Search results for: Attacks
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 296

Search results for: Attacks

296 Quick Reference: Cyber Attacks Awareness and Prevention Method for Home Users

Authors: Haydar Teymourlouei

Abstract:

It is important to take security measures to protect your computer information, reduce identify theft, and prevent from malicious cyber-attacks. With cyber-attacks on the continuous rise, people need to understand and learn ways to prevent from these attacks. Cyber-attack is an important factor to be considered if one is to be able to protect oneself from malicious attacks. Without proper security measures, most computer technology would hinder home users more than such technologies would help. Knowledge of how cyber-attacks operate and protective steps that can be taken to reduce chances of its occurrence are key to increasing these security measures. The purpose of this paper is to inform home users on the importance of identifying and taking preventive steps to avoid cyberattacks. Throughout this paper, many aspects of cyber-attacks will be discuss: what a cyber-attack is, the affects of cyber-attack for home users, different types of cyber-attacks, methodology to prevent such attacks; home users can take to fortify security of their computer.

Keywords: Cyber-attacks, home user, prevention, security, technology.

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295 Mechanized Proof of Resistance of Denial of Service Attacks in Voting Protocol with ProVerif

Authors: Bo Meng, Wei Wang

Abstract:

Resistance of denial of service attacks is a key security requirement in voting protocols. Acquisti protocol plays an important role in development of internet voting protocols and claims its security without strong physical assumptions. In this study firstly Acquisti protocol is modeled in extended applied pi calculus, and then resistance of denial of service attacks is proved with ProVerif. The result is that it is not resistance of denial of service attacks because two denial of service attacks are found. Finally we give the method against the denial of service attacks.

Keywords: Applied pi calculus, protocol state, symbolic model, availability.

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294 Attacks and Counter Measures in BST Overlay Structure of Peer-To-Peer System

Authors: Guruprasad Khataniar, Hitesh Tahbildar, Prakriti Prava Das

Abstract:

There are various overlay structures that provide efficient and scalable solutions for point and range query in a peer-topeer network. Overlay structure based on m-Binary Search Tree (BST) is one such popular technique. It deals with the division of the tree into different key intervals and then assigning the key intervals to a BST. The popularity of the BST makes this overlay structure vulnerable to different kinds of attacks. Here we present four such possible attacks namely index poisoning attack, eclipse attack, pollution attack and syn flooding attack. The functionality of BST is affected by these attacks. We also provide different security techniques that can be applied against these attacks.

Keywords: BST, eclipse attack, index poisoning attack, pollution attack, syn flooding attack.

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293 A Systematic Approach for Analyzing Multiple Cyber-Physical Attacks on the Smart Grid

Authors: Yatin Wadhawan, Clifford Neuman, Anas Al Majali

Abstract:

In this paper, we evaluate the resilience of the smart grid system in the presence of multiple cyber-physical attacks on its distinct functional components. We discuss attack-defense scenarios and their effect on smart grid resilience. Through contingency simulations in the Network and PowerWorld Simulator, we analyze multiple cyber-physical attacks that propagate from the cyber domain to power systems and discuss how such attacks destabilize the underlying power grid. The analysis of such simulations helps system administrators develop more resilient systems and improves the response of the system in the presence of cyber-physical attacks.

Keywords: Smart grid, resilience, gas pipeline, cyber-physical attack, security.

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292 An Efficient and Secure Solution for the Problems of ARP Cache Poisoning Attacks

Authors: Md. Ataullah, Naveen Chauhan

Abstract:

The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is used by computers to map logical addresses (IP) to physical addresses (MAC). However ARP is an all trusting protocol and is stateless which makes it vulnerable to many ARP cache poisoning attacks such as Man-in-the-Middle (MITM) and Denial of service (DoS) attacks. These flaws result in security breaches thus weakening the appeal of the computer for exchange of sensitive data. In this paper we describe ARP, outline several possible ARP cache poisoning attacks and give the detailed of some attack scenarios in network having both wired and wireless hosts. We have analyzed each of proposed solutions, identify their strengths and limitations. Finally get that no solution offers a feasible solution. Hence, this paper presents an efficient and secure version of ARP that is able to cope up with all these types of attacks and is also a feasible solution. It is a stateful protocol, by storing the information of the Request frame in the ARP cache, to reduce the chances of various types of attacks in ARP. It is more efficient and secure by broadcasting ARP Reply frame in the network and storing related entries in the ARP cache each time when communication take place.

Keywords: ARP cache poisoning, MITM, DoS

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291 Taxonomy of Structured P2P Overlay Networks Security Attacks

Authors: Zied Trifa, Maher Khemakhem

Abstract:

The survey and classification of the different security attacks in structured peer-to-peer (P2P) overlay networks can be useful to computer system designers, programmers, administrators, and users. In this paper, we attempt to provide a taxonomy of structured P2P overlay networks security attacks. We have specially focused on the way these attacks can arise at each level of the network. Moreover, we observed that most of the existing systems such as Content Addressable Network (CAN), Chord, Pastry, Tapestry, Kademlia, and Viceroy suffer from threats and vulnerability which lead to disrupt and corrupt their functioning. We hope that our survey constitutes a good help for who-s working on this area of research.

Keywords: P2P, Structured P2P Overlay Networks, DHT, Security, classification

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290 Study on Network-Based Technology for Detecting Potentially Malicious Websites

Authors: Byung-Ik Kim, Hong-Koo Kang, Tae-Jin Lee, Hae-Ryong Park

Abstract:

Cyber terrors against specific enterprises or countries have been increasing recently. Such attacks against specific targets are called advanced persistent threat (APT), and they are giving rise to serious social problems. The malicious behaviors of APT attacks mostly affect websites and penetrate enterprise networks to perform malevolent acts. Although many enterprises invest heavily in security to defend against such APT threats, they recognize the APT attacks only after the latter are already in action. This paper discusses the characteristics of APT attacks at each step as well as the strengths and weaknesses of existing malicious code detection technologies to check their suitability for detecting APT attacks. It then proposes a network-based malicious behavior detection algorithm to protect the enterprise or national networks.

Keywords: Advanced Persistent Threat, Malware, Network Security, Network Packet, Exploit Kits.

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289 A Study of General Attacks on Elliptic Curve Discrete Logarithm Problem over Prime Field and Binary Field

Authors: Tun Myat Aung, Ni Ni Hla

Abstract:

This paper begins by describing basic properties of finite field and elliptic curve cryptography over prime field and binary field. Then we discuss the discrete logarithm problem for elliptic curves and its properties. We study the general common attacks on elliptic curve discrete logarithm problem such as the Baby Step, Giant Step method, Pollard’s rho method and Pohlig-Hellman method, and describe in detail experiments of these attacks over prime field and binary field. The paper finishes by describing expected running time of the attacks and suggesting strong elliptic curves that are not susceptible to these attacks.c

Keywords: Discrete logarithm problem, general attacks, elliptic curves, strong curves, prime field, binary field, attack experiments.

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288 A Taxonomy of Internal Attacks in Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Muhammad R Ahmed, Xu Huang, Dharmendra Sharma

Abstract:

Developments in communication technologies especially in wireless have enabled the progress of low-cost and lowpower wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The features of such WSN are holding minimal energy, weak computational capabilities, wireless communication and an open-medium nature where sensors are deployed. WSN is underpinned by application driven such as military applications, the health sector, etc. Due to the intrinsic nature of the network and application scenario, WSNs are vulnerable to many attacks externally and internally. In this paper we have focused on the types of internal attacks of WSNs based on OSI model and discussed some security requirements, characterizers and challenges of WSNs, by which to contribute to the WSN-s security research.

Keywords: Wireless sensor network, internal attacks, security, OSI model.

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287 WebAppShield: An Approach Exploiting Machine Learning to Detect SQLi Attacks in an Application Layer in Run-Time

Authors: Ahmed Abdulla Ashlam, Atta Badii, Frederic Stahl

Abstract:

In recent years, SQL injection attacks have been identified as being prevalent against web applications. They affect network security and user data, which leads to a considerable loss of money and data every year. This paper presents the use of classification algorithms in machine learning using a method to classify the login data filtering inputs into "SQLi" or "Non-SQLi,” thus increasing the reliability and accuracy of results in terms of deciding whether an operation is an attack or a valid operation. A method as a Web-App is developed for auto-generated data replication to provide a twin of the targeted data structure. Shielding against SQLi attacks (WebAppShield) that verifies all users and prevents attackers (SQLi attacks) from entering and or accessing the database, which the machine learning module predicts as "Non-SQLi", has been developed. A special login form has been developed with a special instance of the data validation; this verification process secures the web application from its early stages. The system has been tested and validated, and up to 99% of SQLi attacks have been prevented.

Keywords: SQL injection, attacks, web application, accuracy, database, WebAppShield.

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286 Status and Requirements of Counter-Cyberterrorism

Authors: Jeong-Tae Kim, Tchanghee Hyun

Abstract:

The number of intrusions and attacks against critical infrastructures and other information networks is increasing rapidly. While there is no identified evidence that terrorist organizations are currently planning a coordinated attack against the vulnerabilities of computer systems and network connected to critical infrastructure, and origins of the indiscriminate cyber attacks that infect computers on network remain largely unknown. The growing trend toward the use of more automated and menacing attack tools has also overwhelmed some of the current methodologies used for tracking cyber attacks. There is an ample possibility that this kind of cyber attacks can be transform to cyberterrorism caused by illegal purposes. Cyberterrorism is a matter of vital importance to national welfare. Therefore, each countries and organizations have to take a proper measure to meet the situation and consider effective legislation about cyberterrorism.

Keywords: Cyberterrorism, cyber attack, information security, legislation

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285 Deradicalization of Former Terrorists through an Entrepreneurship Program

Authors: Jamal Wiwoho, Pujiyono, Triyanto

Abstract:

Terrorism is a real enemy for all countries, including Indonesia. Bomb attacks in some parts of Indonesia are proof that Indonesia has serious problems with terrorism. Perpetrators of terror are arrested and imprisoned, and some of them were executed. However, this method did not succeed in stopping the terrorist attacks. Former terrorists continue to carry out bomb attacks. Therefore, this paper proposes a program towards deradicalization efforts of former terrorists through entrepreneurship. This is necessary because it is impossible to change their radical ideology. The program is also motivated by understanding that terrorists generally come from poor families. This program aims to occupy their time with business activities so there is no time to plan and carry out bomb attacks. This research is an empirical law study. Data were collected by literature study, observation, and in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed with the Miles and Huberman interactive model. The results show that the entrepreneurship program is effective to prevent terrorist attack. Former terrorists are busy with their business. Therefore, they have no time to carry out bomb attacks.

Keywords: Deradicalization, terrorists, entrepreneurship.

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284 Mechanisms of Internet Security Attacks

Authors: J. Dubois, P. Jreije

Abstract:

Internet security attack could endanger the privacy of World Wide Web users and the integrity of their data. The attack can be carried out on today's most secure systems- browsers, including Netscape Navigator and Microsoft Internet Explorer. There are too many types, methods and mechanisms of attack where new attack techniques and exploits are constantly being developed and discovered. In this paper, various types of internet security attack mechanisms are explored and it is pointed out that when different types of attacks are combined together, network security can suffer disastrous consequences.

Keywords: DoS, internet attacks, router attack, security, trojan, virus, worm, XSS.

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283 Web Application Security, Attacks and Mitigation

Authors: Ayush Chugh, Gaurav Gupta

Abstract:

Today’s technology is heavily dependent on web applications. Web applications are being accepted by users at a very rapid pace. These have made our work efficient. These include webmail, online retail sale, online gaming, wikis, departure and arrival of trains and flights and list is very long. These are developed in different languages like PHP, Python, C#, ASP.NET and many more by using scripts such as HTML and JavaScript. Attackers develop tools and techniques to exploit web applications and legitimate websites. This has led to rise of web application security; which can be broadly classified into Declarative Security and Program Security. The most common attacks on the applications are by SQL Injection and XSS which give access to unauthorized users who totally damage or destroy the system. This paper presents a detailed literature description and analysis on Web Application Security, examples of attacks and steps to mitigate the vulnerabilities.

Keywords: Attacks, Injection, JavaScript, SQL, Vulnerability, XSS.

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282 Enhancing Privacy-Preserving Cloud Database Querying by Preventing Brute Force Attacks

Authors: Ambika Vishal Pawar, Ajay Dani

Abstract:

Considering the complexities involved in Cloud computing, there are still plenty of issues that affect the privacy of data in cloud environment. Unless these problems get solved, we think that the problem of preserving privacy in cloud databases is still open. In tokenization and homomorphic cryptography based solutions for privacy preserving cloud database querying, there is possibility that by colluding with service provider adversary may run brute force attacks that will reveal the attribute values.

In this paper we propose a solution by defining the variant of K –means clustering algorithm that effectively detects such brute force attacks and enhances privacy of cloud database querying by preventing this attacks.

Keywords: Privacy, Database, Cloud Computing, Clustering, K-means, Cryptography.

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281 Proactive Detection of DDoS Attacks Utilizing k-NN Classifier in an Anti-DDos Framework

Authors: Hoai-Vu Nguyen, Yongsun Choi

Abstract:

Distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks pose a serious threat to network security. There have been a lot of methodologies and tools devised to detect DDoS attacks and reduce the damage they cause. Still, most of the methods cannot simultaneously achieve (1) efficient detection with a small number of false alarms and (2) real-time transfer of packets. Here, we introduce a method for proactive detection of DDoS attacks, by classifying the network status, to be utilized in the detection stage of the proposed anti-DDoS framework. Initially, we analyse the DDoS architecture and obtain details of its phases. Then, we investigate the procedures of DDoS attacks and select variables based on these features. Finally, we apply the k-nearest neighbour (k-NN) method to classify the network status into each phase of DDoS attack. The simulation result showed that each phase of the attack scenario is classified well and we could detect DDoS attack in the early stage.

Keywords: distributed denial-of-service (DDoS), k-nearestneighbor classifier (k-NN), anti-DDoS framework, DDoS detection.

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280 Machine Learning Methods for Network Intrusion Detection

Authors: Mouhammad Alkasassbeh, Mohammad Almseidin

Abstract:

Network security engineers work to keep services available all the time by handling intruder attacks. Intrusion Detection System (IDS) is one of the obtainable mechanisms that is used to sense and classify any abnormal actions. Therefore, the IDS must be always up to date with the latest intruder attacks signatures to preserve confidentiality, integrity, and availability of the services. The speed of the IDS is a very important issue as well learning the new attacks. This research work illustrates how the Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining (or Knowledge Discovery in Databases) KDD dataset is very handy for testing and evaluating different Machine Learning Techniques. It mainly focuses on the KDD preprocess part in order to prepare a decent and fair experimental data set. The J48, MLP, and Bayes Network classifiers have been chosen for this study. It has been proven that the J48 classifier has achieved the highest accuracy rate for detecting and classifying all KDD dataset attacks, which are of type DOS, R2L, U2R, and PROBE.

Keywords: IDS, DDoS, MLP, KDD.

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279 User’s Susceptibility Factors to Malware Attacks: A Systemic Literature Review

Authors: Awad A. Younis, Elise Stronberg, Shifa Noor

Abstract:

Users’ susceptibility to malware attacks have been noticed in the past few years. Investigating the factors that make a user vulnerable to those attacks is critical because they can be utilized to set up proactive strategies such as awareness and education to mitigate the impacts of those attacks. Demographic, behavioral, and cultural vulnerabilities are the main factors that make users susceptible to malware attacks. It is challenging, however, to draw more general conclusions based on those factors due to the varieties in the type of users and different types of malware. Therefore, we conducted a systematic literature review (SLR) of the existing research for user susceptibility factors to malware attacks. The results showed that all demographic factors are consistently associated with malware infection regardless of the users' type except for age and gender. Besides, the association of culture and personality factors with malware infection is consistent in most of the selected studies and for all types of users. Moreover, malware infection varies based on age, geographic location, and host types. We propose that future studies should carefully take into consideration the type of users because different users may be exposed to different threats or targeted based on their user domains’ characteristics. Additionally, as different types of malware use different tactics to trick users, taking the malware types into consideration is important.

Keywords: cybersecurity, malware, users, demographics, personality, culture, systematic literature review

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278 Denial of Service (DOS) Attack and Its Possible Solutions in VANET

Authors: Halabi Hasbullah, Irshad Ahmed Soomro, Jamalul-lail Ab Manan

Abstract:

Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET) is taking more attention in automotive industry due to the safety concern of human lives on roads. Security is one of the safety aspects in VANET. To be secure, network availability must be obtained at all times since availability of the network is critically needed when a node sends any life critical information to other nodes. However, it can be expected that security attacks are likely to increase in the coming future due to more and more wireless applications being developed and deployed onto the well-known expose nature of the wireless medium. In this respect, the network availability is exposed to many types of attacks. In this paper, Denial of Service (DOS) attack on network availability is presented and its severity level in VANET environment is elaborated. A model to secure the VANET from the DOS attacks has been developed and some possible solutions to overcome the attacks have been discussed.

Keywords: Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET); security;availability; security attack; Denial of Service (DOS).

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277 A Simulated Environment Approach to Investigate the Effect of Adversarial Perturbations on Traffic Sign for Automotive Software-in-Loop Testing

Authors: Sunil Patel, Pallab Maji

Abstract:

To study the effect of adversarial attack environment must be controlled. Autonomous driving includes mainly 5 phases sense, perceive, map, plan, and drive. Autonomous vehicles sense their surrounding with the help of different sensors like cameras, radars, and lidars. Deep learning techniques are considered Blackbox and found to be vulnerable to adversarial attacks. In this research, we study the effect of the various known adversarial attacks with the help of the Unreal Engine-based, high-fidelity, real-time raytraced simulated environment. The goal of this experiment is to find out if adversarial attacks work in moving vehicles and if an unknown network may be targeted. We discovered that the existing Blackbox and Whitebox attacks have varying effects on different traffic signs. We observed that attacks that impair detection in static scenarios do not have the same effect on moving vehicles. It was found that some adversarial attacks with hardly noticeable perturbations entirely blocked the recognition of certain traffic signs. We observed that the daylight condition has a substantial impact on the model's performance by simulating the interplay of light on traffic signs. Our findings have been found to closely resemble outcomes encountered in the real world.

Keywords: Adversarial attack simulation, computer simulation, ray-traced environment, realistic simulation, unreal engine.

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276 Two Undetectable On-line Dictionary Attacks on Debiao et al.’s S-3PAKE Protocol

Authors: Sung-Bae Choi, Sang-Yoon Yoon, Eun-Jun Yoon

Abstract:

In 2011, Debiao et al. pointed out that S-3PAKE protocol proposed by Lu and Cao for password-authenticated key exchange in the three-party setting is vulnerable to an off-line dictionary attack. Then, they proposed some countermeasures to eliminate the security vulnerability of the S-3PAKE. Nevertheless, this paper points out their enhanced S-3PAKE protocol is still vulnerable to undetectable on-line dictionary attacks unlike their claim.

Keywords: Authentication, 3PAKE, password, three-party key exchange, network security, dictionary attacks.

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275 Behavioral Signature Generation using Shadow Honeypot

Authors: Maros Barabas, Michal Drozd, Petr Hanacek

Abstract:

A novel behavioral detection framework is proposed to detect zero day buffer overflow vulnerabilities (based on network behavioral signatures) using zero-day exploits, instead of the signature-based or anomaly-based detection solutions currently available for IDPS techniques. At first we present the detection model that uses shadow honeypot. Our system is used for the online processing of network attacks and generating a behavior detection profile. The detection profile represents the dataset of 112 types of metrics describing the exact behavior of malware in the network. In this paper we present the examples of generating behavioral signatures for two attacks – a buffer overflow exploit on FTP server and well known Conficker worm. We demonstrated the visualization of important aspects by showing the differences between valid behavior and the attacks. Based on these metrics we can detect attacks with a very high probability of success, the process of detection is however very expensive.

Keywords: behavioral signatures, metrics, network, security design

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274 Intelligent Agents for Distributed Intrusion Detection System

Authors: M. Benattou, K. Tamine

Abstract:

This paper presents a distributed intrusion detection system IDS, based on the concept of specialized distributed agents community representing agents with the same purpose for detecting distributed attacks. The semantic of intrusion events occurring in a predetermined network has been defined. The correlation rules referring the process which our proposed IDS combines the captured events that is distributed both spatially and temporally. And then the proposed IDS tries to extract significant and broad patterns for set of well-known attacks. The primary goal of our work is to provide intrusion detection and real-time prevention capability against insider attacks in distributed and fully automated environments.

Keywords: Mobile agent, specialized agent, interpreter agent, event rules, correlation.

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273 Experimental Analysis of Tools Used for Doxing and Proposed New Transforms to Help Organizations Protect against Doxing Attacks

Authors: Parul Khanna, Pavol Zavarsky, Dale Lindskog

Abstract:

Doxing is a term derived from documents, and hence consists of collecting information on an organization or individual through social media websites, search engines, password cracking methods, social engineering tools and other sources of publicly displayed information. The main purpose of doxing attacks is to threaten, embarrass, harass and humiliate the organization or individual. Various tools are used to perform doxing. Tools such as Maltego visualize organization’s architecture which helps in determining weak links within the organization. This paper discusses limitations of Maltego Chlorine CE 3.6.0 and suggests measures as to how organizations can use these tools to protect themselves from doxing attacks.

Keywords: Advanced Persistent Threat, FOCA, OSINT, PII.

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272 Resilient Machine Learning in the Nuclear Industry: Crack Detection as a Case Study

Authors: Anita Khadka, Gregory Epiphaniou, Carsten Maple

Abstract:

There is a dramatic surge in the adoption of Machine Learning (ML) techniques in many areas, including the nuclear industry (such as fault diagnosis and fuel management in nuclear power plants), autonomous systems (including self-driving vehicles), space systems (space debris recovery, for example), medical surgery, network intrusion detection, malware detection, to name a few. Artificial Intelligence (AI) has become a part of everyday modern human life. To date, the predominant focus has been developing underpinning ML algorithms that can improve accuracy, while factors such as resiliency and robustness of algorithms have been largely overlooked. If an adversarial attack is able to compromise the learning method or data, the consequences can be fatal, especially but not exclusively in safety-critical applications. In this paper, we present an in-depth analysis of five adversarial attacks and two defence methods on a crack detection ML model. Our analysis shows that it can be dangerous to adopt ML techniques without rigorous testing, since they may be vulnerable to adversarial attacks, especially in security-critical areas such as the nuclear industry. We observed that while the adopted defence methods can effectively defend against different attacks, none of them could protect against all five adversarial attacks entirely.

Keywords: Resilient Machine Learning, attacks, defences, nuclear industry, crack detection.

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271 Distributed Denial of Service Attacks in Mobile Adhoc Networks

Authors: Gurjinder Kaur, Yogesh Chaba, V. K. Jain

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to explore the security issues that significantly affect the performance of Mobile Adhoc Networks (MANET)and limit the services provided to their intended users. The MANETs are more vulnerable to Distributed Denial of Service attacks (DDoS) because of their properties like shared medium, dynamic topologies etc. A DDoS attack is a coordinated attempt made by malicious users to flood the victim network with the large amount of data such that the resources of the victim network are exhausted resulting in the deterioration of the network performance. This paper highlights the effects of different types of DDoS attacks in MANETs and categorizes them according to their behavior.

Keywords: Distributed Denial, Mobile Adhoc Networks

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270 Attacks Classification in Adaptive Intrusion Detection using Decision Tree

Authors: Dewan Md. Farid, Nouria Harbi, Emna Bahri, Mohammad Zahidur Rahman, Chowdhury Mofizur Rahman

Abstract:

Recently, information security has become a key issue in information technology as the number of computer security breaches are exposed to an increasing number of security threats. A variety of intrusion detection systems (IDS) have been employed for protecting computers and networks from malicious network-based or host-based attacks by using traditional statistical methods to new data mining approaches in last decades. However, today's commercially available intrusion detection systems are signature-based that are not capable of detecting unknown attacks. In this paper, we present a new learning algorithm for anomaly based network intrusion detection system using decision tree algorithm that distinguishes attacks from normal behaviors and identifies different types of intrusions. Experimental results on the KDD99 benchmark network intrusion detection dataset demonstrate that the proposed learning algorithm achieved 98% detection rate (DR) in comparison with other existing methods.

Keywords: Detection rate, decision tree, intrusion detectionsystem, network security.

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269 Active Cyber Defense within the Concept of NATO’s Protection of Critical Infrastructures

Authors: Serkan Yağlı, Selçuk Dal

Abstract:

Cyber attacks pose a serious threat to all states. Therefore, states constantly seek for various methods to encounter those threats. In addition, recent changes in the nature of cyber attacks and their more complicated methods have created a new concept: active cyber defense (ACD). This article tries to answer firstly why ACD is important to NATO and find out the viewpoint of NATO towards ACD. Secondly, infrastructure protection is essential to cyber defense. Critical infrastructure protection with ACD means is even more important. It is assumed that by implementing active cyber defense, NATO may not only be able to repel the attacks but also be deterrent. Hence, the use of ACD has a direct positive effect in all international organizations’ future including NATO.

Keywords: Active cyber defense, advanced persistent treat, critical infrastructure, NATO.

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268 A Tool for Audio Quality Evaluation Under Hostile Environment

Authors: Akhil Kumar Arya, Jagdeep Singh Lather, Lillie Dewan

Abstract:

In this paper is to evaluate audio and speech quality with the help of Digital Audio Watermarking Technique under the different types of attacks (signal impairments) like Gaussian Noise, Compression Error and Jittering Effect. Further attacks are considered as Hostile Environment. Audio and Speech Quality Evaluation is an important research topic. The traditional way for speech quality evaluation is using subjective tests. They are reliable, but very expensive, time consuming, and cannot be used in certain applications such as online monitoring. Objective models, based on human perception, were developed to predict the results of subjective tests. The existing objective methods require either the original speech or complicated computation model, which makes some applications of quality evaluation impossible.

Keywords: Digital Watermarking, DCT, Speech Quality, Attacks.

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267 A Content Based Image Watermarking Scheme Resilient to Geometric Attacks

Authors: Latha Parameswaran, K. Anbumani

Abstract:

Multimedia security is an incredibly significant area of concern. The paper aims to discuss a robust image watermarking scheme, which can withstand geometric attacks. The source image is initially moment normalized in order to make it withstand geometric attacks. The moment normalized image is wavelet transformed. The first level wavelet transformed image is segmented into blocks if size 8x8. The product of mean and standard and standard deviation of each block is computed. The second level wavelet transformed image is divided into 8x8 blocks. The product of block mean and the standard deviation are computed. The difference between products in the two levels forms the watermark. The watermark is inserted by modulating the coefficients of the mid frequencies. The modulated image is inverse wavelet transformed and inverse moment normalized to generate the watermarked image. The watermarked image is now ready for transmission. The proposed scheme can be used to validate identification cards and financial instruments. The performance of this scheme has been evaluated using a set of parameters. Experimental results show the effectiveness of this scheme.

Keywords: Image moments, wavelets, content-based watermarking, moment normalization, geometric attacks.

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