Search results for: ad medium
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 809

Search results for: ad medium

809 In vitro Culture Medium Sterilization by Chemicals and Essential Oils without Autoclaving and Growth of Chrysanthemum Nodes

Authors: Wittaya Deein, Chockpisit Thepsithar, Aree Thongpukdee

Abstract:

Plant tissue culture is an important in vitro technology applied for agricultural and industrial production. A sterile condition of culture medium is one of the main aspects. The alternative technique for medium sterilization to replace autoclaving was carried out. For sterilization of plant tissue culture medium without autoclaving, ten commercial pure essential oils and 5 disinfectants were tested. Each essential oil or disinfectant was added to a 20-mL Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium before medium was solidified in a 120-mL container, kept for 2 weeks before evaluating sterile conditions. Treated media, supplemented with essential oils or disinfectants, were compared to control medium, autoclaved at 121 degree Celsius for 15 min. Sterile conditions of MS medium were found 100% from betel oil or clove oil (18 mL/20 mL medium), cinnamon oil (36 mL/20 mL medium), lavender oil or holy basil oil (108 mL/20 mL medium), and lemon oil or tea tree oil or turmeric oil (252 mL/20 mL medium), compared to 100% sterile condition from autoclaved medium. For disinfectants, 2% iodine + 2.4% potassium iodide, 2% merbromine solution, 10% povidone-iodine, 6% sodium hypochlorite or 0.1% thimerosal at 36 mL/20 mL medium provided 100% sterile conditions. Furthermore, growth of new shoots from chrysanthemum node explants on treated media (fresh weight, shoot length, root length and number of node) were also reported and discussed in the comparison of those on autoclaved medium.

Keywords: Chrysanthemum, disinfectants, essential oils, MS medium, sterilizing agents, sterilization of medium without autoclaving.

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808 Sterilisation of Hyponex Medium by Chemicals without Autoclaving and Growth of Phalaenopsis Protocorms

Authors: Chockpisit Thepsithar, Aree Thongpukdee

Abstract:

For sterilization of Phalaenopsis culture medium without autoclaving, selected single sterilizing agents and in combinations were added to a 25ml Hyponex medium in a 120ml glass container. Treated liquid and solid media, supplemented with sterilizing agents, were compared to a control medium, autoclaved at 121°C for 15min. It was found that 90(L of 10% povidone-iodine, 150(L of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite, 150(L of 2% mercurochrome, 90(L of 2.5% iodine + 2.5% potassium iodine in combination with 10% providone-iodine (1:3) and 30(L of 2.5% iodine + 2.5% potassium iodide in combination with 2% mercurochrome showed 100% sterile conditions in liquid medium but provided 75, 100, 50, 75 and 80% sterile conditions, respectively, in solid medium. For growth of Phalaenopsis protocorms, 90(L of 10% povidone-iodine in liquid Hyponex medium gave the comparable growth of protocorms to control medium while 150(L of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite in solid medium provided the promising growth of protocorms. Growth of protocorms, whole fresh weight, numbers of leaf and root, root length and number of protocorm-like bodies, was discussed.

Keywords: Phalaenopsis, sterilizing agents, Hyponex medium, sterile medium without autoclaving.

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807 Sterilisation of in vitro Culture Medium of Chrysanthemum by Plant Essential Oils without Autoclaving

Authors: Chockpisit Thepsithar, Aree Thongpukdee, Apichya Daorat

Abstract:

The alternative technique for sterilization of culture medium to replace autoclaving was carried out. For sterilization of culture medium without autoclaving, some commercial pure essential oils, bergamot oil, betel oil, cinnamon oil, lavender oil and turmeric oil, were tested alone or in combinations with some disinfectants, 10% povidone-iodine and 2% iodine + 2.4% potassium iodide. Each essential oil or combination was added to 25-mL Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium before medium was solidified in a 120-mL container, kept for 2 weeks before evaluating sterile conditions. Treated media, supplemented with essential oils, were compared to control medium, autoclaved at 121 degree Celsius for 15 min. In vitro sterile conditions were found 20 – 100% from these treated media compared to 100% sterile condition from autoclaved medium. Treated media obtained 100% sterile conditions were chosen for culturing chrysanthemum shoots. It was found that 10% povidoneiodine in combination with cinnamon oil (3:1) and 2% iodine + 2.4% potassium iodide in combination with lavender oil (1:3) at the concentration of 36 3L/25 mL medium provided the promising growth of shoot explants.

Keywords: Sterilizing agents, essential oils, disinfectants, MS medium, in vitro culture, chrysanthemum, sterilization of medium without autoclaving

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806 Managing of Work Risk in Small and Medium-Size Companies

Authors: Janusz K. Grabara, Bartłomiej Okwiet, Sebastian Kot

Abstract:

The purpose of the article is presentation and analysis of the aspect of job security in small and medium-size enterprises in Poland with reference to other EU countries. We show the theoretical aspects of the risk with reference to managing small and medium enterprises, next risk management in small and medium enterprises in Poland, which were subjected to a detailed analysis. We show in detail the risk associated with the operation of the mentioned above companies, as well as analyses its levels on various stages and for different kinds of conducted activity.

Keywords: Job safety, small and medium-size companies, SME, work risk, risk management.

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805 Cell Growth and Metabolites Produced by Fluorescent Pseudomonad R62 in Modified Chemically Defined Medium

Authors: K. Saharan, M.V. R. K. Sarma, A. S. Roesti, A. Prakash, B. N. Johri, M. Aragno, V. S. Bisaria, V. Sahai

Abstract:

Chemically defined Schlegel-s medium was modified to improve production of cell growth and other metabolites that are produced by fluorescent pseudomonad R62 strain. The modified medium does not require pH control as pH changes are kept within ± 0.2 units of the initial pH 7.1 during fermentation. The siderophore production was optimized for the fluorescent pseudomonad strain in the modified medium containing 1% glycerol as a major carbon source supplemented with 0.05% succinic acid and 0.5% Ltryptophan. Indole-3 acetic acid (IAA) production was higher when L-tryptophan was used at 0.5%. The 2,4- diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) was higher with amended three trace elements in medium. The optimized medium produced 2.28 g/l of dry cell mass and 900 mg/l of siderophore at the end of 36 h cultivation, while the production levels of IAA and DAPG were 65 mg/l and 81 mg/l respectively at the end of 48 h cultivation.

Keywords: Fluorescent pseudomonad, Fermentation, Metabolites production, PGPR.

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804 Glutamic Acid Production from Potato by Brevibacterium linens

Authors: Marzieh Moosavi-Nasab, Masoumeh Izadi, Sara Hosseinpour

Abstract:

In this study, the possibility of using potato as a substrate for glutamic acid production by Brevibacterium linens was investigated. For preparation of fermentation medium, potato was hydrolyzed by hydrochloridric acid. The medium contained potato hydrolysate, tween 80, mineral solution, glucose, and potassium hydrogen phosphate. The initial pH of the medium was adjusted to 7-7.5. For achieving the optimum time with maximum yield, the beakers containing the medium and the inoculums were incubated in a rotary water bath flask shaker for one to five days. Thin layer choromatography was used for quantitative and qualitative assay of the glutamic acid produced. The results revealed that as fermentation time increased, pH of the fermentation medium significantly decreased (P<0.05). Furthermore, glutamic acid concentration in fermentation medium increased significantly (P<0.05). The highest amount of the glutamic acid obtained was 5.6 g/l on the forth day of fermentation.

Keywords: Brevibacterium linens, Fermentation, Glutamicacid, Thin layer choromatography

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803 The Impact of Bank Consolidation on the Performance of SMES in Nigeria

Authors: Okolo Chimaobi Valentine

Abstract:

This paper seeks to assess the implications of bank consolidation on the performance of small and medium scale enterprises in the Nigerian economy. Multiple linear regression technique and correlation matrix test were employed to measure the extent to which small and medium scale enterprises asset size, survival and access to credit were influenced. The result showed that bank deposit (BD) and bank credit (L or BC) impacted on asset size and survival of small and medium scale enterprises. None of the variables had significant impact on SMEs access to credit. There is a shift of focus by commercial banks away from small and medium scale enterprises (small customers), which is evidenced by the significant negative influence of bank credit to both the survival and asset size of small and medium enterprises. While micro finance banks work hard at providing funds to small and medium scale entrepreneurs, their capacity to meet the needs of these entrepreneurs is constrained. CBN should make policies that will boost micro finance bank’s capital and also monitor closely the management of the banks to ensure prudent financing of small and medium scale investments.

Keywords: Bank consolidation, small and medium enterprises.

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802 The Impact of Bank Consolidation on Lending to SMES in Nigeria

Authors: Chimaobi Valentine Okolo

Abstract:

This paper seeks to assess the implications of bank consolidation on lending, which largely determine the survival and performance of small and medium scale enterprises and in turn the development of the Nigerian economy. Ordinary least square technique, correlation matrix test and Granger –causality test were employed to measure the extent to which lending to small and medium scale enterprises were influenced. The result showed that bank deposit (BD) impacted on lending to small and medium scale enterprises. Commercial and merchant bank lending rate had statistically insignificant effect on the dependent variable. There is a shift of focus by commercial banks from small and medium scale enterprises (small customers) to major investors (big customers). While micro finance banks work hard at providing funds to small and medium scale entrepreneurs, their capacity to meet the needs of these entrepreneurs is constrained. The capital and deposits of micro finance bank should be boosted in order to effectively support small and medium scale enterprises through loans.

Keywords: Asset size, bank consolidation, lending, small and medium enterprises.

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801 Nonlinear Stability of Convection in a Thermally Modulated Anisotropic Porous Medium

Authors: M. Meenasaranya, S. Saravanan

Abstract:

Conditions corresponding to the unconditional stability of convection in a mechanically anisotropic fluid saturated porous medium of infinite horizontal extent are determined. The medium is heated from below and its bounding surfaces are subjected to temperature modulation which consists of a steady part and a time periodic oscillating part. The Brinkman model is employed in the momentum equation with the Bousinessq approximation. The stability region is found for arbitrary values of modulational frequency and amplitude using the energy method. Higher order numerical computations are carried out to find critical boundaries and subcritical instability regions more accurately.

Keywords: Convection, porous medium, anisotropy, temperature modulation, nonlinear stability.

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800 Improving the Optoacoustic Signal by Monitoring the Changes of Coupling Medium

Authors: P. Prasannakumar, L. Myoung Young, G. Seung Kye, P. Sang Hun, S. Chul Gyu

Abstract:

In this paper, we discussed the coupling medium in the optoacoustic imaging. The coupling medium is placed between the scanned object and the ultrasound transducers. Water with varying temperature was used as the coupling medium. The water temperature is gradually varied between 25 to 40 degrees. This heating process is taken with care in order to avoid the bubble formation. Rise in the photoacoustic signal is noted through an unfocused transducer with frequency of 2.25 MHz as the temperature increases. The temperature rise is monitored using a NTC thermistor and the values in degrees are calculated using an embedded evaluation kit. Also the temperature is transmitted to PC through a serial communication. All these processes are synchronized using a trigger signal from the laser source.

Keywords: Embedded, optoacoustic, ultrasound, unfocused transducer.

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799 Determination of Alkaline Protease Production In Serratia Marcescens Sp7 Using Agro Wastes As Substrate Medium, Optimization Of Production Parameters And Purification Of The Enzyme

Authors: Baby Joseph, Sankarganesh Palaniyandi

Abstract:

The enzyme alkaline protease production was determined under solid state fermentation using the soil bacteria Serratia marcescens sp7. The maximum production was obtained from wheat bran medium than ground nut shell and chemically defined medium. The physiological fermentation factors such as pH of the medium (pH 8), Temperature (40oC) and incubation time (48 hrs) played a vital role in alkaline protease production in all the above. 100Mm NaCl has given better resolution during elution of the enzymes. The enzyme production was found to be associated with growth of the bacterial culture.

Keywords: Alkaline protease, Wheat bran, Ground nut shell, Serratia marcescens

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798 Effects of Chitosan as the Growth Stimulator for Grammatophyllum speciosum in Vitro Culture

Authors: Sopalun K., Thammasiri K., Ishikawa K.

Abstract:

The effects of chitosan, a biodegradable polymer, were studied in Grammatophyllum speciosum protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) in vitro culture. The chitosan concentration of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 50 or 100 mg/l were supplemented in half-strength Murashige and Skoog (1/2 MS) liquid or on agar media containing 2% (w/v) sucrose. The results showed that liquid medium supplemented with 15 mg/l chitosan showed the highest relative growth rate (7-fold increase) of PLBs. On 1/2 MS agar medium supplemented with 25 mg/l chitosan gave the highest relative growth rate (4-fold increase). The relative growth rate of G. speciosum PLBs on agar medium was significantly lower than that in liquid medium. Moreover, chitosan, supplemented to agar medium promoted shoot formation but not rooting. However, supplementation at too high a level, such as 100 mg/l can inhibit growth and kill PLBs.

Keywords: Chitosan, Grammatophyllum speciosum, Growth stimulator

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797 Influence of Harmonics on Medium Voltage Distribution System: A Case Study for Residential Area

Authors: O. Arikan, C. Kocatepe, G. Ucar, Y. Hacialiefendioglu

Abstract:

In this paper, influence of harmonics on medium voltage distribution system of Bogazici Electricity Distribution Inc. (BEDAS) which takes place at Istanbul/Turkey is investigated. A ring network consisting of residential loads is taken into account for this study. Real system parameters and measurement results are used for simulations. Also, probable working conditions of the system are analyzed for 50%, 75%, and 100% loading of transformers with similar harmonic contents. Results of the study are exhibited the influence of nonlinear loads on %THDV, P.F. and technical losses of the medium voltage distribution system.

Keywords: Distribution system, harmonic, technical losses, power factor (PF), total harmonic distortion (THD), residential load, medium voltage.

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796 Statistical Optimization of Medium Components for Biomass Production of Chlorella pyrenoidosa under Autotrophic Conditions and Evaluation of Its Biochemical Composition under Stress Conditions

Authors: N. P. Dhull, K. Gupta, R. Soni, D. K. Rahi, S. K. Soni

Abstract:

The aim of the present work was to statistically design an autotrophic medium for maximum biomass production by Chlorella pyrenoidosa using response surface methodology. After evaluating one factor at a time approach, K2HPO4, KNO3, MgSO4.7H2O and NaHCO3 were preferred over the other components of the fog’s medium as most critical autotrophic medium components. The study showed that the maximum biomass yield was achieved while the concentrations of MgSO4.7H2O, K2HPO4, KNO3 and NaHCO3 were 0.409 g/L, 0.24 g/L, 1.033 g/L, and 3.265 g/L, respectively. The study reported that the biomass productivity of C. pyrenoidosa improved from 0.14 g/L in defined fog’s medium to 1.40 g/L in modified fog’s medium resulting 10 fold increase. The biochemical composition biosynthesis of C. pyrenoidosa was altered using nitrogen limiting stress bringing about 5.23 fold increase in lipid content than control (cell without stress), as analyzed by FTIR integration method.

Keywords: Autotrophic condition, Chlorella pyrenoidosa, FTIR, Response Surface Methodology, Optimization.

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795 An Effect of Organic Supplements on Stimulating Growth of Dendrobium Protocorms and Seedlings

Authors: Sunthari Tharapan, Chockpisit Thepsithar, Kullanart Obsuwan

Abstract:

This study was aimed to investigate the effect of various organic supplements on growth and development of Dendrobium discolor’s protocorms and seedlings growth of Dendrobium Judy Rutz. Protocorms of Dendrobium discolor with 2.0 cm. in diameter and seedlings of Dendrobium Judy Rutz at the same size (0.5 cm. height) were sub-cultured on Hyponex medium supplemented with cow milk (CM), soy milk (SM), potato extract (PE) and peptone (P) for 2 months. The protocorms were developed to seedlings in all treatments after cultured for 2 months. However, the best results were found on Hyponex medium supplemented with P was the best in which the maximum fresh and dry weight and maximum shoot height were obtained in this treatment statistically different (p ≤ 0.05) to other treatments. Moreover, Hyponex medium supplemented with P also stimulated the maximum mean number of 5.7 shoots per explant which also showed statistically different (p ≤ 0.05) when compared to other treatments. The results of growth of Dendrobium Judy Rutz seedlings indicated the medium supplemented with 100 mL/L PE enhanced the maximum fresh and dry weigh per explants with significantly different (p ≤ 0.05) in fresh weight from other treatments including the control medium without any organic supplementation. However, the dry weight was not significantly different (p ≤ 0.05) from medium supplemented with SM and P. There was multiple shoots induction in all media with or without organic supplementation ranging from 2.6 to 3 shoots per explants. The maximum shoot height was also obtained in the seedlings cultured on medium supplemented with PE while the longest root length was found in medium supplemented with SM.

Keywords: Fresh weight, in vitro propagation, orchid, plant height.

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794 A Study on Fundamental Problems for Small and Medium Agricultural Machinery Industries in Central Region Area

Authors: P. Thepnarintra, S. Nikorn

Abstract:

Agricultural machinery industry plays an important role in the industrial development especially the production industry of the country. There has been continuing development responding to the higher demand of the production. However, the problem in agricultural machinery production still exists. Thus, the purpose of this research is to investigate problems on fundamental factors of industry based on the entrepreneurs’ point of view. The focus was on the small and medium size industry receiving factory license type number 0660 from the Department of Industrial Works. The investigation was on the comparison between the management of the small and medium size agricultural industry in 3 provinces in the central region of Thailand. Population in this study consisted of 189 company managers or managing directors, of which 101 were from the small size and 88 were from the medium size industry. The data were analyzed to find percentage, arithmetic mean, and standard deviation with independent sample T-test at the statistical significance .05. The results showed that the small and medium size agricultural machinery manufacturers in the central region of Thailand reported high problems in every aspect. When compared the problems on basic factors in running the business, it was found that there was no statistically difference at .05 in managing of the small and medium size agricultural machinery manufacturers. However, there was a statistically significant difference between the small and medium size agricultural machinery manufacturers on the aspect of policy and services of the government. The problems reported by the small and medium size agricultural machinery manufacturers were the services on public tap water and the problem on politic and stability of the country.

Keywords: Agricultural machinery, manufacturers, problems, on running the business.

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793 Development of Split Air-Conditioning System using Chill Water as the Cooling Medium

Authors: Faezzan Madli, Zamri Noranai, Md. Norrizam Mohamad Jaat, Hamidon Salleh, Mohammad Zainal Md Yusof

Abstract:

Current air conditioning system is using refrigerant as the cooling medium. The main purpose of this study is to develop an air conditioning system using chill water as the cooling medium. In this system, chill water used to replace refrigerant as the cooling medium. This study is focus on the split type unit air conditioning system only. It will be involving some renovation on the indoor unit and freezer. The cooling capability of this system was validate by few series of testing, which conducted at standard 36m3 office room. Result of the testing found that 0.1 m3 of chill water is able to maintain the room temperature within standard up to 4 ~ 8 hours. It expected able to maintain room temperature up to 10 hour with some improvement.

Keywords: Chill water, air-condition, office room.

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792 Expression of Leucaena Leucocephala de Wit Chitinase in Transgenic Koshihikari Rice

Authors: M. Kaomek, J. R. Ketudat-Cairns

Abstract:

The cDNA encoding the 326 amino acids of a Class I basic chitinase gene from Leucaena leucocephala de Wit (KB3, Genbank accession: AAM49597) was cloned under the control of CaMV35S promoter in pCAMBIA 1300 and transferred to Koshihikari. Calli of Koshihikari rice was transformed with agrobacterium with this construct expressing the chitinase and β- glucouronidase (GUS). The frequencies of calli 90 % has been obtained from rice seedlings cultured on NB medium. The high regeneration frequencies, 74% was obtained from calli cultured on regeneration medium containing 4 mg/l BAP, and 7 g/l phytagel at 25°C. Various factors were studied in order to establish a procedure for the transformation of Koshihikari Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Supplementation of 50 mM acetosyringone to the medium during coculivation was important to enhance the frequency to transient transformation. The 4 week-old scutellum-derived calli were excellent starting materials. Selection medium based on NB medium supplement with 40 mg/l hygromycin and 400 mg/l cefotaxime were an optimized medium for selection of transformed rice calli. The percentage of transformation 70 was obtained. Recombinant calli and regenerated rice plants were checked the expression of chitinase and gus by PCR, northern blot gel, southern blot gel, and gus assay. Chitinase and gus were expressed in all parts of recombinant rice. The rice line expressing the KB3 chiitnase was more resistant to the blast fungus Fusarium monoliforme than control line.

Keywords: chitinase, Leucaena leucocephala de Wit, Koshihikari, transgenic rice.

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791 Conceptual Overview of Housing Affordability in Selangor, Malaysia

Authors: M. S. Suhaida, N. M. Tawil, N. Hamzah, A. I. Che-Ani, M.M. Tahir

Abstract:

Socioeconomic stability and development of a country, can be describe by housing affordability. It is aimed to ensure the housing provided as one of the key factors that is affordable by every income earner group whether low-income, middle income and high income group. This research carried out is to find out affordability of home ownership level for first medium cost landed-house by the middle-income group in Selangor, Malaysia. It is also hope that it could be seen as able to contribute to the knowledge and understanding on housing affordability level for the middleincome group and variables that influenced the medium income group-s ability to own first medium-cost houses.

Keywords: Residential, Housing Affordability, Middle income.

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790 Effect of Different Media and Mannitol Concentrations on Growth and Development of Vandopsis lissochiloides (Gaudich.) Pfitz. under Slow Growth Conditions

Authors: J. Linjikao, P. Inthima, A. Kongbangkerd

Abstract:

In vitro conservation of orchid germplasm provides an effective technique for ex situ conservation of orchid diversity. In this study, an efficient protocol for in vitro conservation of Vandopsis lissochiloides (Gaudich.) Pfitz. plantlet under slow growth conditions was investigated. Plantlets were cultured on different strength of Vacin and Went medium (½VW and ¼VW) supplemented with different concentrations of mannitol (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8%), sucrose (0 and 3%) and 50 g/L potato extract, 150 mL/L coconut water. The cultures were incubated at 25±2 °C and maintained under 20 µmol/m2s light intensity for 24 weeks without subculture. At the end of preservation period, the plantlets were subcultured to fresh medium for growth recovery. The results found that the highest leaf number per plantlet could be observed on ¼VW medium without adding sucrose and mannitol while the highest root number per plantlet was found on ½VW added with 3% sucrose without adding mannitol after 24 weeks of in vitro storage. The results showed that the maximum number of leaves (5.8 leaves) and roots (5.0 roots) of preserved plantlets were produced on ¼VW medium without adding sucrose and mannitol. Therefore, ¼VW medium without adding sucrose and mannitol was the best minimum growth conditions for medium-term storage of V. lissochiloides plantlets.

Keywords: Preservation, Vandopsis, germplasm, in vitro.

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789 A Business Intelligence System Design Based on ASP Platform

Authors: Fengchi Shen, Rongtao Ding

Abstract:

The Informational Infrastructures of small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises are relatively poor, there are serious shortages of capitals which can be invested in informatization construction, computer hardware and software resources, and human resources. To address the informatization issue in small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises, and enable them to the application of advanced management thinking and enhance their competitiveness, the paper establish a manufacturing-oriented small and medium-sized enterprises informatization platform based on the ASP business intelligence technology, which effectively improves the scientificity of enterprises decision and management informatization.

Keywords: ASP, business intelligence, data warehouse.

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788 Small and Silly? or Private Pitfall of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

Authors: A. Bencsik, V. Lőre, I. Marosi

Abstract:

Knowledge and these notions have become more and more important and we speak about a knowledge based society today. A lot of small and big companies have reacted upon these new challenges. But there is a deep abyss about knowledge conception and practice between the professional researchers and company - life. The question of this research was: How can small and mediumsized companies be equal to the demands of new economy? Questionnaires were used in this research and a special segment of the native knowledge based on economy was focused on. Researchers would have liked to know what the sources of success are and how they can be in connection with questions of knowledge acquisition, knowledge transfer, knowledge utilization in small and medium-sized companies. These companies know that they have to change their behaviour and thinking, but they are not on the suitable level that they can compete with bigger or multinational companies.

Keywords: Knowledge, management, small and medium-sized companies, study.

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787 A Methodology for Characterising the Tail Behaviour of a Distribution

Authors: Serge Provost, Yishan Zang

Abstract:

Following a review of various approaches that are utilized for classifying the tail behavior of a distribution, an easily implementable methodology that relies on an arctangent transformation is presented. The classification criterion is actually based on the difference between two specific quantiles of the transformed distribution. The resulting categories enable one to classify distributional tails as distinctly short, short, nearly medium, medium, extended medium and somewhat long, providing that at least two moments exist. Distributions possessing a single moment are said to be long tailed while those failing to have any finite moments are classified as having an extremely long tail. Several illustrative examples will be presented.

Keywords: Arctangent transformation, change of variables, heavy-tailed distributions, tail classification.

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786 Modeling of Radiofrequency Nerve Lesioning in Inhomogeneous Media

Authors: Nour Ismail, Sahar El Kardawy, Bassant Badwy

Abstract:

Radiofrequency (RF) lesioning of nerves have been commonly used to alleviate chronic pain, where RF current preventing transmission of pain signals through the nerve by heating the nerve causing the pain. There are some factors that affect the temperature distribution and the nerve lesion size, one of these factors is the inhomogeneities in the tissue medium. Our objective is to calculate the temperature distribution and the nerve lesion size in an inhomogeneous medium surrounding the RF electrode. A two 3-D finite element models are used to compare the temperature distribution in the homogeneous and inhomogeneous medium. Also the effect of temperature-dependent electric conductivity on maximum temperature and lesion size is observed. Results show that the presence of an inhomogeneous medium around the RF electrode has a valuable effect on the temperature distribution and lesion size. The dependency of electric conductivity on tissue temperature increased lesion size.

Keywords: Finite element model, nerve lesioning, pain relief, radiofrequency lesion.

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785 Free Convection in an Infinite Porous Dusty Medium Induced by Pulsating Point Heat Source

Authors: K. Kannan, V. Venkataraman

Abstract:

Free convection effects and heat transfer due to a pulsating point heat source embedded in an infinite, fluid saturated, porous dusty medium are studied analytically. Both velocity and temperature fields are discussed in the form of series expansions in the Rayleigh number, for both the fluid and particle phases based on the mean heat generation rate from source and on the permeability of the porous dusty medium. This study is carried out by assuming the Rayleigh number small and the validity of Darcy-s law. Analytical expressions for both phases are obtained for second order mean in both velocity and temperature fields and evolution of different wave patterns are observed in the fluctuating part. It has been observed that, at the vicinity of the origin, the second order mean flow is influenced only by relaxation time of dust particles and not by dust concentration.

Keywords: Pulsating point heat source, azimuthal velocity, porous dusty medium, Darcy's law.

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784 In vitro Environmental Factors Controlling Root Morphological Traits of Pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr)

Authors: S. Mohajer, R. M. Taha, M. Adel

Abstract:

Developing our knowledge of when pineapple roots grow can lead to improved water, fertilizer applications, and more precise culture management. This paper presents current understanding of morphological traits in pineapple roots, highlighting studies using incubation periods and various solid MS media treated with different sucrose concentrations and pH, which directly assess in vitro environmental factors. Rooting parameters had different optimal sucrose concentrations and incubation periods. All shoots failed to root in medium supplemented with sucrose at 5 g/L and no roots formed within the first 45 days in medium enriched with sucrose at 10 g/L. After 75 days, all shoots rooted in medium enriched with 10 and 20 g/L sucrose. Moreover, MS medium supplied with 20 g/L sucrose resulted in the longest and the highest number of roots with 27.3 mm and 4.7, respectively. Root function, such as capacity for P and N uptake, declined rapidly with root length. As a result, the longer the incubation period, the better the rooting responses would be.

Keywords: Environmental factors, in vitro rooting, pineapple, tissue culture.

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783 Heat and Mass Transfer in a Saturated Porous Medium Confined in Cylindrical Annular Geometry

Authors: A. Ja, J. Belabid, A. Cheddadi

Abstract:

This paper reports the numerical simulation of doublediffusive natural convection flows within a horizontal annular filled with a saturated porous medium. The analysis concerns the influence of the different parameters governing the problem, namely, the Rayleigh number Ra, the Lewis number Le and the buoyancy ratio N, on the heat and mass transfer and on the flow structure, in the case of a fixed radius ratio R = 2. The numerical model used for the discretization of the dimensionless equations governing the problem is based on the finite difference method, using the ADI scheme. The study is focused on steady-state solutions in the cooperation situation.

Keywords: Natural convection, double-diffusion, porous medium, annular geometry, finite differences.

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782 English Classroom for SLA of Students and Small and Medium Entrepreneurs in Thailand

Authors: S. Yordchim, G. Anugkakul, T. Gibbs

Abstract:

The English competence of Thai people was examined in the context of knowledge of English in everyday life for Small and Medium Entrepreneurs (SMEs), and also integrated with Second language acquisition (SLA) students’ classroom. Second language acquisition was applied to the results of the questionnaires and interview forms. Levels of the need on English used for SME entrepreneurs in Thailand, satisfaction on joining the street classroom project were shown to be significantly high for some certain language functions and satisfaction. Finding suggests that the language functions on etiquette for professional use is essential and useful because lesson learned can be used in the real situation for their career. Implications for the climate of the street classroom are discussed.

Keywords: English classroom, second language acquisition, Small and Medium Entrepreneurs, Thai students.

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781 High Directivity and Gain Enhancement for Small Planar Dipole Antenna at 11 GHz Using Symmetrical Pyramidal Block Based On Epsilon Negative Medium

Authors: V. Kesornpatumanun, P. Boonek, W. Silabut, N. Homsup, W. Kuhirun

Abstract:

This paper increases directivity and gain of Small Planar Dipole Antenna (SPDA) by using Symmetrical Pyramidal Block (SPB) which operates in X band at 11 GHz. The SPB consists four sides; each of which is metamaterial with Epsilon Negative Medium (ENG) and Epsilon Near-Zero (ENZ). The results simulated using the High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS) show that the SPB is capable of enhancing directivity and gain for the SPDA with maximum gain of 2.46 dB. The reflection coefficient is -13.7037 dB with narrow beam width.

Keywords: Small Planar Dipole Antenna, Symmetrical Pyramidal Block, metamaterials, Epsilon Near-Zero, Epsilon Negative Medium.

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780 Studies on Lucrative Process Layout for Medium Scale Industries

Authors: Balamurugan Baladhandapani, Ganesh Renganathan, V. R. Sanal Kumar

Abstract:

In this paper a comprehensive review on various factory layouts has been carried out for designing a lucrative process layout for medium scale industries. Industry data base reveals that the end product rejection rate is on the order of 10% amounting large profit loss. In order to avoid these rejection rates and to increase the quality product production an intermediate non-destructive testing facility (INDTF) has been recommended for increasing the overall profit. We observed through detailed case studies that while introducing INDTF to medium scale industries the expensive production process can be avoided to the defective products well before its final shape. Additionally, the defective products identified during the intermediate stage can be effectively utilized for other applications or recycling; thereby the overall wastage of the raw materials can be reduced and profit can be increased. We concluded that the prudent design of a factory layout through critical path method facilitating with INDTF will warrant profitable outcome.

Keywords: Intermediate Non-destructive testing, Medium scale industries, Process layout design.

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