Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2208

Search results for: Dynamic balance

2208 Developing the Methods for the Study of Static and Dynamic Balance

Authors: K. Abuzayan, H. Alabed, J. Ezarrugh, M. Agila

Abstract:

Static and dynamic balance are essential in daily and sports life. Many factors have been identified as influencing static balance control. Therefore, the aim of this study was to apply the (XCoM) method and other relevant variables (CoP, CoM, Fh, KE, P, Q, and, AI) to investigate sport related activities such as hopping and jumping. Many studies have represented the CoP data without mentioning its accuracy so several experiments were done to establish the agreement between the CoP and the projected CoM in a static condition. 5 healthy male were participated in this study (Mean ± SD:- age 24.6 years ±4.5, height 177cm ± 6.3, body mass 72.8kg ± 6.6).Results found that the implementation of the XCoM method was found to be practical for evaluating both static and dynamic balance. The general findings were that the CoP, the CoM, the XCoM, Fh, and Q were more informative than the other variables (e.g. KE, P, and AI) during static and dynamic balance. The XCoM method was found to be applicable to dynamic balance as well as static balance.

Keywords: Centre of Mass, static balance, Dynamic balance, extrapolated Centre of Mass

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1759
2207 The Effects of Adding External Mass and Localised Fatigue upon Static and Dynamic Balance

Authors: K. Abuzayan, H. Alabed, S. Ali

Abstract:

The influence of physical (external added weight) and neurophysiological (fatigue) factors on static and dynamic balance in sport related activities was typified statically by the Romberg test (one foot flat, eyes open) and dynamically by jumping and hopping in both horizontal and vertical directions. Twenty healthy males were participated in this study. In Static condition, added weight increased body-s inertia and therefore decreased body sway in AP direction though not significantly. Dynamically, added weight significantly increased body sway in both ML and AP directions, indicating instability, and the use of the counter rotating segments mechanism to maintain balance was demonstrated. Fatigue on the other hand significantly increased body sway during static balance as a neurophysiological adaptation primarily to the inverted pendulum mechanism. Dynamically, fatigue significantly increased body sway in both ML and AP directions again indicating instability but with a greater use of counter rotating segments mechanism. Differential adaptations for each of the two balance mechanisms (inverted pendulum and counter rotating segments) were found between one foot flat and two feet flat dynamic conditions, as participants relied more heavily on the first in the one foot flat conditions and relied more on the second in the two feet flat conditions.

Keywords: Adding external mass, Dynamic balance, Localised fatigue, Static balance.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1419
2206 Effect of Sensory Manipulations on Human Joint Stiffness Strategy and Its Adaptation for Human Dynamic Stability

Authors: Aizreena Azaman, Mai Ishibashi, Masanori Ishizawa, Shin-Ichiroh Yamamoto

Abstract:

Sensory input plays an important role to human posture control system to initiate strategy in order to counterpart any unbalance condition and thus, prevent fall. In previous study, joint stiffness was observed able to describe certain issues regarding to movement performance. But, correlation between balance ability and joint stiffness is still remains unknown. In this study, joint stiffening strategy at ankle and hip were observed under different sensory manipulations and its correlation with conventional clinical test (Functional Reach Test) for balance ability was investigated. In order to create unstable condition, two different surface perturbations (tilt up-tilt (TT) down and forward-backward (FB)) at four different frequencies (0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 Hz) were introduced. Furthermore, four different sensory manipulation conditions (include vision and vestibular system) were applied to the subject and they were asked to maintain their position as possible. The results suggested that joint stiffness were high during difficult balance situation. Less balance people generated high average joint stiffness compared to balance people. Besides, adaptation of posture control system under repetitive external perturbation also suggested less during sensory limited condition. Overall, analysis of joint stiffening response possible to predict unbalance situation faced by human

Keywords: Balance ability, joint stiffness, sensory, adaptation, dynamic.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1710
2205 Anthropometric Correlates of Balance Performance in Non-Institutionalized Elderly

Authors: Okafor UAC, Ibeabuchimn, Omidina JO, Igwesi-Chidobe CN, Akinbo SRA

Abstract:

Purpose: The fear of falling is a major concern among the elderly. Sixty-five percent of individuals older than 60 years of age experience loss of balance often on a daily basis. Therefore, balance assessment in the elderly deserves special attention due to its importance in functional mobility and safety. This study aimed at assessing balance performance and comparing some anthropometric parameters among a Nigerian non-institutionalized elderly population.

Methods: Sixty one elderly subjects (31 males and 30 females) participated in this study. Their ages ranged between 62 and 84 years. Ability to maintain balance was assessed using Functional Reach Test (FRT) and Sharpened Romberg Test (SRT). Anthropometric data including age, weight, height, arm length, leg length, bi-acromial breadth, foot length and trunk length were also collected. Analysis was done using Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Coefficient and Independent T-test, while level of significance was set as p<0.05.

Results: Age-related significant relationship was observed between balance performance and bi-acromial breadth among the elderly population. Gender and visual input also had a significant influence on balance performance. Other anthropometric variables (age, weight, height, arm length, leg length, foot length and trunk length) showed no significant relationship with balance performance among this elderly sample.

Conclusion: Only specific anthropometric variables may affect balance performances among the healthy elderly. The study further highlights the need for routine assessment of both static and dynamic balance to detect and appropriately manage aging-related diseases which could affect balance in the elderly.

Keywords: Balance Performance, Anthropometry, Non-institutionalized Elderly.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2201
2204 The Effects of Mountain Biking as Psychomotor Instrument in Physical Education: Balance’s Evaluation

Authors: Péricles Maia Andrade, Temístocles Damasceno Silva, Hector Luiz Rodrigues Munaro

Abstract:

The school physical education is going through several changes over the years, and diversification of its content from specific interests is one of the reasons for these changes, soon, the formality in education do not have to stay out, but needs to open up the possibilities offered by the world, so the Mountain Bike, an adventure sport, offers several opportunities for intervention Its application in the school allows diverse interventions in front of the psychomotor development, besides opening possibilities for other contents, respecting the previous experiences of the students in their common environment. The choice of theme was due to affinity with the practice and experience of the Mountain Bike at different levels. Both competitive as recreational, professional standard and amateur, focus as principle the bases of the Cycling, coupled with the inclusion in the Centre for Studies in Management of Sport and Leisure and of the Southwest Bahia State University and the preview of the modality's potential to help the children’s psychomotor development. The goal of this research was to demonstrate like a pilot project the effects of the Mountain Bike as psychomotor instrument in physical education at one of the psychomotor valences, Balance, evaluating Immobility, Static Balance and Dynamic Balance. The methodology used Fonseca’s Psychomotor Battery in 10 students (n=10) of a brazilian public primary’s school, with ages between 9 and 11 years old to use the Mountain Biking contents. The balance’s skills dichotomized in Regular and Good. Regarding the variable Immobility, in the initial test, regardless of gender, 70% (n = 7) were considered Regular. After four months of activity, the Good profile, which had only 30% (n = 3) of the sample, evolved to 60% (n = 6). As in Static and Dynamic Balance there was an increase of 30% (n = 3) and 50% (n = 5) respectively for Good. Between genders, female evolution was better for Good in Immobility and in Static Equilibrium. Already the male evolution was better observed in the Dynamic Equilibrium, with 66.7% (n = 4) for Good. Respecting the particularities of the motor development, an indication of the positive effects of the MTB for the evolution in the balance perceived, necessitating studies with greater sampling.

Keywords: Psychomotricity, balance, mountain biking, education.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 695
2203 Feasibility of Integrating Heating Valve Drivers with KNX-standard for Performing Dynamic Hydraulic Balance in Domestic Buildings

Authors: Tobias Teich, Danny Szendrei, Markus Schrader, Franziska Jahn, Susan Franke

Abstract:

The increasing demand for sufficient and clean energy forces industrial and service companies to align their strategies towards efficient consumption. This trend refers also to the residential building sector. There, large amounts of energy consumption are caused by house and facility heating. Many of the operated hot water heating systems lack hydraulic balanced working conditions for heat distribution and –transmission and lead to inefficient heating. Through hydraulic balancing of heating systems, significant energy savings for primary and secondary energy can be achieved. This paper addresses the use of KNX-technology (Smart Buildings) in residential buildings to ensure a dynamic adaption of hydraulic system's performance, in order to increase the heating system's efficiency. In this paper, the procedure of heating system segmentation into hydraulically independent units (meshes) is presented. Within these meshes, the heating valve are addressed and controlled by a central facility server. Feasibility criteria towards such drivers will be named. The dynamic hydraulic balance is achieved by positioning these valves according to heating loads, that are generated from the temperature settings in the corresponding rooms. The energetic advantages of single room heating control procedures, based on the application FacilityManager, is presented.

Keywords: building automation, dynamic hydraulic balance, energy savings, VPN-networks.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1659
2202 Dynamic Stability of Beams with Piezoelectric Layers Located on a Continuous Elastic Foundation

Authors: A. R. Nezamabadi, M. Karami Khorramabadi

Abstract:

This paper studies dynamic stability of homogeneous beams with piezoelectric layers subjected to periodic axial compressive load that is simply supported at both ends lies on a continuous elastic foundation. The displacement field of beam is assumed based on Bernoulli-Euler beam theory. Applying the Hamilton's principle, the governing dynamic equation is established. The influences of applied voltage, foundation coefficient and piezoelectric thickness on the unstable regions are presented. To investigate the accuracy of the present analysis, a compression study is carried out with a known data.

Keywords: Dynamic stability, Homogeneous graded beam-Piezoelectric layer, Harmonic balance method.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1493
2201 Assessment of the Energy Balance Method in the Case of Masonry Domes

Authors: M. M. Sadeghi, S. Vahdani

Abstract:

Masonry dome structures had been widely used for covering large spans in the past. The seismic assessment of these historical structures is very complicated due to the nonlinear behavior of the material, their rigidness, and special stability configuration. The assessment method based on energy balance concept, as well as the standard pushover analysis, is used to evaluate the effectiveness of these methods in the case of masonry dome structures. The Soltanieh dome building is used as an example to which two methods are applied. The performance points are given from superimposing the capacity, and demand curves in Acceleration Displacement Response Spectra (ADRS) and energy coordination are compared with the nonlinear time history analysis as the exact result. The results show a good agreement between the dynamic analysis and the energy balance method, but standard pushover method does not provide an acceptable estimation.

Keywords: Energy balance method, pushover analysis, time history analysis, masonry dome.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 616
2200 Design and Research of a New Kind Balance Adjusting System of Centrifuge

Authors: Li Xinyao, Hong Jianzhong, Wu Wenkai

Abstract:

In order to make environmental test centrifuge balance automatically and accurately, reduce unbalance centrifugal force, balance adjusting system of centrifuge is designed. The new balance adjusting system comprises motor-reducer, timing belt, screw pair, slider-guideway and four rocker force sensors. According to information obtained by the four rocker force sensors, unbalanced value at both ends of the big arm is computed and heavy block is moved to achieve balance adjusting. In this paper, motor power and torque to move the heavy block is calculated. In full load running progress of centrifuge, the stress-strain of screw pair composed by adjusting nut and big arm are analyzed. A successful application of the balance adjusting system is also put forwarded. The results show that the balance adjusting system can satisfy balance require of environmental test centrifuge.

Keywords: balance adjusting system, centrifuge, screw pair, timing belt

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1133
2199 Combined Model Predictive Controller Technique for Enhancing NAO Gait Stabilization

Authors: Brahim Brahmi, Mohammed Hamza Laraki, Mohammad Habibur Rahman, Islam M. Rasedul, M. Assad Uz-Zaman

Abstract:

The humanoid robot, specifically the NAO robot must be able to provide a highly dynamic performance on the soccer field. Maintaining the balance of the humanoid robot during the required motion is considered as one of a challenging problems especially when the robot is subject to external disturbances, as contact with other robots. In this paper, a dynamic controller is proposed in order to ensure a robust walking (stabilization) and to improve the dynamic balance of the robot during its contact with the environment (external disturbances). The generation of the trajectory of the center of mass (CoM) is done by a model predictive controller (MPC) conjoined with zero moment point (ZMP) technique. Taking into account the properties of the rotational dynamics of the whole-body system, a modified previous control mixed with feedback control is employed to manage the angular momentum and the CoM’s acceleration, respectively. This latter is dedicated to provide a robust gait of the robot in the presence of the external disturbances. Simulation results are presented to show the feasibility of the proposed strategy.

Keywords: Preview control, walking, stabilization, humanoid robot.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 346
2198 The Effect of Static Balance Enhance by Table Tennis Training Intervening on Deaf Children

Authors: Yi-Chun Chang, Ching-Ting Hsu, Wei-Hua Ho, Yueh-Tung Kuo

Abstract:

Children with hearing impairment have deficits of balance and motors. Although most of parents teach deaf children communication skills in early life, but rarely teach the deficits of balance. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether static balance improved after table tennis training. Table tennis training was provided four times a week for eight weeks to two 12-year-old deaf children. The table tennis training included crossover footwork, sideway attack, backhand block-sideways-flutter forehand attack, and one-on-one tight training. Data were gathered weekly and statistical comparisons were made with a paired t-test. We observed that the dominant leg is better than the non-dominant leg in static balance and girl balance ability is better than boy. The final result shows that table tennis training significantly improves the deaf children’s static balance performance. It indicates that table tennis training on deaf children helps the static balance ability.

Keywords: Deaf children, static balance, table tennis, vestibular structure.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1254
2197 Evaluating the Baseline Characteristics of Static Balance in Young Adults

Authors: K. Abuzayan, H. Alabed, K. Zarug

Abstract:

The objectives of this study (baseline study, n = 20) were to implement Matlab procedures for quantifying selected static  balance variables, establish baseline data of selected variables which characterize static balance activities in a population of healthy young adult males, and to examine any trial effects on these variables. The results indicated that the implementation of Matlab procedures for quantifying selected static balance variables was practical and enabled baseline data to be established for selected variables. There was no significant trial effect. Recommendations were made for suitable tests to be used in later studies. Specifically it was found that one foot-tiptoes tests either in static balance is too challenging for most participants in normal circumstances. A one foot-flat eyes open test was considered to be representative and challenging for static balance.

Keywords: Static Balance, Base of support, Baseline Data.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1527
2196 Dynamic Balance, Pain and Functional Performance in Cruciate Retaining, Posterior Stabilized and Uni-Compartmental Knee Arthroplasty

Authors: Ahmed R. Z. Baghdadi, Amira A. A. Abdallah

Abstract:

Background: With the perceived pain and poor function experienced following knee arthroplasty, patients usually feel un-satisfied. Yet, a controversy still persists on the appropriate operative technique that doesn’t affect proprioception much.

Purpose: This study compared the effects of Cruciate Retaining (CR) and Posterior Stabilized (PS) total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and uni-compartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) on dynamic balance, pain and functional performance following rehabilitation.

Methods: Fifteen patients with CRTKA (group I), fifteen with PSTKA (group II), fifteen with UKA (group III) and fifteen indicated for arthroplasty but weren’t operated on yet (group IV) participated in the study. The mean age was 54.53±3.44, 55.13±3.48, 52.8±1.93 and 55.33±2.32 years and BMI 35.7±3.03, 35.7±1.99, 35.6±1.88 and 35.73±1.03 kg/m2 for group I, II, III and IV respectively. The Berg Balance Scale (BBS), WOMAC pain subscale and Timed Up-and-Go (TUG) and Stair-Climbing (SC) tests were used for assessment. Assessments were conducted four and eight weeks pre- and post-operatively with the control group being assessed at the same time intervals. The post-operative rehabilitation involved hospitalization (1st week), home-based (2nd-4th weeks), and outpatient clinic (5th-8th weeks) programs.

Results: The Mixed design MANOVA revealed that group III had significantly higher BBS scores, and lower pain scores and TUG and SC time than groups I and II four and eight weeks post-operatively. In addition, group I had significantly lower pain scores and SC time compared with group II eight weeks post-operatively. Moreover, the BBS scores increased significantly and the pain scores and TUG and SC time decreased significantly eight weeks post-operatively compared with the three other assessments in group I, II and III with the opposite being true four weeks post-operatively.

Interpretation/Conclusion: CRTKA is preferable to PSTKA with UKA being generally superior to TKA, possibly due to the preserved human proprioceptors in the un-excised compartmental articular surface.

Keywords: Dynamic Balance, Functional Performance, Knee Arthroplasty, Pain.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2038
2195 Electroencephalography Activity during Sensory Organization Balance Test

Authors: Tariq Ali Gujar, Anita Hökelmann

Abstract:

Postural balance plays essential role throughout life in daily activities. Somatosensory, visual and vestibular inputs play the fundamental role in maintaining body equilibrium to balance the posture. The aim of this study was to find out electroencephalography (EEG) responses during balance activity of young people during Sensory Organization Balance Test. The outcome of this study will help to create the fitness and neurorehabilitation plan. 25 young people (25 ± 3.1 years) have been analyzed on Balance Master NeuroCom® with the coupling of Brain Vision 32 electrode wireless EEG system during the Sensory Organization Test. From the results it has been found that the balance score of samples is significantly higher under the influence of somatosensory input as compared to visual and vestibular input (p < 0.05). The EEG between somatosensory and visual input to balance the posture showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) alpha and beta activities during somatosensory input in somatosensory, attention and visual functions of the cortex whereas executive and motor functions of the cerebral cortex showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) alpha EEG activity during the visual input. The results suggest that somatosensory and attention function of the cerebral cortex has alpha and beta activity, respectively high during somatosensory and vestibular input in maintaining balance. In patients with balance impairments both physical and cognitive training, including neurofeedback will be helpful to improve balance abilities.

Keywords: Balance, electroencephalography activity, somatosensory, visual, vestibular.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 253
2194 Long-Term Follow-up of Dynamic Balance, Pain and Functional Performance in Cruciate Retaining and Posterior Stabilized Total Knee Arthroplasty

Authors: Ahmed R. Z. Baghdadi, Mona H. Gamal Eldein

Abstract:

Background: With the perceived pain and poor function experienced following knee arthroplasty, patients usually feel un-satisfied. Yet, a controversy still persists on the appropriate operative technique that doesn’t affect proprioception much. Purpose: This study compared the effects of Cruciate Retaining (CR) and Posterior Stabilized (PS) total knee arthroplasty (TKA on dynamic balance, pain and functional performance following rehabilitation. Methods: Thirty patients with CRTKA (group I), thirty with PSTKA (group II) and fifteen indicated for arthroplasty but weren’t operated on yet (group III) participated in the study. The mean age was 54.53±3.44, 55.13±3.48 and 55.33±2.32 years and BMI 35.7±3.03, 35.7±1.99 and 35.73±1.03 kg/m2 for groups I, II and III respectively. The Berg Balance Scale (BBS), WOMAC pain subscale and Timed Up-and-Go (TUG) and Stair-Climbing (SC) tests were used for assessment. Assessments were conducted four weeks preand post-operatively, three, six and twelve months post-operatively with the control group being assessed at the same time intervals. The post-operative rehabilitation involved hospitalization (1st week), home-based (2nd-4th weeks), and outpatient clinic (5th-12th weeks) programs, follow-up to all groups for twelve months. Results: The Mixed design MANOVA revealed that group I had significantly lower pain scores and SC time compared with group II three, six and twelve months post-operatively. Moreover, the BBS scores increased significantly and the pain scores and TUG and SC time decreased significantly six months post-operatively compared with four weeks pre- and post-operatively and three months postoperatively in groups I and II with the opposite being true four weeks post-operatively. But no significant differences in BBS scores, pain scores and TUG and SC time between six and twelve months postoperatively in groups I and II. Interpretation/Conclusion: CRTKA is preferable to PSTKA, possibly due to the preserved human proprioceptors in the un-excised PCL.

Keywords: Dynamic Balance, Functional Performance, Knee Arthroplasty, Long-Term.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1623
2193 Using Knowledge Management and Critical Thinking to Understand Thai Perceptions and Decisions towards Work-Life Balance in a Multinational Software Development Firm

Authors: N. Mantalay, N. Chakpitak, W. Janchai, P. Sureepong

Abstract:

Work-life balance has been acknowledged and promoted for the sake of employee retention. It is essential for a manager to realize the human resources situation within a company to help employees work happily and perform at their best. This paper suggests knowledge management and critical thinking are useful to motivate employees to think about their work-life balance. A qualitative case study is presented, which aimed to discover the meaning of work-life balance-s meaning from the perspective of Thai knowledge workers and how it affects their decision-making towards work resignation. Results found three types of work-life balance dimensions; a work- life balance including a workplace and a private life setting, an organizational working life balance only, and a worklife balance only in a private life setting. These aspects all influenced the decision-making of the employees. Factors within a theme of an organizational work-life balance were involved with systematic administration, fair treatment, employee recognition, challenging assignments to gain working experience, assignment engagement, teamwork, relationship with superiors, and working environment, while factors concerning private life settings were about personal demands such as an increasing their salary or starting their own business.

Keywords: knowledge management, work-life balance, knowledge workers, decision-making, critical thinking, diverse workforce

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1780
2192 Dynamic Load Balancing in PVM Using Intelligent Application

Authors: Kashif Bilal, Tassawar Iqbal, Asad Ali Safi, Nadeem Daudpota

Abstract:

This paper deals with dynamic load balancing using PVM. In distributed environment Load Balancing and Heterogeneity are very critical issues and needed to drill down in order to achieve the optimal results and efficiency. Various techniques are being used in order to distribute the load dynamically among different nodes and to deal with heterogeneity. These techniques are using different approaches where Process Migration is basic concept with different optimal flavors. But Process Migration is not an easy job, it impose lot of burden and processing effort in order to track each process in nodes. We will propose a dynamic load balancing technique in which application will intelligently balance the load among different nodes, resulting in efficient use of system and have no overheads of process migration. It would also provide a simple solution to problem of load balancing in heterogeneous environment.

Keywords: PVM, load balancing, task allocation, intelligent application.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1553
2191 Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of Heavy Paraffin Dehydrogenation Reactor for Selective Olefin Production in Linear Alkyl Benzene Production Plant

Authors: G. Zahedi, H. Yaghoobi

Abstract:

Modeling of a heterogeneous industrial fixed bed reactor for selective dehydrogenation of heavy paraffin with Pt-Sn- Al2O3 catalyst has been the subject of current study. By applying mass balance, momentum balance for appropriate element of reactor and using pressure drop, rate and deactivation equations, a detailed model of the reactor has been obtained. Mass balance equations have been written for five different components. In order to estimate reactor production by the passage of time, the reactor model which is a set of partial differential equations, ordinary differential equations and algebraic equations has been solved numerically. Paraffins, olefins, dienes, aromatics and hydrogen mole percent as a function of time and reactor radius have been found by numerical solution of the model. Results of model have been compared with industrial reactor data at different operation times. The comparison successfully confirms validity of proposed model.

Keywords: Dehydrogenation, fixed bed reactor, modeling, linear alkyl benzene.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2751
2190 Experimental Correlation for Erythrocyte Aggregation Rate in Population Balance Modeling

Authors: Erfan Niazi, Marianne Fenech

Abstract:

Red Blood Cells (RBCs) or erythrocytes tend to form chain-like aggregates under low shear rate called rouleaux. This is a reversible process and rouleaux disaggregate in high shear rates. Therefore, RBCs aggregation occurs in the microcirculation where low shear rates are present but does not occur under normal physiological conditions in large arteries. Numerical modeling of RBCs interactions is fundamental in analytical models of a blood flow in microcirculation. Population Balance Modeling (PBM) is particularly useful for studying problems where particles agglomerate and break in a two phase flow systems to find flow characteristics. In this method, the elementary particles lose their individual identity due to continuous destructions and recreations by break-up and agglomeration. The aim of this study is to find RBCs aggregation in a dynamic situation. Simplified PBM was used previously to find the aggregation rate on a static observation of the RBCs aggregation in a drop of blood under the microscope. To find aggregation rate in a dynamic situation we propose an experimental set up testing RBCs sedimentation. In this test, RBCs interact and aggregate to form rouleaux. In this configuration, disaggregation can be neglected due to low shear stress. A high-speed camera is used to acquire video-microscopic pictures of the process. The sizes of the aggregates and velocity of sedimentation are extracted using an image processing techniques. Based on the data collection from 5 healthy human blood samples, the aggregation rate was estimated as 2.7x103(±0.3 x103) 1/s.

Keywords: Red blood cell, Rouleaux, microfluidics, image processing, population balance modeling.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 667
2189 Analysis of Dynamic Loads Induced by Spectator Movements in Stadium

Authors: Gee-Cheol Kim, Sang-Hoon Lee, Joo-Won Kang

Abstract:

In the stadium structure, the significant dynamic responses such as resonance or similar behavior can be occurred by spectator rhythmical activities. Thus, accurate analysis and precise investigation of stadium structure that is subjected to dynamic loads are required for practical design and serviceability check of stadium structures. Moreover, it is desirable to measure and analyze the dynamic loads of spectator activities because these dynamic loads can not be easily expressed in numerical formula. In this study, various dynamic loads induced by spectator movements are measured and analyzed. These dynamic loads induced by spectators movement of stadium structure can be classified into the impact load and the periodic load. These dynamic loads can be expressed as Fourier harmonic load. And, these dynamic loads could be applied for the accurate vibration analysis of a stadium structure.

Keywords: stadium structure, spectator rhythmical activities, vibration analysis.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2485
2188 Periodic Solutions for Some Strongly Nonlinear Oscillators by He's Energy Balance Method

Authors: Meng Hu, Lili Wang

Abstract:

In this paper, applying He-s energy balance method to determine frequency formulation relations of nonlinear oscillators with discontinuous term or fractional potential. By calculation and computer simulations, compared with the exact solutions show that the results obtained are of high accuracy.

Keywords: He's energy balance method, periodic solution, nonlinear oscillator, discontinuous, fractional potential.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1145
2187 Dynamic Economic Dispatch Using Glowworm Swarm Optimization Technique

Authors: K. C. Meher, R. K. Swain, C. K. Chanda

Abstract:

This paper gives an intuition regarding glowworm swarm optimization (GSO) technique to solve dynamic economic dispatch (DED) problems of thermal generating units. The objective of the problem is to schedule optimal power generation of dedicated thermal units over a specific time band. In this study, Glowworm swarm optimization technique enables a swarm of agents to split into subgroup, exhibit simultaneous taxis towards each other and rendezvous at multiple optima (not necessarily equal) of a given multimodal function. The feasibility of the GSO method has been tested on ten-unit-test systems where the power balance constraints, operating limits, valve point effects, and ramp rate limits are taken into account. The results obtained by the proposed technique are compared with other heuristic techniques. The results show that GSO technique is capable of producing better results.

Keywords: Dynamic economic dispatch, Glowworm swarm optimization, Luciferin, Valve–point loading effect, Ramp rate limits.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1069
2186 Movies and Dynamic Mathematical Objects on Trigonometry for Mobile Phones

Authors: Kazuhisa Takagi

Abstract:

This paper is about movies and dynamic objects for mobile phones. Dynamic objects are the software programmed by JavaScript. They consist of geometric figures and work on HTML5-compliant browsers. Mobile phones are very popular among teenagers. They like watching movies and playing games on them. So, mathematics movies and dynamic objects would enhance teaching and learning processes. In the movies, manga characters speak with artificially synchronized voices. They teach trigonometry together with dynamic mathematical objects. Many movies are created. They are Windows Media files or MP4 movies. These movies and dynamic objects are not only used in the classroom but also distributed to students. By watching movies, students can study trigonometry before or after class.

Keywords: Dynamic mathematical object, JavaScript, Google drive, transfer jet.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 725
2185 The Nematode Fauna Dynamics Peculiarities of Highlands Different Ecosystems (Eastern Georgia)

Authors: E. Tskitishvili, I. Eliava, T. Tskitishvili, N. Bagathuria, L. Zghenti, M. Gigolashvili

Abstract:

There was studied dynamic of the number of nematodes fauna of various ecosystems of Gombori Mountain Ridge that belongs to peak of fauna dynamic. The nature of dynamic is in general similar in all six biotypes and the difference is evident only in total number of nematodes.

Keywords: Nematoda, dynamic, highland, ecosystem

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1055
2184 Identifying Unknown Dynamic Forces Applied on Two Dimensional Frames

Authors: H. Katkhuda

Abstract:

A time domain approach is used in this paper to identify unknown dynamic forces applied on two dimensional frames using the measured dynamic structural responses for a sub-structure in the two dimensional frame. In this paper a sub-structure finite element model with short length of measurement from only three or four accelerometers is required, and an iterative least-square algorithm is used to identify the unknown dynamic force applied on the structure. Validity of the method is demonstrated with numerical examples using noise-free and noise-contaminated structural responses. Both harmonic and impulsive forces are studied. The results show that the proposed approach can identify unknown dynamic forces within very limited iterations with high accuracy and shows its robustness even noise- polluted dynamic response measurements are utilized.

Keywords: Dynamic Force Identification, Dynamic Responses, Sub-structure and Time Domain.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1290
2183 Nonlinear Control of a Continuous Bioreactor Based on Cell Population Model

Authors: Mahdi Sharifian, Mohammad Ali Fanaei

Abstract:

Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker-s yeast) can exhibit sustained oscillations during the operation in a continuous bioreactor that adversely affects its stability and productivity. Because of heterogeneous nature of cell populations, the cell population balance models can be used to capture the dynamic behavior of such cultures. In this paper an unstructured, segregated model is used which is based on population balance equation(PBE) and then in order to simulation, the 4th order Rung-Kutta is used for time dimension and three methods, finite difference, orthogonal collocation on finite elements and Galerkin finite element are used for discretization of the cell mass domain. The results indicate that the orthogonal collocation on finite element not only is able to predict the oscillating behavior of the cell culture but also needs much little time for calculations. Therefore this method is preferred in comparison with other methods. In the next step two controllers, a globally linearizing control (GLC) and a conventional proportional-integral (PI) controller are designed for controlling the total cell mass per unit volume, and performances of these controllers are compared through simulation. The results show that although the PI controller has simpler structure, the GLC has better performance.

Keywords: Bioreactor, cell population balance, finite difference, orthogonal collocation on finite elements, Galerkin finite element, feedback linearization, PI controller.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1630
2182 Normalized Cumulative Spectral Distribution in Music

Authors: Young-Hwan Song, Hyung-Jun Kwon, Myung-Jin Bae

Abstract:

As the remedy used music becomes active and meditation effect through the music is verified, people take a growing interest about psychological balance or remedy given by music. From traditional studies, it is verified that the music of which spectral envelop varies approximately as 1/f (f is frequency) down to a frequency of low frequency bandwidth gives psychological balance. In this paper, we researched signal properties of music which gives psychological balance. In order to find this, we derived the property from voice. Music composed by voice shows large value in NCSD. We confirmed the degree of deference between music by curvature of normalized cumulative spectral distribution. In the music that gives psychological balance, the curvature shows high value, otherwise, the curvature shows low value.

Keywords: Cognitive Psychology, Normalized Cumulative Spectral Distribution, Curvature.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1883
2181 Dynamic Amplification Factors of Some City Bridges

Authors: I. Paeglite, A. Paeglitis

Abstract:

Paper presents a study about dynamic effects obtained from the dynamic load testing of the city highway bridges in Latvia carried out from 2005 to 2012. 9 prestressed concrete bridges and 4 composite bridges were considered. 11 of 13 bridges were designed according to the Eurocodes but two according to the previous structural codes used in Latvia (SNIP 2.05.03-84). The dynamic properties of the bridges were obtained by heavy vehicle passing the bridge roadway with different driving speeds and with or without even pavement. The obtained values of the Dynamic amplification factor (DAF) and the bridge natural frequency were analyzed and compared to the values of built-in traffic load models provided in Eurocode 1. The actual DAF values for even bridge pavement in the most cases are smaller than the value adopted in Eurocode 1. Vehicle speed for uneven pavements significantly influence Dynamic amplification factor values.

Keywords: Bridge, dynamic effects, load testing, dynamic amplification factor.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2703
2180 Combining Ant Colony Optimization and Dynamic Programming for Solving a Dynamic Facility Layout Problem

Authors: A. Udomsakdigool, S. Bangsaranthip

Abstract:

This paper presents an algorithm which combining ant colony optimization in the dynamic programming for solving a dynamic facility layout problem. The problem is separated into 2 phases, static and dynamic phase. In static phase, ant colony optimization is used to find the best ranked of layouts for each period. Then the dynamic programming (DP) procedure is performed in the dynamic phase to evaluate the layout set during multi-period planning horizon. The proposed algorithm is tested over many problems with size ranging from 9 to 49 departments, 2 and 4 periods. The experimental results show that the proposed method is an alternative way for the plant layout designer to determine the layouts during multi-period planning horizon.

Keywords: Ant colony optimization, Dynamicprogramming, Dynamic facility layout planning, Metaheuristic

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1684
2179 Dynamic Load Modeling for KHUZESTAN Power System Voltage Stability Studies

Authors: M. Sedighizadeh, A. Rezazadeh

Abstract:

Based on the component approach, three kinds of dynamic load models, including a single –motor model, a two-motor model and composite load model have been developed for the stability studies of Khuzestan power system. The study results are presented in this paper. Voltage instability is a dynamic phenomenon and therefore requires dynamic representation of the power system components. Industrial loads contain a large fraction of induction machines. Several models of different complexity are available for the description investigations. This study evaluates the dynamic performances of several dynamic load models in combination with the dynamics of a load changing transformer. Case study is steel industrial substation in Khuzestan power systems.

Keywords: Dynamic load, modeling, Voltage Stability.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1603