Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 42

Search results for: 4-D

42 A 1H NMR-Linked PCR Modelling Strategy for Tracking the Fatty Acid Sources of Aldehydic Lipid Oxidation Products in Culinary Oils Exposed to Simulated Shallow-Frying Episodes

Authors: Martin Grootveld, Benita Percival, Sarah Moumtaz, Kerry L. Grootveld

Abstract:

Objectives/Hypotheses: The adverse health effect potential of dietary lipid oxidation products (LOPs) has evoked much clinical interest. Therefore, we employed a 1H NMR-linked Principal Component Regression (PCR) chemometrics modelling strategy to explore relationships between data matrices comprising (1) aldehydic LOP concentrations generated in culinary oils/fats when exposed to laboratory-simulated shallow frying practices, and (2) the prior saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) contents of such frying media (FM), together with their heating time-points at a standard frying temperature (180 oC). Methods: Corn, sunflower, extra virgin olive, rapeseed, linseed, canola, coconut and MUFA-rich algae frying oils, together with butter and lard, were heated according to laboratory-simulated shallow-frying episodes at 180 oC, and FM samples were collected at time-points of 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 60, and 90 min. (n = 6 replicates per sample). Aldehydes were determined by 1H NMR analysis (Bruker AV 400 MHz spectrometer). The first (dependent output variable) PCR data matrix comprised aldehyde concentration scores vectors (PC1* and PC2*), whilst the second (predictor) one incorporated those from the fatty acid content/heating time variables (PC1-PC4) and their first-order interactions. Results: Structurally complex trans,trans- and cis,trans-alka-2,4-dienals, 4,5-epxy-trans-2-alkenals and 4-hydroxy-/4-hydroperoxy-trans-2-alkenals (group I aldehydes predominantly arising from PUFA peroxidation) strongly and positively loaded on PC1*, whereas n-alkanals and trans-2-alkenals (group II aldehydes derived from both MUFA and PUFA hydroperoxides) strongly and positively loaded on PC2*. PCR analysis of these scores vectors (SVs) demonstrated that PCs 1 (positively-loaded linoleoylglycerols and [linoleoylglycerol]:[SFA] content ratio), 2 (positively-loaded oleoylglycerols and negatively-loaded SFAs), 3 (positively-loaded linolenoylglycerols and [PUFA]:[SFA] content ratios), and 4 (exclusively orthogonal sampling time-points) all powerfully contributed to aldehydic PC1* SVs (p 10-3 to < 10-9), as did all PC1-3 x PC4 interaction ones (p 10-5 to < 10-9). PC2* was also markedly dependent on all the above PC SVs (PC2 > PC1 and PC3), and the interactions of PC1 and PC2 with PC4 (p < 10-9 in each case), but not the PC3 x PC4 contribution. Conclusions: NMR-linked PCR analysis is a valuable strategy for (1) modelling the generation of aldehydic LOPs in heated cooking oils and other FM, and (2) tracking their unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) triacylglycerol sources therein.

Keywords: Chemometrics, principal component regression, frying oils, lipid oxidation products, frying episodes, NMR Analysis, cytotoxic/genotoxic aldehydes

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41 Graft Copolymerization of Cellulose Acetate with Nitro-N-Amino Phenyl Maleimides

Authors: Azza. A. Al-Ghamdi, Abir. A. Abdel-Naby

Abstract:

The construction of Nitro -N-amino phenyl maleimide branches onto Cellulose acetate (CA) substrate by free radical graft copolymerization using benzoyl peroxide as initiator led to formation of highly thermal stable copolymers as shown from the results of gravimetric analysis (TGA). CA-g-2,4-dinitro amino phenyl maleimide exhibited higher thermal stability than the CA-g-4-nitro amino phenyl maleimide as shown from the initial decomposition temperature (To). This is due to the ability of nitro group to form hydrogen bonding with hydroxyl group of the glucopyranose ring which increases the crystallinity of polymeric matrix. The crystalline shapes representing the graft part are clearly distinct in the Emission scanning electron microscope (ESEM) morphology of the copolymer. A suggested reaction mechanism for the grafting process was also discussed.

Keywords: Crystallinity, Thermal Properties, cellulose acetate, graft copolymerization

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40 The Role of Initiator in the Synthesis of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate)-Layered Silicate Nanocomposites through Bulk Polymerization

Authors: Tsung-Yen Tsai, Naveen Bunekar, Ming Hsuan Chang, Wen-Kuang Wang, Satoshi Onda

Abstract:

The structure-property relationship and initiator effect on bulk polymerized poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)–oragnomodified layered silicate nanocomposites was investigated. In this study, we used 2, 2'-azobis (4-methoxy-2,4-dimethyl valeronitrile and benzoyl peroxide initiators for bulk polymerization. The bulk polymerized nanocomposites’ morphology was investigated by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The type of initiator strongly influences the physiochemical properties of the polymer nanocomposite. The thermal degradation of PMMA in the presence of nanofiller was studied. 5 wt% weight loss temperature (T5d) increased as compared to pure PMMA. The peak degradation temperature increased for the nanocomposites. Differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical analysis were performed to investigate the glass transition temperature and the nature of the constrained region as the reinforcement mechanism respectively. Furthermore, the optical properties such as UV-Vis and Total Luminous Transmission of nanocomposites are examined.

Keywords: initiator, bulk polymerization, layered silicates, methyl methacrylate

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39 Adsorption of Phenolic Compounds on Activated Carbon DSAC36-24

Authors: Khaoula Hidouri, Ali Benhmidene, Bechir Chouachi, Dhananjay R. Mishra, Ammar Houas

Abstract:

Activated carbon DSAC36-24 iy is adsorbent materials, characterized by a specific surface area of 548.13 m²g⁻¹. Their manufacture uses the natural raw materials like the nucleus of dates. In this study the treatment is done in two stages: A chemical treatment by H3PO4 followed by a physical treatment under nitrogen for 1 hour then under stream of CO2 for 24 hours. A characterization of the various parameters was determined such as the measurement of the specific surface area, determination of pHPZC, bulk density, iodine value. The study of the adsorption of organic molecules (hydroquinone, paranitrophenol, 2,4-dinitrophenol, 2,4,6-trinitrophenol) indicates that the adsorption phenomena are essentially due to the van der Waals interaction. In the case of organic molecules carrying the polar substituents, the existence of hydrogen bonds is also proved by the donor-acceptor forces. The study of the pH effect was done with modeling by different models (Langmuir, Freundlich, Langmuir-Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson), a kinetic treatment is also followed by the application of Lagergren, Weber, Macky.

Keywords: organic molecule, adsorption kinetics, adsoprtion ishoterms, DSAC36-24

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38 The Learning Impact of a 4-Dimensional Digital Construction Learning Environment

Authors: Chris Landorf, Stephen Ward

Abstract:

This paper addresses a virtual environment approach to work integrated learning for students in construction-related disciplines. The virtual approach provides a safe and pedagogically rigorous environment where students can apply theoretical knowledge in a simulated real-world context. The paper describes the development of a 4-dimensional digital construction environment and associated learning activities funded by the Australian Office for Learning and Teaching. The environment was trialled with over 1,300 students and evaluated through questionnaires, observational studies and coursework analysis. Results demonstrate a positive impact on students’ technical learning and collaboration skills, but there is need for further research in relation to critical thinking skills and work-readiness.

Keywords: construction industry, Immersive Learning, architectural education, digital learning environments

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37 Adaptive Responses of Carum copticum to in vitro Salt Stress

Authors: R. Razavizadeh, F. Adabavazeh, M. Rezaee Chermahini

Abstract:

Salinity is one of the most widespread agricultural problems in arid and semi-arid areas that limits the plant growth and crop productivity. In this study, the salt stress effects on protein, reducing sugar, proline contents and antioxidant enzymes activities of Carum copticum L. under in vitro conditions were studied. Seeds of C. copticum were cultured in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 0, 25, 50, 100 and 150 mM NaCl and calli were cultured in MS medium containing 1 μM 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 4 μM benzyl amino purine and different levels of NaCl (0, 25, 50, 100 and 150 mM). After NaCl treatment for 28 days, the proline and reducing sugar contents of shoots, roots and calli increased significantly in relation to the severity of the salt stress. The highest amount of proline and carbohydrate were observed at 150 and 100 mM NaCl, respectively. The reducing sugar accumulation in shoots was the highest as compared to roots, whereas, proline contents did not show any significant difference in roots and shoots under salt stress. The results showed significant reduction of protein contents in seedlings and calli. Based on these results, proteins extracted from the shoots, roots and calli of C. copticum treated with 150 mM NaCl showed the lowest contents. The positive relationships were observed between activity of antioxidant enzymes and the increase in stress levels. Catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity increased significantly under salt concentrations in comparison to the control. These results suggest that the accumulation of proline and sugars, and activation of antioxidant enzymes play adaptive roles in the adaptation of seedlings and callus of C. copticum to saline conditions.

Keywords: Salt Stress, antioxidant enzymes, Carum copticum, organic solutes

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36 Efficient Callus Induction and Plant Regeneration from Mature Embryo Culture of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Genotypes

Authors: Münüre Tanur Erkoyuncu, Mustafa Yorgancılar

Abstract:

Crop improvement through genetic engineering depends on effective and reproducible plant regeneration systems. Immature embryos are the most widely used explant source for in vitro regeneration in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). However, immature embryos require the continuous growth of donor plants and the suitable stage for their culture is also certainly limited. On the other hand, mature embryos can be procured and stored easily; they can be studied throughout the year. In this study, an effective callus induction and plant regeneration were aimed to develop from mature embryos of different barley genotypes. The effect of medium (MS1 and MS2), auxin type (2,4-D, dicamba, picloram and 2,4,5-T) and concentrations (2, 4, 6 mg/l) on callus formation and effect of cytokinin type (TDZ, BAP) and concentrations (0.2, 0.5, 1.0 mg/l) on green plant regeneration were evaluated in mature embryo culture of barley. Callus and shoot formation was successful for all genotypes. By depending on genotype, MS1 is the best medium, 4 mg/l dicamba is the best growth regulator in the callus induction and MS1 is the best medium, 1 mg/l BAP is the best growth regulator in the shoot formation were determined.

Keywords: Embryo Culture, callus, barley, mature embryo

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35 Effect on Yield and Yield Components of Different Irrigation Levels in Edible Seed Pumpkin Growing

Authors: Musa Seymen, Duran Yavuz, Nurcan Yavuz, Önder Türkmen

Abstract:

Edible seed pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) is one of the important edibles preferred by consumer in Turkey due to its higher nutrient contents. However, there is almost very few study on water consumption and irrigation water requirement of confectionary edible seed pumpkin in Turkey. Therefore, a 2-year study (2013-2014) was conducted to determine the effects of irrigation levels on the seed yield and yield components of drip-irrigated confectionary edible seed pumpkin under Turkey conditions. In the study, the experimental design was made in randomized blocks with three replications. Treatments consisted of five irrigation water levels that compensated for the 100% (I100, full irrigation), 75% (I75), 50% (I50), 25% (I25) and 0% (I0, no irrigation) of crop water requirements at 14-day irrigation intervals. Seasonal evapotranspiration of treatments varied from 194.2 to 625.2 mm in 2013 and from 208.6 to 556.6 mm in 2014. In both years, the highest seasonal evapotranspiration was obtained in I100 treatment. Average across years, the seed yields ranged between 1090 (I100) and 422 (I0) kg ha-1. The irrigation treatments were found to significantly affect the yield parameters such as the seed yield, oil seed yield number of seeds per fruit, seed size, seed width, fruit size, fruit width and fruit index.

Keywords: seed quality, seed yield, irrigation level, edible seed pumpkin

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34 An Antibacterial Dental Restorative Containing 3,4-Dichlorocrotonolactone: Synthesis, Formulation and Evaluation

Authors: Dong Xie, Leah Howard, Yiming Weng

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to synthesize and characterize 5-acryloyloxy-3,4-dichlorocrotonolactone (a furanone derivative), use this derivative to modify a dental restorative, and study the effect of the derivative on the antibacterial activity and compressive strength of the formed restorative. In this study, a furanone derivative was synthesized, characterized, and used to formulate a dental restorative. Compressive strength (CS) and S. mutans viability were used to evaluate the mechanical strength and antibacterial activity of the formed restorative. The fabricated restorative specimens were photocured and conditioned in distilled water at 37oC for 24 h, followed by direct testing for CS or/and incubating with S. mutans for 48 h for antibacterial testing. The results show that the modified dental restorative showed a significant antibacterial activity without substantially decreasing the mechanical strengths. With addition of the antibacterial derivative up to 30%, the restorative kept its original CS nearly unchanged but showed a significant antibacterial activity with 68% reduction in the S. mutans viability. Furthermore, the antibacterial function of the modified restorative was not affected by human saliva. The aging study also indicates that the modified restorative may have a long-lasting antibacterial function. It is concluded that this experimental antibacterial restorative may potentially be developed into a clinically attractive dental filling restorative due to its high mechanical strength and antibacterial function.

Keywords: Antibacterial, compressive strength, S. mutans viability, dental filling restorative

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33 A Fault Analysis Cracked-Rotor-to-Stator Rub and Unbalance by Vibration Analysis Technique

Authors: B. X. Tchomeni, A. A. Alugongo, L. M. Masu

Abstract:

An analytical 4-DOF nonlinear model of a de Laval rotor-stator system based on Energy Principles has been used theoretically and experimentally to investigate fault symptoms in a rotating system. The faults, namely rotor-stator-rub, crack and unbalance are modeled as excitations on the rotor shaft. Mayes steering function is used to simulate the breathing behaviour of the crack. The fault analysis technique is based on waveform signal, orbits and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) derived from simulated and real measured signals. Simulated and experimental results manifest considerable mutual resemblance of elliptic-shaped orbits and FFT for a same range of test data.

Keywords: Nonlinear, Vibration analysis, Orbit, fault, FFT, a breathing crack, rotorstator rub

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32 A Consideration on the Offset Frontal Impact Modeling Using Spring-Mass Model

Authors: Jaemoon Lim

Abstract:

To construct the lumped spring-mass model considering the occupants for the offset frontal crash, the SISAME software and the NHTSA test data were used. The data on 56 kph 40% offset frontal vehicle to deformable barrier crash test of a MY2007 Mazda 6 4-door sedan were obtained from NHTSA test database. The overall behaviors of B-pillar and engine of simulation models agreed very well with the test data. The trends of accelerations at the driver and passenger head were similar but big differences in peak values. The differences of peak values caused the large errors of the HIC36 and 3 ms chest g’s. To predict well the behaviors of dummies, the spring-mass model for the offset frontal crash needs to be improved.

Keywords: chest g’s, HIC36, lumped spring-mass model, SISAME, offset frontal impact

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31 Durability Enhancement of CaSO4 in Repetitive Operation of Chemical Heat Pump

Authors: Y. Shiren, M. Masuzawa, H. Ohkura, T. Yamagata, Y. Aman, N. Kobayashi

Abstract:

An important problem for the CaSO4/CaSO4・1/2H2O Chemical heat pump (CHP) is that the material is deactivated through repetitive reaction between hydration and dehydration in which the crystal phase of the material is transformed from III-CaSO4 to II-CaSO4. We investigated suppression on the phase change by adding a sulfated compound. The most effective material was MgSO4. MgSO4 doping increased the durability of CaSO4 in the actual CHP repetitive cycle of hydration/dehydration to 3.6 times that of undoped CaSO4. The MgSO4-doped CaSO4 showed a higher phase transition temperature and activation energy for crystal transformation from III-CaSO4 to II-CaSO4. MgSO4 doping decreased the crystal lattice size of CaSO4・1/2H2O and II-CaSO4 to smaller than that of undoped CaSO4. Modification of the crystal structure is considered to be related to the durability change in CaSO4 resulting from MgSO4 doping.

Keywords: Heat Storage, CaSO4, chemical heat pump, durability of chemical heat storage material

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30 Design of a 4-DOF Robot Manipulator with Optimized Algorithm for Inverse Kinematics

Authors: S. Gómez, G. Sánchez, J. Zarama, M. Castañeda Ramos, J. Escoto Alcántar, J. Torres, A. Núñez, S. Santana, F. Nájera, J. A. Lopez

Abstract:

This paper shows in detail the mathematical model of direct and inverse kinematics for a robot manipulator (welding type) with four degrees of freedom. Using the D-H parameters, screw theory, numerical, geometric and interpolation methods, the theoretical and practical values of the position of robot were determined using an optimized algorithm for inverse kinematics obtaining the values of the particular joints in order to determine the virtual paths in a relatively short time.

Keywords: Optimization, Kinematics, degree of freedom, robot manipulator

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29 Inversion of Electrical Resistivity Data: A Review

Authors: Shrey Sharma, Gunjan Kumar Verma

Abstract:

High density electrical prospecting has been widely used in groundwater investigation, civil engineering and environmental survey. For efficient inversion, the forward modeling routine, sensitivity calculation, and inversion algorithm must be efficient. This paper attempts to provide a brief summary of the past and ongoing developments of the method. It includes reviews of the procedures used for data acquisition, processing and inversion of electrical resistivity data based on compilation of academic literature. In recent times there had been a significant evolution in field survey designs and data inversion techniques for the resistivity method. In general 2-D inversion for resistivity data is carried out using the linearized least-square method with the local optimization technique .Multi-electrode and multi-channel systems have made it possible to conduct large 2-D, 3-D and even 4-D surveys efficiently to resolve complex geological structures that were not possible with traditional 1-D surveys. 3-D surveys play an increasingly important role in very complex areas where 2-D models suffer from artifacts due to off-line structures. Continued developments in computation technology, as well as fast data inversion techniques and software, have made it possible to use optimization techniques to obtain model parameters to a higher accuracy. A brief discussion on the limitations of the electrical resistivity method has also been presented.

Keywords: Optimization, resistivity, inversion

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28 Indirect Regeneration and Somatic Embryogenesis from Leaf and Stem Explants of Crassula ovata (Mill.) Druce – An Ornamental Medicinal Plant

Authors: A. B. A. Ahmed, Amar, D. I., R. M. Taha

Abstract:

This research aims to investigate callus induction, somatic embryogenesis and indirect plant regeneration of Crassula ovata (Mill.) Druce – the famous ornamental plant. Experiment no.1: Callus induction was obtained from leaf and stem explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with various plant growth regulators (PGRs). Effects of different PGRs, plant regeneration and subsequent plantlet conversion were also assessed. Indirect plant regeneration was achieved from the callus of stem explants by the addition of 1.5 mg/L Kinetin (KN) alone. Best shoot induction was achieved (6.5 shoots/per explant) after 60 days. For successful rooting, regenerated plantlets were sub-cultured on the same MS media supplemented with 1.5 mg/L KN alone. The rooted plantlets were acclimatized and the survival rate was 90%. Experiment no.2: Results revealed that 0.5 mg/L 2,4-D alone and in combination with 1.0 mg/L 6-Benzyladenine (BA) gave 89.8% callus from the stem explants as compared to leaf explants. Callus proliferation and somatic embryo formation were also evaluated by ‘Double Staining Method’ and different stages of somatic embryogenesis were revealed by scanning electron microscope. Full Strength MS medium produced the highest number (49.6%) of cotyledonary stage somatic embryos (SEs). Mature cotyledonary stage SEs developed into plantlets after 12 weeks of culture. Wellrooted plantlets were successfully acclimatized at the survival rate of 85%. Indirectly regenerated plants did not show any detectable variation in morphological and growth characteristics when compared with the donor plant.

Keywords: Somatic Embryogenesis, callus induction, indirect plant regeneration, double staining, Crassula ovata

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27 In situ Modelling of Lateral-Torsional Vibration of a Rotor-Stator with Multiple Parametric Excitations

Authors: B. X. Tchomeni, A. A. Alugongo, L. M. Masu

Abstract:

This paper presents a 4-DOF nonlinear model of a cracked de Laval rotor-stator system derived based on Energy Principles. The model has been used to simulate coupled torsionallateral response of the faulty system with multiple parametric excitations; rotor-stator-rub, a breathing transverse crack, eccentric mass and an axial force. Nonlinearity of a “breathing” crack is incorporated in the model using a simple hinge mechanism suitable for a shallow crack. Response of the system while passing via its critical speed with intermittent rotor-stator rub is analyzed. Effects of eccentricity with phase and acceleration are investigated. Features of crack, rub and eccentricity in vibration response are explored for condition monitoring. The presence of a crack and rub are observable in the power spectrum despite excitations by an axial force and rotor unbalance. Obtained results are consistent with existing literature and could be adopted into rotor condition monitoring strategies.

Keywords: Nonlinear, crack, axial force, rotor-stator, rub

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26 Poly[3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)Glyceric Acid] with Potential Therapeutic Effect

Authors: V. Barbakadze, L. Gogilashvili, L. Amiranashvili, M. Merlani, K .Mulkijanyan

Abstract:

According to IR, 13C and 1H NMR, APT, 1D NOE, 2D heteronuclear 1H/13C HSQC and 2D DOSY experiments the main chemical constituent of high-molecular preparations from Symphytum asperum, S. caucasicum, S. officinale and Anchusa italica (Boraginaceae) was found to be caffeic acid-derived polyether, namely poly[3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)glyceric acid] (PDPGA) or poly[oxy-1-carboxy-2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethylene]. Most carboxylic groups of this polymer of A. italica are methylated.

Keywords: poly[3-(3, poly[oxy-1-carboxy-2-(3, symphytum, anchusa

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25 Response of Wax Apple Cultivars by Applied S-Girdling on Fruit Development and Fruit Quality

Authors: Nguyen Minh, Tuan, Chung-Ruey, Yen, Bui Lan, Anh

Abstract:

The study was carried out to evaluated effect of S-gridling on fruit growth and quality of wax apple. The study was laid in Random completed block design with four replicated. Four treatment were applied as follows: S-girdling, fruit thinning plus bagging with 2,4-D sprayed, fruit thinning plus bagging and the control treatment. 2,4D was sprayed at the small bud and petal fall stage. Girdling was applied three week before flowering. The effect of all treatments on fruit growth was measured weekly. Number of flower, fruit set, fruit drop, fruit crack, and fruit quality were recorded. The result indicated that S-girdling, 2,4D application produced the lowest bud drop, fruit drop compared to untreated control. S-girdling improved faster fruit growth producing the best final fruit length and diameter compared to untreated control. S-girdling also markedly enhanced fruit set, fruit weight, and total soluble solid, reduced fruit crack, titratable acidity. On the other hand, it was noticed that with 2,4-D application also increased the fruit growth rate, improved physiological and biochemical characters of fruit than control treatment. It was concluded that S-girdling was recommended as the industry norm to increase fruit set, fruit quality in wax apple. 2,4D application had a distinctive and significant effect on most of the fruit quality characteristics assessed.

Keywords: fruit quality, Fruit Growth, wax apple, S-girdling

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24 Biologically Active Caffeic Acid-Derived Biopolymer

Authors: V. Barbakadze, L. Gogilashvili, L. Amiranashvili, M. Merlani, K. Mulkijanyan

Abstract:

The high-molecular water-soluble preparations from several species of two genera (Symphytum and Anchusa) of Boraginaceae family Symphytum asperum, S. caucasicum, S.officinale and Anchusa italica were isolated. According to IR, 13C and 1H NMR, APT, 1D NOE, 2D heteronuclear 1H/13C HSQC and 2D DOSY experiments, the main chemical constituent of these preparations was found to be caffeic acid-derived polyether, namely poly[3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)glyceric acid] (PDPGA) or poly[oxy-1- carboxy-2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethylene]. Most carboxylic groups of this caffeic acid-derived polymer of A. italica are methylated.

Keywords: poly[3-(3, poly[oxy-1-carboxy-2-(3, symphytum, anchusa

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23 Molecular Analysis of Somaclonal Variation in Tissue Culture Derived Bananas Using MSAP and SSR Markers

Authors: Emma K. Sales, Nilda G. Butardo

Abstract:

The project was undertaken to determine the effects of modified tissue culture protocols e.g. age of culture and hormone levels (2,4-D) in generating somaclonal variation. Moreover, the utility of molecular markers (SSR and MSAP) in sorting off types/somaclones were investigated.

Results show that somaclonal variation is in effect due to prolonged subculture and high 2,4-D concentration. The resultant variation was observed to be due to high level of methylation events specifically cytosine methylation either at the internal or external cytosine and was identified by methylation sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP).Simple sequence repeats (SSR) on the other hand, was able to associate a marker to a trait of interest.

These therefore, show that molecular markers can be an important tool in sorting out variation/mutants at an early stage.

Keywords: methylation, MSAP, somaclones, SSR, subculture

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22 The Efficacy of Andrographis paniculata and Chromolaena odorata Plant Extract against Malaria Parasite

Authors: Funmilola O. Omoya, Abdul O. Momoh

Abstract:

Malaria constitutes one of the major health problems in Nigeria. One of the reasons attributed for the upsurge was the development of resistance of Plasmodium falciparum and the emergence of multi-resistant strains of the parasite to anti-malaria drugs. A continued search for other effective, safe and cheap plantbased anti-malaria agents thus becomes imperative in the face of these difficulties. The objective of this study is therefore to evaluate the in vivo anti-malarial efficacy of ethanolic extracts of Chromolaena odorata and Androgaphis paniculata leaves. The two plants were evaluated for their anti-malaria efficacy in vivo in a 4-day curative test assay against Plasmodium berghei strain in mice. The group treated with 500mg/ml dose of ethanolic extract of A. paniculata plant showed parasite suppression with increase in Packed Cell Volume (PCV) value except day 3 which showed a slight decrease in PCV value. During the 4-day curative test, an increase in the PCV values, weight measurement and zero count of Plasmodium berghei parasite values was recorded after day 3 of drug administration. These results obtained in group treated with A. paniculata extract showed anti-malarial efficacy with higher mortality rate in parasitaemia count when compared with Chromolaena odorata group. These results justify the use of ethanolic extracts of A. paniculata plant as medicinal herb used in folklore medicine in the treatment of malaria.

Keywords: anti-malaria, curative, plant-based anti-malaria agents

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21 Recovering Taraxacum kok-saghyz Rodin. via Seed and Callus Culture

Authors: K. Uteulin, S. Mukhambetzhanov, I. Rakhimbaev

Abstract:

This experiment was performed to optimize the medium for tissue culture of Taraxacum kok-saghyz Rodin. Different tissue culture approaches such as shoot regeneration from seed, callus formation from leaf explants and plant regeneration from callus were investigated in this study. All the explants were cultured on MS basal medium supplemented with 20g/l sucrose, 7g/l agar and different plant growth regulators. Seeds of Taraxacum kok-saghyzwere cultured on media containing different levels of BA and 2,4-D (0.5, 1.0 and 3.0mg/L) to direct shoot regeneration study. Leaf explants were cultured in different combination of BA (at three levels: 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0mg/L) and zeatin (at two levels: 0.5 and 1.0mg/L) to examine callus formation. After the callus formation the formed calli were cultured on different combinations of BA and NAA for shoot regeneration. BA at three levels (0.5 and 1.0 and 3.0mg/L) and NAA at two levels (0.5 and 1.0mg/L) in all possible combinations were used for shoot regeneration from callus. The results showed that the treatment containing 1.0mg/L 2,4-D in combination with 1.0mg/L BA was found to be the best one for shoot regeneration from seeds. The treatment with 1.0mg/L BA in combination with 1.0mg/L zeatin were found to be suitable treatments for callus production from leaf explants, as well. Moreover, 0.5mg/L BA alone or in combination with 1.0mg/L NAA were found to be the best treatments for shoot regeneration from callus.

Keywords: callus, Taraxacum kok-saghyz Rodin, shoot regeneration

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20 Behavioral Studies on Multi-Directionally Reinforced 4-D Orthogonal Composites on Various Preform Configurations

Authors: Sriram Venkatesh, V. Murali Mohan, T. V. Karthikeyan

Abstract:

The main advantage of multidirectionally reinforced composites is the freedom to orient selected fiber types and hence derives the benefits of varying fibre volume fractions and there by accommodate the design loads of the final structure of composites. This technology provides the means to produce tailored composites with desired properties. Due to the high level of fibre integrity with through thickness reinforcement those composites are expected to exhibit superior load bearing characteristics with capability to carry load even after noticeable and apparent fracture. However, a survey of published literature indicates inadequacy in the design and test data base for the complete characterization of the multidirectional composites. In this paper the research objective is focused on the development and testing of 4-D orthogonal composites with different preform configurations and resin systems. A preform is the skeleton 4D reinforced composite other than the matrix. In 4-D performs fibre bundles are oriented in three directions at 1200 with respect to each other and they are on orthogonal plane with the fibre in 4th direction. This paper addresses the various types of 4-D composite manufacturing processes and the mechanical test methods followed for the material characterization. A composite analysis is also made, experiments on course and fine woven preforms are conducted and the findings of test results are discussed in this paper. The interpretations of the test results reveal several useful and interesting features. This should pave the way for more widespread use of the perform configurations for allied applications.

Keywords: course weave, fine weave, Multidirectionally Reinforced Composites

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19 Efficient Microspore Isolation Methods for High Yield Embryoids and Regeneration in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Authors: S. M. Shahinul Islam, Israt Ara, Narendra Tuteja, Sreeramanan Subramaniam

Abstract:

Through anther and microspore culture methods, complete homozygous plants can be produced within a year as compared to the long inbreeding method. Isolated microspore culture is one of the most important techniques for rapid development of haploid plants. The efficiency of this method is influenced by several factors such as cultural conditions, growth regulators, plant media, pretreatments, physical and growth conditions of the donor plants, pollen isolation procedure, etc. The main purpose of this study was to improve the isolated microspore culture protocol in order to increase the efficiency of embryoids, its regeneration and reducing albinisms. Under this study we have tested mainly three different microspore isolation procedures by glass rod, homozeniger and by blending and found the efficiency on gametic embryogenesis. There are three types of media viz. washing, pre-culture and induction was used. The induction medium as AMC (modified MS) supplemented by 2, 4-D (2.5 mg/l), kinetin (0.5 mg/l) and higher amount of D-Manitol (90 g/l) instead of sucrose and two types of amino acids (L-glutamine and L-serine) were used. Out of three main microspore isolation procedure by homogenizer isolation (P4) showed best performance on ELS induction (177%) and green plantlets (104%) compared with other techniques. For all cases albinisims occurred but microspore isolation from excised anthers by glass rod and homogenizer showed lesser numbers of albino plants that was also one of the important findings in this study.

Keywords: Regeneration, Pretreatment, Microspore Culture, androgenesis, albino plants, Oryza sativa

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18 In vitro Plant Regeneration of Java Vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides)

Authors: Iriawati, R. R. Esyanti, W. Natalia, N. Zahya

Abstract:

In vitro plant regeneration has been successfully obtained from basal shoot explant of Vetiveria zizanioides through indirect organogenesis. The explant was cultured in Murashige & Skoog’s (MS) media supplemented with 2,4-D, IAA, and kinetin in various concentrations. Callus was well induced in media supplemented with 2 ppm 2,4-D, 1 ppm IAA, and 1 ppm kinetin. This callus was then transferred to MS media supplemented with 1 - 5 ppm of BAP for shoot regeneration. The media supplemented with 3 ppm BAP was a suitable medium for shoot induction, as well as for shoot multiplication. Rooting was well developed in shoot following transferred to half MS media containing 0.2 ppm IBA. Plantlet was then transferred to husk charcoal for acclimatization, and almost all (90%) of plantlets were survived during acclimatization.

Keywords: callus, plantlet regeneration, shoot induction, Vetiveria zizanioides

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17 Multiple Shoot Formation of Paphiopedilum 'Delrosi'

Authors: Aree Thongpukdee, Ekasit Nisayan, Chockpisit Thepsithar

Abstract:

Shoots, with three leaves, of Paphiopedilum 'Delrosi' were used as explants for multiple shoot induction. Modified Hyponex medium was supplemented with thidiazuron (TDZ), N6- benzyladenine (BA) or kinetin (Kn) alone and in combinations with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). All explants were cultured for 15 weeks. It was found that TDZ alone at the concentration of 0.45μM or in combination with 4.52μM 2,4-D and 8.88μM BA in combination with 13.56μM 2,4-D promoted multiple shoots. The highest shoot sprouting efficiencies (80.0, 90.0 and 80.0%) and new shoot numbers (1.5, 1.3 and 1.1) were obtained, respectively. Fresh weight, height, numbers of leaf and root of new shoots and initial explants were discussed.

Keywords: Micropropagation, in vitro culture, Paphiopedilum, terrestrial orchids, multiple shoot induction

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16 Effect of Gibberellic Acid and 2,4- Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid on Fruit Development and Fruit Quality of Wax Apple

Authors: Nguyen Minh Tuan, Yen Chung–Ruey

Abstract:

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of gibberellic acid and 2,4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on flower number, fruit growth and fruit quality of wax apple. GA3 and 2,4-D were applied at small bud and petal fall stage. Number of flower, fruit set, fruit drop, fruit crack, fruit growth and fruit quality were recorded. Results indicated that spraying with 10 ppm GA3 had the best results in number of flower. GA3 spray at 30 ppm gave the faster rate of fruit growth than the other treatments. Fruit set, fruit size as well as fruit weight markedly improved by spraying 30 ppm GA3, followed by 10 ppm GA3 compared to untreated control. Moreover, spray GA3 at 30 ppm was the most effective and increased total soluble solids, reduced titratable acidity and fruit drop. On the other hand, it was noticed that with 10 ppm 2,4-D application also enhanced the fruit growth rate, improved physiological and biochemical characters of fruit compared to untreated control. It was concluded that both GA3 and 2,4-D spray have positive effects on fruit development, reduced fruit drop, fruit crack and improved fruit quality of wax apple under field conditions.

Keywords: fruit quality, Fruit Growth, GA3, wax apple

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15 Response of Wax Apple Cultivars by Applied GA3 and 2,4-D on Fruit Growth and Fruit Quality

Authors: Minh Tuan, Nguyen, Chung-Ruey Yen

Abstract:

The experiment was performed to evaluate the effect of GA3, 2,4-D on fruit growth and fruit quality of wax apple. The experiment consisted of Red A, Monulla, Atu, Red B cultivars. GA3 and 2,4-D were applied at the small bud and petal fall stage. Physiological, biochemical characters of fruit were recoded. The result showed application of GA3, 2,4-D greatly response in increasing fruit set for all treatment as compared to control. Fruit weight, fruit size were increased at 10 ppm 2,4-D in ‘Red A’, ‘Red B’, however it was also enhancing at 10 ppm GA3 in ‘Monulla’, ‘Atu’. For ‘Monulla’, ‘Atu’ fruit crack reduced by 10 ppm 2,4-D application, but ‘Red B’, ‘Red A’ gave least fruit crack at 10 and 30 ppm GA3, respectively. ‘Monulla’, ‘Atu’ and ‘Red B’ resulted in response well to 10 ppm GA3 on improving TSS, whereas application of 30 ppm GA3 greatly enhancing TSS in ‘Red A’. For ‘Atu’ titratable acidity markedly reduced by 10 ppm GA3 application, but spraying with 30 ppm GA3 greatly response in reducing titratable acidity in ‘Red A’, ‘Red B’ and ‘Monulla’. It was concluded that GA3, 2,4-D can be an effective tool to enhancing fruit set, fruit growth as well as improving fruit quality of wax apple.

Keywords: Fruit Growth, GA3, wax apple, fruit quality. Abbreviations: GA3, gibberellic acid; 2

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14 Effect of S-Girdling on Fruit Growth and Fruit Quality of Wax Apple

Authors: Minh Tuan, Nguyen, Chung –Ruey, Yen

Abstract:

The study was performed to evaluate the effect of Sgirdling, fruit thinning plus bagging with 2,4-D application, fruit thinning plus bagging on growth and quality of wax apple fruit. Girdling was applied three week before flowering. The 2,4-D was sprayed at the small bud and petal fall stage. The effect of all treatments on fruit growth was measured weekly. The physical and biochemical quality characteristics of the fruits were recorded. The results showed that no significant effect on number of bud among treatments. S-girdling, 2,4-D application produced the lowest bud drop, fruit drop compared to untreated control. Moreover, S-girdling enhanced faster fruit growth producing the best final fruit length and diameter than the control treatment. It was also observed that Sgirdling greatly increased fruit set, fruit weight as well as total soluble solid, reduced fruit crack, and titratable acidity. In conclusion, S-girdling had a distinctive and significant effect on most of the fruit quality characteristics assessed. Application 2,4-D was also recommended as the industry norm to increase fruit set, and fruit quality in wax apple.

Keywords: wax apple, S-girdling, fruit bagging, fruit thinning

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13 Production and Extraction of Quercetin and (+)-Catechin from Phyllanthus niruri Callus Culture

Authors: Anuar, N., Markom, M., Khairedin, S., Johari, N. A.

Abstract:

Quercetin and (+)-catechin are metabolites present in Phyllanthus niruri plant, have potential in medicinal uses as anticancer and antioxidant agents. Studies on production of quercetin and (+)-catechin from P. niruri callus culture via in vitro technique were carried out and the results were compared to the intact plant. P. niruri explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) solidified media supplemented with several phytohormone combinations for one month. The metabolites were extracted from P. niruri callus and intact plant by using carbon dioxide supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with ethanol as modifier and solvent extraction techniques. The extracts were analyzed by means of HPLC method. Results showed that P. niruri callus culture was successfully established. The highest content of quercetin (1.72%) was found from P. niruri callus grown in media supplemented with 0.8mg/L kinetin and 0.2mg/L 2,4-dicholophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), which was 1.2 fold higher than intact plant. Meanwhile, the highest amounts of (+)-catechin (0.63%) was found from P. niruri callus grown in media with addition of 0.2mg/L 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and 0.8mg/L 2,4-D. The SFE condition in this study showed better extraction efficiency when higher contents of selected metabolites were found in all SFE extracts compared to the common solvent extracts.

Keywords: supercritical fluid extraction, secondary metabolite, Callus culture, Phyllanthus niruri

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