZnO and H3BO3 with 1:4 mole ratio. The reaction time was determined as 4 hours after some preliminary experiments. After the synthesis, the crystal structure and the morphology of the products were examined by XRay Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Raman Spectrometer. As a result the form of ZnB4O7 was synthesized with the highest crystal score at 800°C.

Keywords: Raman, solid-state method, zinc borate, XRD.

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49 Determination of Severe Loading Condition at Critical System Cascading Collapse Considering the Effect of Protection System Hidden Failure

Authors: N. A. Salim, M. M. Othman, I. Musirin, M. S. Serwan

Abstract:

Hidden failure in a protection system has been recognized as one of the main reasons which may cause to a power system instability leading to a system cascading collapse. This paper presents a computationally systematic approach used to obtain the estimated average probability of a system cascading collapse by considering the effect of probability hidden failure in a protection system. The estimated average probability of a system cascading collapse is then used to determine the severe loading condition contributing to the higher risk of critical system cascading collapse. This information is essential to the system utility since it will assist the operator to determine the highest point of increased system loading condition prior to the event of critical system cascading collapse.

Keywords: Critical system cascading collapse, protection system hidden failure, severe loading condition.

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48 Effect of Gibberellic Acid and 2,4- Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid on Fruit Development and Fruit Quality of Wax Apple

Authors: Nguyen Minh Tuan, Yen Chung–Ruey

Abstract:

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of gibberellic acid and 2,4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on flower number, fruit growth and fruit quality of wax apple. GA3 and 2,4-D were applied at small bud and petal fall stage. Number of flower, fruit set, fruit drop, fruit crack, fruit growth and fruit quality were recorded. Results indicated that spraying with 10 ppm GA3 had the best results in number of flower. GA3 spray at 30 ppm gave the faster rate of fruit growth than the other treatments. Fruit set, fruit size as well as fruit weight markedly improved by spraying 30 ppm GA3, followed by 10 ppm GA3 compared to untreated control. Moreover, spray GA3 at 30 ppm was the most effective and increased total soluble solids, reduced titratable acidity and fruit drop. On the other hand, it was noticed that with 10 ppm 2,4-D application also enhanced the fruit growth rate, improved physiological and biochemical characters of fruit compared to untreated control. It was concluded that both GA3 and 2,4-D spray have positive effects on fruit development, reduced fruit drop, fruit crack and improved fruit quality of wax apple under field conditions.

Keywords: Wax apple, GA3, 2, 4-D, fruit growth, fruit quality.

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47 Overriding Moral Intuitions – Does It Make Us Immoral? Dual-Process Theory of Higher Cognition Account for Moral Reasoning

Authors: Michał Białek, Simon J. Handley

Abstract:

Moral decisions are considered as an intuitive process, while conscious reasoning is mostly used only to justify those intuitions. This problem is described in few different dual-process theories of mind, that are being developed e.g. by Frederick and Kahneman, Stanovich and Evans. Those theories recently evolved into tri-process theories with a proposed process that makes ultimate decision or allows to paraformal processing with focal bias.. Presented experiment compares the decision patterns to the implications of those models. In presented study participants (n=179) considered different aspects of trolley dilemma or its footbridge version and decided after that. Results show that in the control group 70% of people decided to use the lever to change tracks for the running trolley, and 20% chose to push the fat man down the tracks. In contrast, after experimental manipulation almost no one decided to act. Also the decision time difference between dilemmas disappeared after experimental manipulation. The result supports the idea of three co-working processes: intuitive (TASS), paraformal (reflective mind) and algorithmic process.

Keywords: Moral reasoning, moral decision, reflection, trolley problem, dual-process theory of reasoning, tri-process theory of cognition.

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46 The Impacts of Food Safety Standards on China Export of Vegetables and Fruits

Authors: Lei Dou, Mitsuhiro Nakagawa, Fei Yan, Ping Li

Abstract:

Participation in global trade means that Chinas vegetables and fruits industry faces international food safety standards and increased scrutiny worldwide. The objectives of this paper were to investigate how existing food safety standards and regulations in the importing countries impact the export of vegetables and fruits from China. This paper discussed the current and historical situations of Chinas vegetables and fruits export from 1996 to 2010, analyzed the Maximum Residual Limit (MRL) standards of pesticides imposed by importing countries, quantitatively estimated the impacts of food safety standards on Chinas vegetables and fruits export based on a gravity model. The results showed that although transportation distance between trade partners and tariff rates on vegetables and fruits were still the importantly resistant factors for China export, vegetables and fruits export was sensitive to the number of regulated pesticides, the strictness, and the level of food safety standards imposed by importing countries, which showed a significant trade flow effect, stricter food safety standards, increased number of regulated pesticides significantly inhibit China export of vegetables and fruits. Moreover, Chinas food safety standards also showed a significantly effect on vegetables and fruits export, which inhibited export to some extent. KeywordsFood safety standards, MRL, Vegetables, Fruits, Export.

Keywords: Food safety standards, MRL, Vegetables, Fruits, Export.

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45 Lateral and Longitudinal Vibration of a Rotating Flexible Beam Coupled with Torsional Vibration of a Flexible Shaft

Authors: Khaled Alnefaie

Abstract:

In this study, rotating flexible shaft-disk system having flexible beams is considered as a dynamic system. After neglecting nonlinear terms, torsional vibration of the shaft-disk system and lateral and longitudinal vibration of the flexible beam are still coupled through the motor speed. The system has three natural frequencies; the flexible shaft-disk system torsional natural frequency, the flexible beam lateral and longitudinal natural frequencies. Eigenvalue calculations show that while the shaft speed changes, torsional natural frequency of the shaft-disk system and the beam longitudinal natural frequency are not changing but the beam lateral natural frequency changes. Beam lateral natural frequency stays the same as the nonrotating beam lateral natural frequency ωb until the motor speed ωm is equal to ωb. After then ωb increases and remains equal to the motor speed ωm until the motor speed is equal to the shaft-disk system natural frequency ωT. Then the beam lateral natural frequency ωb becomes equal to the natural frequency ωT and stays same while the motor speed ωm is increased. Modal amplitudes and phase angles of the vibrations are also plotted against the motor speed ωm.

Keywords: Rotor dynamics, beam-shaft coupling, beam vibration, flexible shaft.

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44 Characterization of Lactose Consumption during the Biogas Production from Acid Whey by FT-IR Spectroscopy

Authors: K. Rugele, M. Gavare, M. Grube, K. Tihomirova, E. Skripsts, S. Larsson, J. Rubulis

Abstract:

The consumption of lactose in acid cheese whey anaerobic fermentation process under fed-batch conditions was studied. During fermentation for 100 hours the biogas production (CO2 and CH4) was analyzed online. Among the standard analyses FT-IR spectroscopy was used to follow the consumption of lactose by bacteria. The absorption bands at 990, 894 and 787 cm-1 in the 2nd derivative spectra were shown to be characteristic for lactose and were used to follow the lactose conversion. It was shown that acid cheese whey lactose was converted by bacteria in first 7 hours. In the spectra of 17, 18 and 95 hour fermentation samples lactose was not identified and these results correlated with the HPLC data.

Keywords: Acid whey, anaerobic digestion, biogas, FT-IR spectroscopy, lactose consumption.

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43 A Comparative Study of Thai and Balinese Temple Festival Dress

Authors: Jaruphan Supprung

Abstract:

Aims of this research were to study Thai Buddhist temple festivals and Balinese Hindu temple festivals, to compare Thai Buddhist temple festival dress with Balinese Hindu temple festival dress, and to create the knowledge which can be useful for Thai attitudes and cultural perceptions, especially for Thai children and youth. The findings of the research disclosed that there are four temple festivals of Thai Buddhists in Thailand, namely Songkran Festival, Buddhist Lent Festival, Sart Thai Festival and End of Buddhist Lent Festival. In island of Bali, Indonesia, there are three Balinese Hindu temple festivals, namely Odalan Festival, Galungan Festival and Nyepi Festival. Thai Songkran Festival is similar to New Year Celebration in Balinese Nyepi Festival. Thai Songkran Festival and Sart Thai Festival have the same purpose as that of Balinese Galungan Festival in practice of dedicating merit to the spirits of deceased relatives. In these temple festivals, Thai Buddhist men will wear round collar outerwear and wide leg trousers or loincloths but will never wear headdresses, while Balinese Hindu men wear turbans or fabric headbands, shirts and Sarong, which are similar to Sarong of Thai Buddhist men in central and northern part of Thailand. Most of Thai Buddhist women wear Sarong like Balinese Hindu women but wear only round collar outerwear, while Balinese Hindu women wear diamond neck camisole as inner wear and shawl collar as outerwear.

Keywords: Temple festival dresses, Thai Buddhists, Balinese Hindus.

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42 Deformation Mechanisms at Elevated Temperatures: Influence of Momenta and Energy in the Single Impact Test

Authors: Harald Rojacz, Markus Varga, Horst Winkelmann

Abstract:

Within this work High Temperature Single Impact Studies were performed to evaluate deformation mechanisms at different energy and momentum levels. To show the influence of different microstructures and hardness levels and their response to single impacts four different materials were tested at various temperatures up to 700°C. One carbide reinforced NiCrBSi based Metal Matrix Composite and three different steels were tested. The aim of this work is to determine critical energies for fracture appearance and the materials response at different energy and momenta levels. Critical impact loadings were examined at elevated temperatures to limit operating conditions in impact dominated regimes at elevated temperatures. The investigations on the mechanisms were performed using different means of microscopy at the surface and in metallographic cross sections. Results indicate temperature dependence of the occurrence of cracks in hardphase rich materials, such as Metal Matrix Composites High Speed Steels and the influence of different impact momenta at constant energies on the deformation of different steels.

Keywords: Deformation, High Temperature, Metal Matrix Composite, Single Impact Test, Steel.

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41 Himmapan Creatures: The Tactile Texture Designed for the Blind

Authors: Chantana Insra

Abstract:

The main purpose of this research aimed to create tactile texture designed media for the blind used for extra learning outside classrooms in order to enhance imagination of the blind about Himmapan creatures, furthermore, the main objective of the research focused on improving the visual disabled perception to be equal to normal people. The target group of the research is blinded students studying in The Bangkok school for the blind between grade 4-6 in the second semester of 2011 who are able to read the braille language. The research methodology consisted of the field study and the documentary study related to the blind, tactile texture designed media and Himmapan creatures. 10 pictures of tactile texture designed media were created in the designing process which began after the analysis had conducted based the primary and secondary data. The works had presented to experts in the visual disabled field who evaluated the works. After approval, the works used as prototype to teach the blind. KeywordsBlind, Himmapan Creatures, Tactile Texture.

Keywords: Blind, Himmapan Creatures, Tactile Texture.

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40 Verification Process of Cylindrical Contact Force Models for Internal Contact Modeling

Authors: Cândida M. Pereira, Amílcar L. Ramalho, Jorge A. Ambrósio

Abstract:

In the numerical solution of the forward dynamics of a multibody system, the positions and velocities of the bodies in the system are obtained first. With the information of the system state variables at each time step, the internal and external forces acting on the system are obtained by appropriate contact force models if the continuous contact method is used instead of a discrete contact method. The local deformation of the bodies in contact, represented by penetration, is used to compute the contact force. The ability and suitability with current cylindrical contact force models to describe the contact between bodies with cylindrical geometries with particular focus on internal contacting geometries involving low clearances and high loads simultaneously is discussed in this paper. A comparative assessment of the performance of each model under analysis for different contact conditions, in particular for very different penetration and clearance values, is presented. It is demonstrated that some models represent a rough approximation to describe the conformal contact between cylindrical geometries because contact forces are underestimated.

Keywords: Clearance joints, Contact mechanics, Contact dynamics, Internal cylindrical contact, Multibody dynamics.

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39 Verification of a Locked CFD Approach to Cool Down Modeling

Authors: P. Bárta

Abstract:

Increasing demand on the performance of Subsea Production Systems (SPS) suggests a need for more detailed investigation of fluid behavior taking place in subsea equipment. Complete CFD cool down analyses of subsea equipment are very time demanding. The objective of this paper is to investigate a Locked CFD approach, which enables significant reduction of the computational time and at the same time maintains sufficient accuracy during thermal cool down simulations. The result comparison of a dead leg simulation using the Full CFD and the three LCFD-methods confirms the validity of the locked flow field assumption for the selected case. For the tested case the LCFD simulation speed up by factor of 200 results in the absolute thermal error of 0.5 °C (3% relative error), speed up by factor of 10 keeps the LCFD results within 0.1 °C (0.5 % relative error) comparing to the Full CFD.

Keywords: CFD, Locked Flow Field, Speed up of CFD simulation time, Subsea

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38 Well-Being in Adolescence: Fitting Measurement Model

Authors: Azlina Abu Bakar, Abdul Fatah Wan Sidek

Abstract:

Well-being has been given special emphasis in quality of life. It involves living a meaningful, life satisfaction, stability and happiness in life. Well-being also concerns the satisfaction of physical, psychological, social needs and demands of an individual. The purpose of this study was to validate three-factor measurement model of well-being using structural equation modeling (SEM). The conceptions of well-being measured such dimensions as physical, psychological and social well-being. This study was done based on a total sample of 650 adolescents from east-coast of peninsular Malaysia. The Well-Being Scales which was adapted from [1] was used in this study. The items were hypothesized a priori to have nonzero loadings on all dimensions in the model. The findings of the SEM demonstrated that it is a good fitting model which the proposed model fits the driving theory; (x2df = 1.268; GFI = .994; CFI = .998; TLI= .996; p = .255; RMSEA = .021). Composite reliability (CR) was .93 and average variance extracted (AVE) was 58%. The model in this study fits with the sample of data and well-being is important to bring sustainable development to the mainstream.

Keywords: Adolescence, Structural Equation Modeling, Sustainable Development, Well-Being.

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37 Teachers' Conceptions as a Basis for the Design of an Educational Application: Case Perioperative Nursing

Authors: Antti Pirhonen, Minna Silvennoinen

Abstract:

The only relevant basis for the design of an educational application are objectives of learning for the content area. This study analyses the process in which the real – not only the formal – objectives could work as the starting point for the construction of an educational game. The application context is the education of perioperative nursing. The process is based on the panel discussions of nursing teachers. In the panels, the teachers elaborated the objectives. The transcribed discussions were analysed in terms of the conceptions of learning and teaching of perioperative nursing. The outcome of the study is first the elaborated objectives, which will be used in the implementation of an educational game for the needs of pre-, intra and post-operative nursing skills learning. Second, the study shows that different views of learning are necessary to be understood in order to design an appropriate educational application.

Keywords: Perioperative nursing, conceptions of learning, educational applications.

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36 On the Coupled Electromechanical Behavior of Artificial Materials with Chiral-Shell Elements

Authors: Anna Girchenko, Victor A. Eremeyev, Holm Altenbach

Abstract:

In the present work we investigate both the elastic and electric properties of a chiral material. We consider a composite structure made from a polymer matrix and anisotropic inclusions of GaAs taking into account piezoelectric and dielectric properties of the composite material. The principal task of the work is the estimation of the functional properties of the composite material.

Keywords: Coupled electromechanical behavior, Composite structure, Chiral metamaterial.

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35 Krylov Model Order Reduction of a Thermal Subsea Model

Authors: J. Šindler, A. Suleng, T. Jelstad Olsen, P. Bárta

Abstract:

A subsea hydrocarbon production system can undergo planned and unplanned shutdowns during the life of the field. The thermal FEA is used to simulate the cool down to verify the insulation design of the subsea equipment, but it is also used to derive an acceptable insulation design for the cold spots. The driving factors of subsea analyses require fast responding and accurate models of the equipment cool down. This paper presents cool down analysis carried out by a Krylov subspace reduction method, and compares this approach to the commonly used FEA solvers. The model considered represents a typical component of a subsea production system, a closed valve on a dead leg. The results from the Krylov reduction method exhibits the least error and requires the shortest computational time to reach the solution. These findings make the Krylov model order reduction method very suitable for the above mentioned subsea applications.

Keywords: Model order reduction, Krylov subspace, subsea production system, finite element.

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34 Exploring Customer Trust in B2C Mobile Payments – A Qualitative Study

Authors: Ahmed Shuhaiber, Hans Lehmann

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Mobile payments have been deployed by businesses for more than a decade. Customers use mobile payments if they trust in this relatively new payment method, have a belief and confidence in, as well as reliance on its services and applications. Despite its potential, the current literature shows that there is lack of customer trust in B2C mobile payments, and a lack of studies that determine the factors that influence their trust in these payments; which make these factors yet to be understood, especially in the Middle East region. Thus, this study aims to explore the factors that influence customer trust in mobile payments. The empirical data for this explorative study was collected by establishing four focus group sessions in the UAE. The results indicate that the explored significant factors can be classified into five main groups: customer characteristics, environmental (social and cultural) influences, provider characteristics, mobile-device characteristics, and perceived risks.

Keywords: B2C mobile payments, Mobile commerce, Mobile payment services and application, Trust in mobile payments.

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33 Adoption of iPads Paving the Way to Changes in the Knowledge Practices within a School of Vocational Teacher Education

Authors: Päivi Aarreniemi-Jokipelto, Merja Alanko-Turunen

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The possibilities of mobile technology generate new demands for vocational teacher trainers to transform their approach to work and to incorporate its usage into their ordinary educational practice. This paper presents findings of a focus discussion group (FDG) session on the usage of iPads within a school of vocational teacher education (SoVTE). It aims to clarify how the teacher trainers are using iPads and what has changed in their work during the usage of iPads. The analytical framework bases on content analysis and expansive learning cycle. It was not only found what kind of a role iPads played in their daily practices but it brought also into attention how a cultural change regarding the usage of social media and mobile technology was desperately needed in the whole work community. Thus, the FGD was abducted for developing the knowledge practices of the community of the SoVTE.

Keywords: iPad, mobile learning, vocational teacher education.

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32 Tuning of Thermal FEA Using Krylov Parametric MOR for Subsea Application

Authors: A. Suleng, T. Jelstad Olsen, J. Šindler, P. Bárta

Abstract:

A dead leg is a typical subsea production system component. CFD is required to model heat transfer within the dead leg. Unfortunately its solution is time demanding and thus not suitable for fast prediction or repeated simulations. Therefore there is a need to create a thermal FEA model, mimicking the heat flows and temperatures seen in CFD cool down simulations. This paper describes the conventional way of tuning and a new automated way using parametric model order reduction (PMOR) together with an optimization algorithm. The tuned FE analyses replicate the steady state CFD parameters within a maximum error in heat flow of 6 % and 3 % using manual and PMOR method respectively. During cool down, the relative error of the tuned FEA models with respect to temperature is below 5% comparing to the CFD. In addition, the PMOR method obtained the correct FEA setup five times faster than the manually tuned FEA.

Keywords: CFD, convective heat, FEA, model tuning, subseaproduction

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31 Enhancing Thermal Efficiency of Double Skin Façade Buildings in Semi-Arid Climate

Authors: Farid Vahedi

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There is a great deal of interest in constructing Double Skin Facade (DSF) structures which are considered as modern movement in field of Energy Conservation, renewable energies, and Architecture design. This trend provides many conclusive alternatives which are frequently associated with sustainable building. In this paper a building with Double Skin Facade is considered in the semiarid climate of Tehran, Iran, in order to consider the DSF-s performance during hot seasons. Mathematical formulations calculate solar heat gain by the external skin. Moreover, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed on the case study building to enhance effectiveness of the facade. The conclusion divulged difference of gained energy by the cavity and room with and without blind and louvers. Some solutions were introduced to surge the performance of natural ventilation by plunging the cooling loads in summer.

Keywords: Double Skin Façade Buildings, Energy Conservation, Renewable Energy, Natural Ventilation, Semi-arid Climate.

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30 Viscosity of Vegetable Oils and Biodiesel and Energy Generation

Authors: Thiago de O. Macedo, Roberto G. Pereira, Juan M. Pardal, Alexandre S. Soares, Valdir deJ. Lameira

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The present work describes an experimental investigation concerning the determination of viscosity behavior with shear rate and temperature of edible oils: canola; sunflower; corn; soybean and the no edible oil: Jatropha curcas. Besides these, it was tested a blend of canola, corn and sunflower oils as well as sunflower and soybean biodiesel. Based on experiments, it was obtained shear stress and viscosity at different shear rates of each sample at 40ºC, as well as viscosity of each sample at various temperatures in the range of 24 to 85ºC. Furthermore, it was compared the curves obtained for the viscosity versus temperature with the curves obtained by modeling the viscosity dependency on temperature using the Vogel equation. Also a test in a stationary engine was performed in order to study the energy generation using blends of soybean oil and soybean biodiesel with diesel.

Keywords: Biofuel, energy generation, vegetable oil, viscosity.

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29 The Effects of Adding External Mass and Localised Fatigue upon Static and Dynamic Balance

Authors: K. Abuzayan, H. Alabed, S. Ali

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The influence of physical (external added weight) and neurophysiological (fatigue) factors on static and dynamic balance in sport related activities was typified statically by the Romberg test (one foot flat, eyes open) and dynamically by jumping and hopping in both horizontal and vertical directions. Twenty healthy males were participated in this study. In Static condition, added weight increased body-s inertia and therefore decreased body sway in AP direction though not significantly. Dynamically, added weight significantly increased body sway in both ML and AP directions, indicating instability, and the use of the counter rotating segments mechanism to maintain balance was demonstrated. Fatigue on the other hand significantly increased body sway during static balance as a neurophysiological adaptation primarily to the inverted pendulum mechanism. Dynamically, fatigue significantly increased body sway in both ML and AP directions again indicating instability but with a greater use of counter rotating segments mechanism. Differential adaptations for each of the two balance mechanisms (inverted pendulum and counter rotating segments) were found between one foot flat and two feet flat dynamic conditions, as participants relied more heavily on the first in the one foot flat conditions and relied more on the second in the two feet flat conditions.

Keywords: Adding external mass, Dynamic balance, Localised fatigue, Static balance.

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28 Wine Grape Residues Gasification in Supercritical Water

Authors: D. Selvi Gökkaya, M. Yüksel, M. Sağlam, T. Güngören Madenoğlu, N. Cengiz, T. Çokkuvvetli, L. Ballice

Abstract:

In this study, production possibilities of hydrogen and/or methane via SCWG from black grape residues have been investigated. For this aim, grape residues which remain as a byproduct of the wine making process have been used. Since utilization from grape residues is limited due to the high moisture content, supercritical water gasification is the most convenient method. The effect of the gasification temperature and type of catalyst on supercritical water gasification have been investigated. Gasification experiments were performed in a batch autoclave at four different temperatures 300, 400, 500 and 600°C. K2CO3 and Trona (NaHCO3.Na2CO3·2H2O) were used as catalyst. Real biomass types of black grape residues have been successfully gasified and the product gas (hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and a small amount of ethane and ethylene) were identified by using gas chromatography. A TOC analyzer was used to determine total organic carbon (TOC) content of aqueous phase. The amounts of carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ketones, furfurals and phenols present in the aqueous solutions were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. When the temperature increased from 300°C to 600°C, mol% of H2 in gas products increased. The presence of catalysts improves the hydrogen yield. Trona showed gasification activity to be similar to that of K2CO3. It may be concluded that the use of Trona instead of commercially produced catalysts, can be preferably used in the gasification of biomass in supercritical water.

Keywords: Biomass, hydrogen, grape residues.

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27 A Hybridized Competency-Based Teacher Candidate Selection System

Authors: R. Ramli, M. I. Ghazali, H. Ibrahim, M. M. Kasim, F. M. Kamal, S.Vikneswari

Abstract:

Teachers form the backbone of any educational system, hence selecting qualified candidates is very crucial. In Malaysia, the decision making in the selection process involves a few stages: Initial filtering through academic achievement, taking entry examination and going through an interview session. The last stage is the most challenging since it highly depends on human judgment. Therefore, this study sought to identify the selection criteria for teacher candidates that form the basis for an efficient multi-criteria teacher-candidate selection model for that last stage. The relevant criteria were determined from the literature and also based on expert input that is those who were involved in interviewing teacher candidates from a public university offering the formal training program. There are three main competency criteria that were identified which are content of knowledge, communication skills and personality. Further, each main criterion was divided into a few subcriteria. The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique was employed to allocate weights for the criteria and later, integrated a Simple Weighted Average (SWA) scoring approach to develop the selection model. Subsequently, a web-based Decision Support System was developed to assist in the process of selecting the qualified teacher candidates. The Teacher-Candidate Selection (TeCaS) system is able to assist the panel of interviewers during the selection process which involves a large amount of complex qualitative judgments.

Keywords: Analytic Hierarchy Process, Simple Weighted Average, Decision Support System, Multi-criteria decision making problem.

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26 General Process Control for Intelligent Systems

Authors: Radovan Holubek, Matus Vlasek, Peter Kostal

Abstract:

Development of intelligent assembly cell conception includes new solution kind of how to create structures of automated and flexible assembly system. The current trend of the final product quality increasing is affected by time analysis of the entire manufacturing process. The primary requirement of manufacturing is to produce as many products as soon as possible, at the lowest possible cost, but of course with the highest quality. Such requirements may be satisfied only if all the elements entering and affecting the production cycle are in a fully functional condition. These elements consist of sensory equipment and intelligent control elements that are essential for building intelligent manufacturing systems. Intelligent behavior of the system as the control system will repose on monitoring of important parameters of the system in the real time. Intelligent manufacturing system itself should be a system that can flexibly respond to changes in entering and exiting the process in interaction with the surroundings.

Keywords: Control system, intelligent manufacturing / assemble systems, manufacturing, monitoring process.

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25 Analysis of the Communication Methods of an iCIM 3000 System within the Frame of Research Purpose

Authors: Radovan Holubek, Daynier Rolando Delgado Sobrino, Roman Ruzarovsky

Abstract:

Current trends in manufacturing are characterized by production broadening, innovation cycle shortening, and the products having a new shape, material and functions. The production strategy focused on time needed change from the traditional functional production structure to flexible manufacturing cells and lines. Production by automated manufacturing system (AMS) is one of the most important manufacturing philosophies in the last years. The main goals of the project we are involved in lies on building a laboratory in which will be located a flexible manufacturing system consisting of at least two production machines with NC control (milling machines, lathe). These machines will be linked to a transport system and they will be served by industrial robots. Within this flexible manufacturing system a station for the quality control consisting of a camera system and rack warehouse will be also located. The design, analysis and improvement of this manufacturing system, specially with a special focus on the communication among devices constitute the main aims of this paper. The key determining factors for the manufacturing system design are: the product, the production volume, the used machines, the disposable manpower, the disposable infrastructure and the legislative frame for the specific cases.

Keywords: Paperless manufacturing, flexible manufacturing, robotized manufacturing, material flow, iCIM.

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24 A Hybrid Approach for Color Image Quantization Using K-means and Firefly Algorithms

Authors: Parisut Jitpakdee, Pakinee Aimmanee, Bunyarit Uyyanonvara

Abstract:

Color Image quantization (CQ) is an important problem in computer graphics, image and processing. The aim of quantization is to reduce colors in an image with minimum distortion. Clustering is a widely used technique for color quantization; all colors in an image are grouped to small clusters. In this paper, we proposed a new hybrid approach for color quantization using firefly algorithm (FA) and K-means algorithm. Firefly algorithm is a swarmbased algorithm that can be used for solving optimization problems. The proposed method can overcome the drawbacks of both algorithms such as the local optima converge problem in K-means and the early converge of firefly algorithm. Experiments on three commonly used images and the comparison results shows that the proposed algorithm surpasses both the base-line technique k-means clustering and original firefly algorithm.

Keywords: Clustering, Color quantization, Firefly algorithm, Kmeans.

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23 Lyric Poetry and the Motives in the Works of Poets of Syr Darya River Vicinity

Authors: Nuraddin Sadykov, Saule Erzhanova, Akmaral Dalelbekkyzy, Mukhit Tolegenov

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This article provides a comparative analysis of poetries of diverse nations around the world while largely focusing on Kazakh lyric poetry (Kazakh zhyraulyq oneri). Alongside, it sheds the light to the historical development and contemporary progress path of foremost poetry school located along the Syr Darya coast. Hereby, it-s content and central motives are examined.

Keywords: Lyric poetry (zhyraulyq oner), poet-musician (zhyrshy), Sufi tradition (sopylyq dastur), hermeneutics (germenevtica).

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22 Topology Optimization of Aircraft Fuselage Structure

Authors: Muniyasamy Kalanchiam, Baskar Mannai

Abstract:

Topology Optimization is a defined as the method of determining optimal distribution of material for the assumed design space with functionality, loads and boundary conditions [1]. Topology optimization can be used to optimize shape for the purposes of weight reduction, minimizing material requirements or selecting cost effective materials [2]. Topology optimization has been implemented through the use of finite element methods for the analysis, and optimization techniques based on the method of moving asymptotes, genetic algorithms, optimality criteria method, level sets and topological derivatives. Case study of Typical “Fuselage design" is considered for this paper to explain the benefits of Topology Optimization in the design cycle. A cylindrical shell is assumed as the design space and aerospace standard pay loads were applied on the fuselage with wing attachments as constraints. Then topological optimization is done using Finite Element (FE) based software. This optimization results in the structural concept design which satisfies all the design constraints using minimum material.

Keywords: Fuselage, Topology optimization, payloads, designoptimization, Finite Element Analysis.

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21 Phase Control Array Synthesis Using Constrained Accelerated Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors: Mohammad Taha, Dia abu al Nadi

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In this paper, the phase control antenna array synthesis is presented. The problem is formulated as a constrained optimization problem that imposes nulls with prescribed level while maintaining the sidelobe at a prescribed level. For efficient use of the algorithm memory, compared to the well known Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), the Accelerated Particle Swarm Optimization (APSO) is used to estimate the phase parameters of the synthesized array. The objective function is formed using a main objective and set of constraints with penalty factors that measure the violation of each feasible solution in the search space to each constraint. In this case the obtained feasible solution is guaranteed to satisfy all the constraints. Simulation results have shown significant performance increases and a decreased randomness in the parameter search space compared to a single objective conventional particle swarm optimization.

Keywords: Array synthesis, Sidelobe level control, Constrainedoptimization, Accelerated Particle Swarm Optimization.

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20 Two Phase Frictional Pressure Drop of Carbon Dioxide in Horizontal Micro Tubes

Authors: M. Tarawneh

Abstract:

Two-phase frictional pressure drop data were obtained for condensation of carbon dioxide in single horizontal micro tube of inner diameter ranged from 0.6 mm up to 1.6 mm over mass flow rates from 2.5*10-5 to 17*10-5 kg/s and vapor qualities from 0.0 to 1.0. The inlet condensing pressure is changed from 33.5 to 45 bars. The saturation temperature ranged from -1.5 oC up to 10 oC. These data have then been compared against three (two-phase) frictional pressure drop prediction methods. The first method is by Muller-Steinhagen and Heck (Muller-Steinhagen H, Heck K. A simple friction pressure drop correlation for two-phase flow in pipes. Chem. Eng. Process 1986;20:297–308) and that by Gronnerud R. Investigation of liquid hold-up, flow-resistance and heat transfer in circulation type evaporators, part IV: two-phase flow resistance in boiling refrigerants, Annexe 1972. Then the method used by FriedelL. Improved friction pressures drop in horizontal and vertical two-phase pipe flow. European Two-Phase Flow Group Meeting, Paper E2; 1979 June, Ispra, Italy. The methods are used by M.B Ould Didi et al (2001) “Prediction of two-phase pressure gradients of refrigerant in horizontal tubes". Int.J.of Refrigeration 25(2002) 935- 947. The best available method for annular flow was that of Muller- Steinhagen and Heck. It was observed that the peak in the two-phase frictional pressure gradient is at high vapor qualities.

Keywords: Two-phase flow, frictional pressure drop, horizontalmicro tube, carbon dioxide, condensers.

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19 Study on Phytochemical Properties, Antibacterial Activity and Cytotoxicity of Aloe vera L.

Authors: K. Thu, Yin Y. Mon, Tin A. Khaing, Ohn M. Tun

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to investigate phytochemical properties, antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity of Aloe vera. The phytochemical screening of the extracts of leaves of A. vera revealed the presence of bioactive compounds such as alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids phenolic compounds, and etc. with absence of cyanogenic glycosides. Three different solvents such as methanol, ethanol and Di-Methyl sulfoxide were used to screen the antimicrobial activity of A. vera leaves against four human clinical pathogens by agar well diffusion method. The maximum antibacterial activities were observed in methanol extract followed by ethanol and Di-Methyl sulfoxide. It was also found that remarkable antibacterial activities with methanolic and ethanolic extracts of A. vera compared with the standard antibiotic, tetracycline that was not active against E. coli and S. boydii and supported the view that A. vera is a potent antimicrobial agent compared with the conventional antibiotic. Moreover, the brine shrimps (Artemia salina) toxicity test exhibited LC50 value was 569.52 ppm. The resulting data indicated that the A. vera plant have less toxic effects on brine shrimp. Hence, it is signified that Aloe vera plant extract is safe to be used as an antimicrobial agent.

Keywords: Aloe vera L., antimicrobial activity, brine shrimp, cytotoxicity, phytochemical properties.

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18 Efficient DTW-Based Speech Recognition System for Isolated Words of Arabic Language

Authors: Khalid A. Darabkh, Ala F. Khalifeh, Baraa A. Bathech, Saed W. Sabah

Abstract:

Despite the fact that Arabic language is currently one of the most common languages worldwide, there has been only a little research on Arabic speech recognition relative to other languages such as English and Japanese. Generally, digital speech processing and voice recognition algorithms are of special importance for designing efficient, accurate, as well as fast automatic speech recognition systems. However, the speech recognition process carried out in this paper is divided into three stages as follows: firstly, the signal is preprocessed to reduce noise effects. After that, the signal is digitized and hearingized. Consequently, the voice activity regions are segmented using voice activity detection (VAD) algorithm. Secondly, features are extracted from the speech signal using Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC) algorithm. Moreover, delta and acceleration (delta-delta) coefficients have been added for the reason of improving the recognition accuracy. Finally, each test word-s features are compared to the training database using dynamic time warping (DTW) algorithm. Utilizing the best set up made for all affected parameters to the aforementioned techniques, the proposed system achieved a recognition rate of about 98.5% which outperformed other HMM and ANN-based approaches available in the literature.

Keywords: Arabic speech recognition, MFCC, DTW, VAD.

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17 An Application of the Sinc-Collocation Method to a Three-Dimensional Oceanography Model

Authors: Y. Mohseniahouei, K. Abdella, M. Pollanen

Abstract:

In this paper, we explore the applicability of the Sinc- Collocation method to a three-dimensional (3D) oceanography model. The model describes a wind-driven current with depth-dependent eddy viscosity in the complex-velocity system. In general, the Sinc-based methods excel over other traditional numerical methods due to their exponentially decaying errors, rapid convergence and handling problems in the presence of singularities in end-points. Together with these advantages, the Sinc-Collocation approach that we utilize exploits first derivative interpolation, whose integration is much less sensitive to numerical errors. We bring up several model problems to prove the accuracy, stability, and computational efficiency of the method. The approximate solutions determined by the Sinc-Collocation technique are compared to exact solutions and those obtained by the Sinc-Galerkin approach in earlier studies. Our findings indicate that the Sinc-Collocation method outperforms other Sinc-based methods in past studies.

Keywords: Boundary Value Problems, Differential Equations, Sinc Numerical Methods, Wind-Driven Currents

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16 A Book Cover as an Expression of Conceptualization and a Tool of Social Identity Construction: The Interpretation Based on the Example of G. Ritzer's book McDonaldization of Society

Authors: Jiří Pavelka

Abstract:

The study is based on the assumption that media products are appropriate subjects for the exploration of social and cultural identities as a keystone of value orientations of their authors, producers and target audiences. The research object of the study is the title page of the book cover of a professional publication that serves as a medium of marketing, scientific and intercultural communication, which is the result of semiotic and intercultural transfer. The study aims to answer the question whether the book cover is an expression of conceptualization and tool for social identity construction. It attempts to determine what value orientations and what concepts of social and cultural identities are hidden in the narrative structures of the book cover of the Czech translation of the book by G. Ritzer The McDonaldization of Society (1993), issued after the fall of the iron curtain in 1996 in the Czech Republic.

Keywords: Social and cultural identity, book cover, marketing communication, semiotic and intercultural transfer, narrative structure, the McDonaldisation of Society.

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15 OSGi in Cloud Environments

Authors: Irina Astrova, Arne Koschel, Björn Siekmann, Mark Starrach, Christopher Tebbe, StefanWolf, Marc Schaaf

Abstract:

This paper deals with the combination of OSGi and cloud computing. Both technologies are mainly placed in the field of distributed computing. Therefore, it is discussed how different approaches from different institutions work. In addition, the approaches are compared to each other.

Keywords: Cloud computing, OSGi, distributed environments.

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14 Flight Control of Vectored Thrust Aerial Vehicle by Neural Network Predictive Controller for Enhanced Situational Awareness

Authors: Igor Astrov, Mikhail Pikkov, Rein Paluoja

Abstract:

This paper focuses on a critical component of the situational awareness (SA), the control of autonomous vertical flight for vectored thrust aerial vehicle (VTAV). With the SA strategy, we proposed a flight control procedure to address the dynamics variation and performance requirement difference of flight trajectory for an unmanned helicopter model with vectored thrust configuration. This control strategy for chosen model of VTAV has been verified by simulation of take-off and forward maneuvers using software package Simulink and demonstrated good performance for fast stabilization of motors, consequently, fast SA with economy in energy can be asserted during search-and-rescue operations.

Keywords: Neural network predictive controller, situational awareness, vectored thrust aerial vehicle.

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13 Automated Process Quality Monitoring with Prediction of Fault Condition Using Measurement Data

Authors: Hyun-Woo Cho

Abstract:

Detection of incipient abnormal events is important to improve safety and reliability of machine operations and reduce losses caused by failures. Improper set-ups or aligning of parts often leads to severe problems in many machines. The construction of prediction models for predicting faulty conditions is quite essential in making decisions on when to perform machine maintenance. This paper presents a multivariate calibration monitoring approach based on the statistical analysis of machine measurement data. The calibration model is used to predict two faulty conditions from historical reference data. This approach utilizes genetic algorithms (GA) based variable selection, and we evaluate the predictive performance of several prediction methods using real data. The results shows that the calibration model based on supervised probabilistic principal component analysis (SPPCA) yielded best performance in this work. By adopting a proper variable selection scheme in calibration models, the prediction performance can be improved by excluding non-informative variables from their model building steps.

Keywords: Prediction, operation monitoring, on-line data, nonlinear statistical methods, empirical model.

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12 Project Management Maturity Models and Organizational Project Management Maturity Model (OPM3®): A Critical Morphological Evaluation

Authors: Farrokh J., Azhar K. Mansur

Abstract:

There exists a strong correlation between efficient project management and competitive advantage for organizations. Therefore, organizations are striving to standardize and assess the rigor of their project management processes and capabilities i.e. project management maturity. Researchers and standardization organizations have developed several project management maturity models (PMMMs) to assess project management maturity of the organizations. This study presents a critical evaluation of some of the leading PMMMs against OPM3® in a multitude of ways to look at which PMMM is the most comprehensive model - which could assess most aspects of organizations and also help the organizations in gaining competitive advantage over competitors. After a detailed morphological analysis of the models, it is concluded that OPM3® is the most promising maturity model that can really provide a competitive advantage to the organizations due to its unique approach of assessment and improvement strategies.

Keywords: Project management maturity, project managemen tmaturity models, competitive advantage.

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11 Maxwell-Cattaneo Regularization of Heat Equation

Authors: F. Ekoue, A. Fouache d'Halloy, D. Gigon, G Plantamp, E. Zajdman

Abstract:

This work focuses on analysis of classical heat transfer equation regularized with Maxwell-Cattaneo transfer law. Computer simulations are performed in MATLAB environment. Numerical experiments are first developed on classical Fourier equation, then Maxwell-Cattaneo law is considered. Corresponding equation is regularized with a balancing diffusion term to stabilize discretizing scheme with adjusted time and space numerical steps. Several cases including a convective term in model equations are discussed, and results are given. It is shown that limiting conditions on regularizing parameters have to be satisfied in convective case for Maxwell-Cattaneo regularization to give physically acceptable solutions. In all valid cases, uniform convergence to solution of initial heat equation with Fourier law is observed, even in nonlinear case.

Keywords: Maxwell-Cattaneo heat transfers equations, fourierlaw, heat conduction, numerical solution.

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10 Intrusion Detection Using a New Particle Swarm Method and Support Vector Machines

Authors: Essam Al Daoud

Abstract:

Intrusion detection is a mechanism used to protect a system and analyse and predict the behaviours of system users. An ideal intrusion detection system is hard to achieve due to nonlinearity, and irrelevant or redundant features. This study introduces a new anomaly-based intrusion detection model. The suggested model is based on particle swarm optimisation and nonlinear, multi-class and multi-kernel support vector machines. Particle swarm optimisation is used for feature selection by applying a new formula to update the position and the velocity of a particle; the support vector machine is used as a classifier. The proposed model is tested and compared with the other methods using the KDD CUP 1999 dataset. The results indicate that this new method achieves better accuracy rates than previous methods.

Keywords: Feature selection, Intrusion detection, Support vector machine, Particle swarm.

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9 Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis in Planning of Asbestos-Containing Waste Management

Authors: E. Bruno, F. Lacarbonara, M. C. Placentino, D. Gramegna

Abstract:

Environmental decision making, particularly about hazardous waste management, is inherently exposed to a high potential conflict, principally because of the trade-off between sociopolitical, environmental, health and economic factors. The need to plan complex contexts has led to an increasing request for decision analytic techniques as support for the decision process. In this work, alternative systems of asbestos-containing waste management (ACW) in Puglia (Southern Italy) were explored by a multi-criteria decision analysis. In particular, through Analytic Hierarchy Process five alternatives management have been compared and ranked according to their performance and efficiency, taking into account environmental, health and socio-economic aspects. A separated valuation has been performed for different temporal scale. For short period results showed a narrow deviation between the disposal alternatives “mono-material landfill in public quarry" and “dedicate cells in existing landfill", with the best performance of the first one. While for long period “treatment plant to eliminate hazard from asbestos-containing waste" was prevalent, although high energy demand required to achieve the change of crystalline structure. A comparison with results from a participative approach in valuation process might be considered as future development of method application to ACW management.

Keywords: Multi-criteria decision analysis, Hazardous wastemanagement, Asbestos.

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8 Combustion, Emission and Performance Characteristics of a Light Duty Diesel Engine Fuelled with Methanol Diesel Blends

Authors: Mishra Chinmaya, Pal Anuj, Tomar Vishvendra Singh, Kumar Naveen

Abstract:

Combustion, emission and performance characterization of a single cylinder diesel engine using methanol diesel blends was carried out. The blends were 5% (v/v) methanol in diesel (MD05) and 10% (v/v) methanol in diesel (MD10). The problem of solubility of methanol and diesel was addressed by an agitator placed inside the fuel tank to prevent phase separation. The results indicated that total combustion duration was reduced by15.8% for MD05 and 31.27% for MD10compared to the baseline data. Ignition delay was increased with increasing methanol volume fraction in the test fuel. Total cyclic heat release was reduced by 1.5% for MD05 and 6.7% for MD10 as compared to diesel baseline. Emissions of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons along with smoke were reduced and that of nitrogen oxides were increased with rising methanol contents in the test fuel. Full load brake thermal efficiency was marginally reduced with increased methanol composition in the blend.

Keywords: Combustion, diesel engine, emission, methanol, performance.

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7 Ethics Perception of Pharmaceutical Companies

Authors: Blandina Šramová, Gabriela Kučeráková

Abstract:

The paper is intended to declare and apply ethics, i. e. moral principles, rules in marketing environment. Ethical behavior of selected pharmaceutical companies in the Slovak Republic is the object of our research. The aim of our research is to determine perception of ethical behavior of the pharmaceutical industry in Slovakia by the medicine representatives in comparison with the assessment of doctors and patients. The experimental sample included 90 participants who were divided into three groups: medicine representatives of the pharmaceutical companies (N=30), doctors (N=30) and patients (N=30). The research method was a Questionnaire of ethical behavior, created by us, that describes individual areas included in the Code of ethics of the pharmaceutical industry in Slovakia. The results showed influence of professional status on ethical behavior perception, not gender. Higher perception was indicated at patients rather than doctors and medicine representatives.

Keywords: Ethics, corporate social responsibility, marketing, pharmaceutical industry.

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6 Performance and Emission Study of Linseed Oilas a Fuel for CI Engine

Authors: Ashutosh Kumar Rai, Naveen Kumar, Bhupendra Singh Chauhan

Abstract:

Increased energy demand and the concern about environment friendly technology, renewable bio-fuels are better alternative to petroleum products. In the present study linseed oil was used as alternative source for diesel engine fuel and the results were compared with baseline data of neat diesel. Performance parameters such as brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and emissions parameters such as CO, unburned hydro carbon (UBHC), NOx, CO2 and exhaust temperature were compared. BTE of the engine was lower and BSFC was higher when the engine was fueled with Linseed oil compared to diesel fuel. Emission characteristics are better than diesel fuel. NOx formation by using linseed oil during the experiment was lower than diesel fuel. Linseed oil is non edible oil, so it can be used as an extender of diesel fuel energy source for small and medium energy needs.

Keywords: Bio-fuel, exhaust emission, linseed oil, triglyceride.

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5 Surgical Theater Utilization and PACU Staffing

Authors: Abdulrahim Shamayleh

Abstract:

In this work, the surgical theater of a local hospital in KSA was analyzed using simulation. The focus was on attempting to answer questions related to how many Operating Rooms (ORs) to open and to analyze the performance of the surgical theater in general and mainly the Post Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU) to assist making decisions regarding PACU staffing. The surgical theater consists of ten operating rooms and the PACU unit which has a maximum capacity of fifteen beds. Different sequencing rules to sequence the surgical cases were tested and the Longest Case First (LCF) were superior to others. The results of the different alternatives developed and tested can be used by the manager as a tool to plan and manage the OR and PACU

Keywords: Operating room, post anesthesia care unit, PACUstaffing, sequencing, healthcare

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4 Development of EN338 (2009) Strength Classes for Some Common Nigerian Timber Species Using Three Point Bending Test

Authors: Abubakar Idris, Nabade Abdullahi Muhammad

Abstract:

The work presents a development of EN338 strength classes for Strombosia pustulata, Pterygotama crocarpa, Nauclea diderrichii and Entandrophragma cyclindricum Nigerian timber species. The specimens for experimental measurements were obtained from the timber-shed at the famous Panteka market in Kaduna in the northern part of Nigeria. Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the physical and mechanical properties of the selected timber species in accordance with EN 13183-1 and ASTM D193. The mechanical properties were determined using three point bending test. The generated properties were used to obtain the characteristic values of the material properties in accordance with EN384. The selected timber species were then classified according to EN 338. Strombosia pustulata, Pterygotama crocarpa, Nauclea diderrichii and Entandrophragma cyclindricum were assigned to strength classes D40, C14, D40 and D24 respectively. Other properties such as tensile and compressive strengths parallel and perpendicular to grains, shear strength as well as shear modulus were obtained in accordance with EN 338. 

Keywords: Mechanical properties, Nigerian timber, strength classes, three-point bending test.

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3 Degradability Studies of Photodegradable Plastic Film

Authors: Nurul, A.M.Y., Rahmah, M., Muhammad, A.

Abstract:

Polypropylene blended with natural oil and pigment additives has been studied. Different formulations for each compound were made into polybag used for cultivation of oil palm seedlings for strength and mechanical properties studies. One group of sample was exposed under normal sunlight to initiate degradation and another group of sample was placed under shaded area for five months. All samples were tested for tensile strength to determine the degradation effects. The tensile strength of directly exposed sunlight samples and shaded area showed up to 50% and 25% degradation respectively. However, similar reduction of Young’s modulus for all samples was found for both exposures. Structural investigations were done using FTIR to detect deformation. The natural additives that were used in the studies were all natural and environmental friendly

Keywords: Agriculture, mechanical strength, photodegradable polymer.

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2 Optimization Based Tuning of Autopilot Gains for a Fixed Wing UAV

Authors: Mansoor Ahsan, Khalid Rafique, Farrukh Mazhar

Abstract:

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have gained tremendous importance, in both Military and Civil, during first decade of this century. In a UAV, onboard computer (autopilot) autonomously controls the flight and navigation of the aircraft. Based on the aircraft role and flight envelope, basic to complex and sophisticated controllers are used to stabilize the aircraft flight parameters. These controllers constitute the autopilot system for UAVs. The autopilot systems, most commonly, provide lateral and longitudinal control through Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controllers or Phase-lead or Lag Compensators. Various techniques are commonly used to ‘tune’ gains of these controllers. Some techniques used are, in-flight step-by-step tuning, software-in-loop or hardware-in-loop tuning methods. Subsequently, numerous in-flight tests are required to actually ‘fine-tune’ these gains. However, an optimization-based tuning of these PID controllers or compensators, as presented in this paper, can greatly minimize the requirement of in-flight ‘tuning’ and substantially reduce the risks and cost involved in flight-testing.

Keywords: Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), autopilot, autonomous controls, PID controler gains tuning, optimization.

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1 The Symmetric Solutions for Three-Point Singular Boundary Value Problems of Differential Equation

Authors: Li Xiguang

Abstract:

In this paper, by constructing a special operator and using fixed point index theorem of cone, we get the sufficient conditions for symmetric positive solution of a class of nonlinear singular boundary value problems with p-Laplace operator, which improved and generalized the result of related paper.

Keywords: Banach space, cone, fixed point index, singular differential equation, p-Laplace operator, symmetric solutions.

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