**Commenced**in January 2007

**Frequency:**Monthly

**Edition:**International

**Paper Count:**3577

# Search results for: Quantum Algorithm

##### 3577 A Quantum Algorithm of Constructing Image Histogram

**Authors:**
Yi Zhang,
Kai Lu,
Ying-hui Gao,
Mo Wang

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Quantum Image Representation,
Quantum
Algorithm,
Image Histogram.

##### 3576 Quantum Enhanced Correlation Matrix Memories via States Orthogonalisation

**Authors:**
Mario Mastriani,
Marcelo Naiouf

**Abstract:**

This paper introduces a Quantum Correlation Matrix Memory (QCMM) and Enhanced QCMM (EQCMM), which are useful to work with quantum memories. A version of classical Gram-Schmidt orthogonalisation process in Dirac notation (called Quantum Orthogonalisation Process: QOP) is presented to convert a non-orthonormal quantum basis, i.e., a set of non-orthonormal quantum vectors (called qudits) to an orthonormal quantum basis, i.e., a set of orthonormal quantum qudits. This work shows that it is possible to improve the performance of QCMM thanks QOP algorithm. Besides, the EQCMM algorithm has a lot of additional fields of applications, e.g.: Steganography, as a replacement Hopfield Networks, Bilevel image processing, etc. Finally, it is important to mention that the EQCMM is an extremely easy to implement in any firmware.

**Keywords:**
Quantum Algebra,
correlation matrix memory,
Dirac notation,
orthogonalisation.

##### 3575 Quantum Computing: A New Era of Computing

**Authors:**
Jyoti Chaturvedi Gursaran

**Abstract:**

Nature conducts its action in a very private manner. To reveal these actions classical science has done a great effort. But classical science can experiment only with the things that can be seen with eyes. Beyond the scope of classical science quantum science works very well. It is based on some postulates like qubit, superposition of two states, entanglement, measurement and evolution of states that are briefly described in the present paper. One of the applications of quantum computing i.e. implementation of a novel quantum evolutionary algorithm(QEA) to automate the time tabling problem of Dayalbagh Educational Institute (Deemed University) is also presented in this paper. Making a good timetable is a scheduling problem. It is NP-hard, multi-constrained, complex and a combinatorial optimization problem. The solution of this problem cannot be obtained in polynomial time. The QEA uses genetic operators on the Q-bit as well as updating operator of quantum gate which is introduced as a variation operator to converge toward better solutions.

**Keywords:**
Quantum computing,
qubit,
superposition,
entanglement,
measurement of states,
evolution of states,
Scheduling
problem,
hard and soft constraints,
evolutionary algorithm,
quantum
evolutionary algorithm.

##### 3574 A Quantum-Inspired Evolutionary Algorithm forMultiobjective Image Segmentation

**Authors:**
Hichem Talbi,
Mohamed Batouche,
Amer Draa

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Image segmentation,
multiobjective optimization,
quantum computing,
evolutionary algorithms.

##### 3573 Entanglement-based Quantum Computing by Diagrams of States

**Authors:**
Sara Felloni,
Giuliano Strini

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Diagrams of states,
entanglement,
quantum circuits,
quantum information.

##### 3572 Eight-State BB84: A C# Simulation

**Authors:**
Liliana Zisu

**Abstract:**

The first and best known quantum protocol BB84, whose security is unconditional allows the transmission of a key with a length equal to that of the message. This key used with an encryption algorithm leads to an unbreakable cryptographic scheme. Despite advantages the protocol still can be improved in at least two aspects: its efficiency which is of about 50%, only half of the photons transmitted are used to create the encryption key and the second aspect refers to the communication that takes place on the classic channel, as it must be reduced or even eliminated. The paper presents a method that improves the two aspects of the BB84 protocol by using quantum memory and eight states of polarization. The implementation of both the proposed method and the BB84 protocol was done through a C# application.

**Keywords:**
BB84,
protocol,
quantum cryptography,
quantum key distribution.

##### 3571 A Programmer’s Survey of the Quantum Computing Paradigm

**Authors:**
Philippe Jorrand

**Abstract:**

Research in quantum computation is looking for the consequences of having information encoding, processing and communication exploit the laws of quantum physics, i.e. the laws which govern the ultimate knowledge that we have, today, of the foreign world of elementary particles, as described by quantum mechanics. This paper starts with a short survey of the principles which underlie quantum computing, and of some of the major breakthroughs brought by the first ten to fifteen years of research in this domain; quantum algorithms and quantum teleportation are very biefly presented. The next sections are devoted to one among the many directions of current research in the quantum computation paradigm, namely quantum programming languages and their semantics. A few other hot topics and open problems in quantum information processing and communication are mentionned in few words in the concluding remarks, the most difficult of them being the physical implementation of a quantum computer. The interested reader will find a list of useful references at the end of the paper.

**Keywords:**
Quantum information processing,
quantum algorithms,
quantum programming languages.

##### 3570 IMLFQ Scheduling Algorithm with Combinational Fault Tolerant Method

**Authors:**
MohammadReza EffatParvar,
Akbar Bemana,
Mehdi EffatParvar

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
IMLFQ,
Fault Tolerant,
Scheduling,
Queue,
Recurrent Neural Network.

##### 3569 Application of Genetic Algorithms for Evolution of Quantum Equivalents of Boolean Circuits

**Authors:**
Swanti Satsangi,
Ashish Gulati,
Prem Kumar Kalra,
C. Patvardhan

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Ancillas,
Boolean functions,
Genetic algorithm,
Oracles,
Quantum circuits,
Scratch bit

##### 3568 Power System Security Constrained Economic Dispatch Using Real Coded Quantum Inspired Evolution Algorithm

**Authors:**
A. K. Al-Othman,
F. S. Al-Fares,
K. M. EL-Nagger

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
State Estimation,
Fuzzy Linear Regression,
FuzzyLinear State Estimator (FLSE) and Measurements Uncertainty.

##### 3567 A Post Processing Method for Quantum Prime Factorization Algorithm based on Randomized Approach

**Authors:**
Mir Shahriar Emami,
Mohammad Reza Meybodi

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Quantum Prime Factorization,
RandomizedAlgorithms,
Quantum Computer Simulation,
Quantum Computation.

##### 3566 An Approach of Quantum Steganography through Special SSCE Code

**Authors:**
Indradip Banerjee,
Souvik Bhattacharyya,
Gautam Sanyal

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Quantum Steganography,
SSCE (Secret SteganographyCode for Embedding),
Security,
Cover Text,
Stego Text.

##### 3565 Unconditionally Secure Quantum Payment System

**Authors:**
Essam Al-Daoud

**Abstract:**

A potentially serious problem with current payment systems is that their underlying hard problems from number theory may be solved by either a quantum computer or unanticipated future advances in algorithms and hardware. A new quantum payment system is proposed in this paper. The suggested system makes use of fundamental principles of quantum mechanics to ensure the unconditional security without prior arrangements between customers and vendors. More specifically, the new system uses Greenberger-Home-Zeilinger (GHZ) states and Quantum Key Distribution to authenticate the vendors and guarantee the transaction integrity.

**Keywords:**
Bell state,
GHZ state,
Quantum key distribution,
Quantum payment system.

##### 3564 The Magnetized Quantum Breathing in Cylindrical Dusty Plasma

**Authors:**
A. Abdikian

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
The linear quantum hydrodynamic model,
the magnetized quantum breathing mode,
the quantum dispersion relation of rotation mode,
void structure.

##### 3563 On Quantum BCH Codes and Its Duals

**Authors:**
J. S. Bhullar,
Manish Gupta

**Abstract:**

Classical Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) codes C that contain their dual codes can be used to construct quantum stabilizer codes this chapter studies the properties of such codes. It had been shown that a BCH code of length n which contains its dual code satisfies the bound on weight of any non-zero codeword in C and converse is also true. One impressive difficulty in quantum communication and computation is to protect informationcarrying quantum states against undesired interactions with the environment. To address this difficulty, many good quantum errorcorrecting codes have been derived as binary stabilizer codes. We were able to shed more light on the structure of dual containing BCH codes. These results make it possible to determine the parameters of quantum BCH codes in terms of weight of non-zero dual codeword.

**Keywords:**
Quantum Codes,
BCH Codes,
Dual BCH Codes,
Designed Distance.

##### 3562 Numerical Calculation of the Ionization Energy of Donors in a Cubic Quantum well and Wire

**Authors:**
Sara Sedaghat,
Mahmood Barati,
Iraj Kazeminezhad

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
quantum well,
quantum wire,
quantum dot,
impuritystate

##### 3561 Algebraic Quantum Error Correction Codes

**Authors:**
Ming-Chung Tsai,
Kuan-Peng Chen,
Zheng-Yao

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Quotient-Algebra Partition,
Codeword Spinors,
Basis
Codewords,
Syndrome Spinors

##### 3560 An Authentication Protocol for Quantum Enabled Mobile Devices

**Authors:**
Natarajan Venkatachalam,
Subrahmanya V. R. K. Rao,
Vijay Karthikeyan Dhandapani,
Swaminathan Saravanavel

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Quantum cryptography,
quantum key distribution,
wireless quantum communication,
authentication protocol,
quantum
enabled device,
trusted third party.

##### 3559 Novel Design of Quantum Dot Arrays to Enhance Near-Fields Excitation Resonances

**Authors:**
N. H. Ismail,
A. A. A. Nassar,
K. H. Baz

**Abstract:**

Semiconductor crystals smaller than about 10 nm, known as quantum dots, have properties that differ from large samples, including a band gap that becomes larger for smaller particles. These properties create several applications for quantum dots. In this paper new shapes of quantum dot arrays are used to enhance the photo physical properties of gold nano-particles. This paper presents a study of the effect of nano-particles shape, array, and size on their absorption characteristics.

**Keywords:**
Quantum Dots,
Nano-Particles,
LSPR.

##### 3558 Nonplanar Ion-acoustic Waves in a Relativistically Degenerate Quantum Plasma

**Authors:**
Swarniv Chandra,
Sibarjun Das,
Agniv Chandra,
Basudev Ghosh,
Apratim Jash

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation,
Ion-acoustic
Waves,
Relativistic Degeneracy,
Quantum Plasma,
Quantum
Hydrodynamic Model.

##### 3557 Propagation of Nonlinear Surface Waves in Relativistically Degenerate Quantum Plasma Half-Space

**Authors:**
Swarniv Chandra,
Parthasona Maji,
Basudev Ghosh

**Abstract:**

The nonlinear self-interaction of an electrostatic surface wave on a semibounded quantum plasma with relativistic degeneracy is investigated by using quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model and the Poisson’s equation with appropriate boundary conditions. It is shown that a part of the second harmonic generated through self-interaction does not have a true surface wave character but propagates obliquely away from the plasma-vacuum interface into the bulk of plasma.

**Keywords:**
Harmonic Generation,
Quantum Plasma,
Quantum Hydrodynamic Model,
Relativistic Degeneracy,
Surface waves.

##### 3556 CdS Quantum Dots as Fluorescent Probes for Detection of Naphthalene

**Authors:**
Zhengyu Yan,
Yan Yu,
Jianqiu Chen

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
CdS quantum dots,
modification,
detection,
naphthalene.

##### 3555 Behavior of Current in a Semiconductor Nanostructure under Influence of Embedded Quantum Dots

**Authors:**
H. Paredes Gutiérrez,
S. T. Pérez-Merchancano

**Abstract:**

Motivated by recent experimental and theoretical developments, we investigate the influence of embedded quantum dot (EQD) of different geometries (lens, ring and pyramidal) in a double barrier heterostructure (DBH). We work with a general theory of quantum transport that accounts the tight-binding model for the spin dependent resonant tunneling in a semiconductor nanostructure, and Rashba spin orbital to study the spin orbit coupling. In this context, we use the second quantization theory for Rashba effect and the standard Green functions method. We calculate the current density as a function of the voltage without and in the presence of quantum dots. In the second case, we considered the size and shape of the quantum dot, and in the two cases, we worked considering the spin polarization affected by external electric fields. We found that the EQD generates significant changes in current when we consider different morphologies of EQD, as those described above. The first thing shown is that the current decreases significantly, such as the geometry of EQD is changed, prevailing the geometrical confinement. Likewise, we see that the current density decreases when the voltage is increased, showing that the quantum system studied here is more efficient when the morphology of the quantum dot changes.

**Keywords:**
Quantum semiconductors,
nanostructures,
quantum dots,
spin polarization.

##### 3554 Implementation of Quantum Rotation Gates Using Controlled Non-Adiabatic Evolutions

**Authors:**
Abdelrahman A. H. Abdelrahim,
Gharib Subhi Mahmoud,
Sherzod Turaev,
Azeddine Messikh

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Adiabatic evolutions,
non adiabatic evolutions,
controlled adiabatic evolutions,
quantum rotation gates,
dephasing
rates,
master equation.

##### 3553 Modulational Instability of Electron Plasma Waves in Finite Temperature Quantum Plasma

**Authors:**
Swarniv Chandra,
Basudev Ghosh

**Abstract:**

Using the quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model for quantum plasma at finite temperature the modulational instability of electron plasma waves is investigated by deriving a nonlinear Schrodinger equation. It was found that the electron degeneracy parameter significantly affects the linear and nonlinear properties of electron plasma waves in quantum plasma.

**Keywords:**
Amplitude Modulation,
Electron Plasma Waves,
Finite Temperature Model,
Modulational Instability,
Quantum
Plasma.

##### 3552 A Computer Model of Quantum Field Theory

**Authors:**
Hans H. Diel

**Abstract:**

This paper describes a computer model of Quantum Field Theory (QFT), referred to in this paper as QTModel. After specifying the initial configuration for a QFT process (e.g. scattering) the model generates the possible applicable processes in terms of Feynman diagrams, the equations for the scattering matrix, and evaluates probability amplitudes for the scattering matrix and cross sections. The computations of probability amplitudes are performed numerically. The equations generated by QTModel are provided for demonstration purposes only. They are not directly used as the base for the computations of probability amplitudes. The computer model supports two modes for the computation of the probability amplitudes: (1) computation according to standard QFT, and (2) computation according to a proposed functional interpretation of quantum theory.

**Keywords:**
Computational Modeling,
Simulation of Quantum Theory,
Quantum Field Theory,
Quantum Electrodynamics

##### 3551 A method of Authentication for Quantum Networks

**Authors:**
Stefan Rass

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Meet-in-the-middle attack,
quantum key distribution,
quantum networks,
unconditionally secure authentication.

##### 3550 De Broglie Wavelength Defined by the Rest Energy E0 and Its Velocity

**Authors:**
K. Orozović,
B. Balon

**Abstract:**

In this paper, we take a different approach to de Broglie wavelength, as we relate it to relativistic physics. The quantum energy of the photon radiated by a body with de Broglie wavelength, as it moves with velocity v, can be defined within relativistic physics by rest energy E₀. In this way, we can show the connection between the quantum of radiation energy of the body and the rest of energy E₀ and thus combine what has been incompatible so far, namely relativistic and quantum physics. So, here we discuss the unification of relativistic and quantum physics by introducing the factor k that is analog to the Lorentz factor in Einstein's theory of relativity.

**Keywords:**
de Brogli wavelength,
relativistic physics,
rest energy,
quantum physics.

##### 3549 Proposal of Optimality Evaluation for Quantum Secure Communication Protocols by Taking the Average of the Main Protocol Parameters: Efficiency, Security and Practicality

**Authors:**
Georgi Bebrov,
Rozalina Dimova

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Quantum cryptography,
quantum secure
communcation,
quantum secure direct communcation security,
quantum secure direct communcation efficiency,
quantum secure
direct communcation practicality.

##### 3548 1/f Noise in Quantum-Size Heteronanostructures Based On GaAs and Alloys

**Authors:**
Alexey V. Klyuev,
Arkady. V. Yakimov

**Abstract:**

The 1/f noise investigation in nanoscale light-emitting diodes and lasers, based on GaAs and alloys, is presented here. Leakage and additional (to recombination through quantum wells and/or dots) nonlinear currents were detected and it was shown that these currents are the main source of the 1/f noise in devices studied.

**Keywords:**
Lasers,
light-emitting diodes,
quantum dots,
quantum wells,
1/f noise.