Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 32586
Effect of Gibberellic Acid and 2,4- Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid on Fruit Development and Fruit Quality of Wax Apple
Abstract:This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of gibberellic acid and 2,4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on flower number, fruit growth and fruit quality of wax apple. GA3 and 2,4-D were applied at small bud and petal fall stage. Number of flower, fruit set, fruit drop, fruit crack, fruit growth and fruit quality were recorded. Results indicated that spraying with 10 ppm GA3 had the best results in number of flower. GA3 spray at 30 ppm gave the faster rate of fruit growth than the other treatments. Fruit set, fruit size as well as fruit weight markedly improved by spraying 30 ppm GA3, followed by 10 ppm GA3 compared to untreated control. Moreover, spray GA3 at 30 ppm was the most effective and increased total soluble solids, reduced titratable acidity and fruit drop. On the other hand, it was noticed that with 10 ppm 2,4-D application also enhanced the fruit growth rate, improved physiological and biochemical characters of fruit compared to untreated control. It was concluded that both GA3 and 2,4-D spray have positive effects on fruit development, reduced fruit drop, fruit crack and improved fruit quality of wax apple under field conditions.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1079776Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 5340
 M. Agusti, V. Almela, I. Andreu, M. Juan, and L. Zacarias, "Synthetic auxin 3,5,6-TPA promotes fruit development and climacteric in Prunus persica L. Batsch," J. Hort. Sci. Biotech, 74, pp 556-660. 1999.
 M. Agusti, M.E. Otmani, M. Juan, and V. Almela, "Effect of 3,5,6- trichloro-2-pyridyloxyacetic acid on clementine early fruitlet development and on fruit size at maturity," J. Hort. Sci, 70, pp 955-962. 1995.
 M. Agusti, M. Juan, V. Almela, and C. Speroni, "The effect of 2,4-DP on fruit development in apricots (Prunus armeniaca L.)," Scientia Hort, 57, pp 51- 57. 1994.
 I. Almeida, I.M. Leite, J.D. Rodrigues, and E.O. Ono, "Application of plant growth regulators at pre-harvest for fruit development of ÔÇÿPERA- oranges," Braz. Arch. Biol. Technol, 47, pp 658-662. 2004.
 R.N. Arteca, "Plant Growth Substances: Principles and Applications," Chapman and Hall Press, New York, USA, 332 pp, 1996.
 A. Basak, E. Rozpara, and Z. Grzyb, "Use of Bioregulators to Reduce Sweet Cherry Tree Growth and to improve Fruit Quality," Acta Horticult, 468, pp 719-723. 1998.
 B.S. Baghel and D.A. Sarnaik, "Effect of 2,4-D on yield and physicchemical composition of mrigbahar sweet orange variety, Poona Mosambi," South Indian Hort, 33, pp 395-396. 1985.
 G.H.V.R. Babu and M.L. Lavaniya, "Effect of plant growth regulators on fruit set and fruit drop of Pant lemon-1," Indian J. Hort, 42, pp 237- 240. 1985.
 W. Baogang, W. Jianhui, and L. Hao, "Reduced chilling injury in mango fruit by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and the antioxidant response," Postharvest Biology and Technology, 48(2), pp 172-181. 2008.
 D.R. Bhattarai and D. M. Gautam, "Effect of harvesting method and calcium on post harvest physiology of tomato," Nepal Agriculture Research Journal, 7, pp 37-41. 2006.
 J.C. Chang, and T.S. Lin, "GA3 increases fruit weight in ÔÇÿYu Her Pau- litchi," Sci. Horticult, 108(4), pp 442-443. 2006.
 C.T. Chao and C.J. Lovatt, "Foliar applied 3,5,6-trichloro-2- pyridoxylacetic acid (3,5,6-TPA) increases yield of commercially valuable large-size fruit of "Fina Sodea" clementine mandarin," Acta Hort, 884, pp 433-440. 2010
 M. Clayton, W.V. Biasi, I.T. Agar, S.M. Southwick, and E.J. Mitcham, "Postharvest Quality of ÔÇÿBing- Cherries Following Preharvest Treatment with Hydrogen Cyanamide, Calcium Ammonium Nitrate, or Gibberellic Acid," Hort. Sci, 38(3), pp 407-411. 2003.
 M. Clayton, W.V. Biasi, I.T. Agar, S.M. Southwick, E.J. Mitcham, "Sensory quality of ÔÇÿBing- sweet cherries following preharvest treatment with hydrogen cyanamide, calcium ammonium nitrate, or gibberellic acid," HortScience, 41, pp 745-748. 2006.
 J.A. Cline and M. Trought, "Effect of Gibberellic Acid on Fruit Cracking and Quality of Bing and Sam Sweet Cherries," Can. J. Plant Sci, 87(3), pp 545-550. 2007.
 F.S. Davies and G. Zalman, "Gibberellic acid, fruit freezing, and postfreeze quality of Hamlin oranges," Hort. Tech, 16(2), pp 301-305. 2006.
 F.S. Davies, "Growth regulator improvement of post-harvest quality," In: Fresh citrus fruit. W. Wardowski, S. Nagy, W. Grieson (eds.), AVI Press, Westport, Conn 77-99 pp. 1986.
 Z.A. Dawood, "Studies into fruit splitting and quality of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.), Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.), and grape (Vitis vinifera L.)," Ph.D thesis. Department of Horticulture, Wye College, University of London, Wye, UK ,256 pp. 1986.
 T. Deckers and H. Schoofs, "Improvement of fruit set on young pear trees cultivar Conference with gibberellins," Acta Hort, 596, pp 735- 743. 2002.
 L.K. Demirsoy and S.Bilgener, "The Effects of Preharvest Calcium Hydroxide Applications on Cracking and Fruit Quality in 0900 Ziraat, Lambert and Van Sweet Cherry Varieties," Acta Horticult, 468, pp 657- 662. 1998.
 E. Dorcey, C. Urbez, M.A. Blazquez, J.Carbonell, and M.A. Perez- Amador, "Fertilization dependent auxin response in ovules triggers fruit development through the modulation of gibberellin metabolism in Arabidopsis," Plant Journal, 58, pp 318-332. 2009.
 C. Elisa, L. Lucia, S. Oriana, P. Tiziana, S. Angelo, B. Mezzetti, "Auxin synthesis-encoding transgene enhances grape fecundity," Plant Physiology, 143(4), pp 1689- 1694. 2007.
 A.M.A. El-Sese, "Effect of gibberellic acid 3 (GAs) on yield and fruit characteristics of Balady mandarin," Assiut. J. Agri. Sci, 36, pp 23-35. 2005.
 A.A. Eman, M.M.M.A. El-moneim, O.A. El- Migeed, and M.M. Ismail, "GA3 and Zinc Sprays for Improving Yield and Fruit Quality of Washington Navel Orange Trees Grown under Sandy Soil Conditions," Res. J. Agric. Biol. Sci, 3(5), pp 498-503. 2007.
 S.H.M.M. El-Sharkawy and S.M.A. Mehaisen, "Effect of gibberellin and potassium foliage sprays on productivity and fruit quality of guava trees," Egypt J. Appl. Sci, 20(3), pp 151-162. 2005.
 S. Horvitz, C. Godoy, A.F. Lopez Camelo, A. Yommi, "Application of Gibberellic Acid to ÔÇÿSweetheart- Sweet Cherries:Effect on Fruit Quality at Harvest and During Cold Storage," Acta Horticult, 628, pp 311-316. 2003.
 J.H. Huang and L. Huang, "The application of GA3 in citrus orchards," South China Fruits, 3, pp 32-36. 2005.
 F. Kappel and R. MacDonald, "Early gibberellic acid spray increase fruiting and fruit size of Sweetheart sweet cherry," J. Am. Pomol. Soc, 61(1), pp 38-43. 2007.
 H.A. Kassem, A.M. El-Kobbia, H.A. Marzouk, M.M. El- Sebaiey, "Effect of foliar sprays on fruit retention, quality and yield of Costata persimmon trees," Emir. J. Food Agric, 22 (4), pp 259-274. 2010.
 M.M. Khandaker, A.N. Boyce, and N. Osman, "The influence of hydrogen peroxide on the growth, development and quality of wax apple (Syzygium samarangense,
[Blume] Merrill & L.M. Perry var. jambu madu) fruits," Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 53, pp 101-110. 2012.
 M.M.A. Khan, A.C. Gautam, F. Mohammad, M.H. Siddiqui, M. Naeem, and M.N. Khan, "Effect of gibberellic acid spray on performance of tomato," Turk. J. Biol, 30, pp 11-16. 2006.
 N.M.A. Khassawneh, N.S. Karam, and R.A. Shibli, "Growth and flowering of black iris (Iris nigricans Dinsm.) following treatment with plant growth regulators," Scientia Horticulturae, 107, pp 187-193. 2006.
 S. Kondo and N. Mizuno, "Relation between early drop of apple fruit and endogenous growth regulators and effects of MCPB, GA3 plus GA4 and BA sprays on fruit abscission," Journal of Japanese Society for Horticultural Science, 58, pp 9-16. 1989.
 K. Mengel and E.A. Kirkby, "Principles of Plant Nutrition," 4th End., International Potash Institute, Bern, Switzerland, 687 pp. (1987).
 J. Morton, "Loquat," In: Morton JF (Ed.). Fruits of Warm Climates. Miami FL. Inc. Winter vile, NC, 103-108 pp. 1987.
 M.A. Nawaz, W. Ahmad, S. Ahmad, and M.M. Khan, "Role of growth regulators on preharvest fruit drop," Pak. J. Bot, 40(5), pp 1971-1981. 2008.
 M.E. Otmani, A. Ait-Oubahou, C.J. Lovatt, F. El-Hassainate, "Effect of Gibberellic acid, Urea and KNO3 on yield, composition and nutritional quality of Clementine mandarin fruit juice," ISHS Acta Horticulturae, 632. 2004. XXVI International Horticultural Congress: Citrus and other subtropical and tropical fruit crops: issues, advances and opportunities.
 G. Paroussi, D.G. Voyiatzis, E. Paroussi, P.D. Drogour, "Growth, flowering and yield responses to GA3 of strawberry grown under different environmental conditions," Scientia Hortic, 96, pp 103-113. 2002.
 E.J.P. Pires, M.M. Terra, C.V. Pommer, I.R.S. Passos, "Improvement of cluster and berry quality of Centennial Seedless grapes through gibberellic acid," Acta Horticulturae, 526, pp 293-299. 2000
 R. Ranjan, S.S. Purohit, V. Prasad, "Plant Hormones: Action and Application," Agrobios, India, 2003. pp183-189
 G.H.V. Ratnababu, M.L. Lavania, K.K. Misra, "Effect of plant growth regulator sprays on yield and physic-chemical composition of Pant lemon-1 (Citrus limon Burm.) fruits in the off-season flush," Prog. Hort, 16 (3-4), pp 191-198. 1984.
 A. Sepahi, "GA3 concentration for controlling fruit cracking in pomegranates," Iran Agric. Res, 5, pp 93-99. 1986.
 J.C. Serrani, R. Sanju├ín , O. Ruiz-Rivero , M. Fos , J.L. Garcia- Martinez, "Gibberellin regulation of fruit set and growth in tomato," Plant Physiology, 145, pp 922-934. 2007.
 Z.H. Sh├╝, C.C. Chu, L.C. Hwang, C.S. Shieh, "Light, temperature, and sucrose affect color, diameter, and soluble solids of disks of wax apple fruit skin," HortScience, 36, pp 279-281. 2001.
 A. Singh and J.N. Singh, "Studies on the influence of biofertilizers and bioregulators on flowering, yield and fruit quality of strawberry Cv. Sweet Charlie," Ann. Agri. Res, 27 (3), pp 261-264. 2006.
 R.A. Stern, J. Kigel, E. Tomer, S. Gazit, "ÔÇÿMauritius- Lychee Fruit Development and Reduced Abscission after Treatment with the Auxin 2,4,5-TP,"J. Amer. Sos. Hort. Sci, 120(1), pp 65-70. 1995.
 R.A. Stern and S. Gazit, "Reducing fruit drop in lychee with PGR sprays," In: Basra, A. (Ed.), Plant Growth Regulators in Agriculture and Horticulture. The Haworth Press Inc., New York, USA, 211- 222 pp. 2000.
 R.A. Stern, M. Flaishman, S. Applebaumc, R. Ben-Arie, "Effect of synthetic auxins on fruit development of ÔÇÿBing- cherry (Prunus avium L.)," Scientia Horticulturae, 114, pp 275-280. 2007.
 G.W. Stutte and J. Gage, "Gibberellins inhibit fruit abscission following seed abortion in peach," J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci, 115, pp 107-110. 1990.
 M. Talon, L. Zarcarias, E. Primo-Millo, "Gibberellins and parthenocarpic ability in developing ovaries of seedless mandarins," Plant Physiol, 99, pp 1575-1581. 1992.
 D.R. Taylor and J.N. Knight, "Russeting and cracking of apple fruit and their control with plant growth regulators," Acta Hortic, 2, pp 819-820. 1986.
 V. Usenik, D. Kastelec, F. Stampar, "Physicochemical Changes of Sweet Cherry Fruits Related to Application of Gibberellic Acid," Food Chem, 90, pp 663-671. 2005.
 K. Venkatesan and M.K. Mohideen, "Effect of growth regulators on fruit characters and yield of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cv. Ganesh," South Indian Hort, 42 (4), pp 239-244. 1994.
 D.G. Voyiatzis and G.P. Paroussi, "The effect of photoperiod and gibberellic acid on strawberry pollen germination and stamen growth," Acta Hortic, 567, pp 257-260. 2002.
 D.N. Wang, "The study of the advance flower forcing promotion of wax-apple. The effect of forcing flower by chemical and culture treatment of wax-apple," in Chinese J. Agric. Res. China, 32(2), pp129- 138. 1983.
 M.N. Westwood, "Temperate-Zone Pomology: Physiology and Culture," third ed. Timber Press, Portland, OR, USA 523 pp. 1993.
 J.X. Xiao, S. Peng, H.P. Hua, L.H. Jiang, "Effects of calcium nitrate and IAA on calcium concentration and quality of Satsuma mandarin fruit," J. Fruit Sci, 22(3), pp 211-215. 2005.
 C. Zhang, K. Tanabe, H. Tani, H. Nakajima, M. Mori, A. Itai, E. Sakuno, "Biologically active gibberellins and abscisic acid in fruit of two latematuring Japanese pear cultivars with contrasting fruit size," J.