Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2729

Search results for: External flow

2729 Numerical Simulation of Plasma Actuator Using OpenFOAM

Authors: H. Yazdani, K. Ghorbanian

Abstract:

This paper deals with modeling and simulation of the plasma actuator with OpenFOAM. Plasma actuator is one of the newest devices in flow control techniques which can delay separation by inducing external momentum to the boundary layer of the flow. The effects of the plasma actuators on the external flow are incorporated into Navier-Stokes computations as a body force vector which is obtained as a product of the net charge density and the electric field. In order to compute this body force vector, the model solves two equations: One for the electric field due to the applied AC voltage at the electrodes and the other for the charge density representing the ionized air. The simulation result is compared to the experimental and typical values which confirms the validity of the modeling.

Keywords: Active flow control, flow field, OpenFOAM, plasma actuator.

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2728 3D Numerical Studies on External Aerodynamics of a Flying Car

Authors: Sasitharan Ambicapathy, J. Vignesh, P. Sivaraj, Godfrey Derek Sams, K. Sabarinath, V. R. Sanal Kumar

Abstract:

The external flow simulation of a flying car at take off phase is a daunting task owing to the fact that the prediction of the transient unsteady flow features during its deployment phase is very complex. In this paper 3D numerical simulations of external flow of Ferrari F430 proposed flying car with different NACA 9618 rectangular wings have been carried. Additionally, the aerodynamics characteristics have been generated for optimizing its geometry for achieving the minimum take off velocity with better overall performance in both road and air. The three-dimensional standard k-omega turbulence model has been used for capturing the intrinsic flow physics during the take off phase. In the numerical study, a fully implicit finite volume scheme of the compressible, Reynolds-Averaged, Navier-Stokes equations is employed. Through the detailed parametric analytical studies we have conjectured that Ferrari F430 flying car facilitated with high wings having three different deployment histories during the take off phase is the best choice for accomplishing its better performance for the commercial applications.

Keywords: Aerodynamics of flying car, air taxi, negative lift. roadable airplane.

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2727 A Numerical Study on Rear-spoiler of Passenger Vehicle

Authors: Xu-xia Hu, Eric T. T. Wong

Abstract:

The simulation of external aerodynamics is one of the most challenging and important automotive CFD applications. With the rapid developments of digital computers, CFD is used as a practical tool in modern fluid dynamics research. It integrates fluid mechanics disciplines, mathematics and computer science. In this study, two different types of simulations were made, one for the flow around a simplified high speed passenger car with a rear-spoiler and the other for the flow without a rear-spoiler. The standard k-ε model is selected to numerically simulate the external flow field of the simplified Camry model with or without a rear-spoiler. Through an analysis of the simulation results, a new rear spoiler is designed and it shows a mild reduction of the vehicle aerodynamics drag. This leads to less vehicle fuel consumption on the road.

Keywords: CFD, vehicle rear-spoiler design.

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2726 Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Annular Flow Boiling in a Microchannel with 70000 Atoms

Authors: D.Toghraie, A.R.Azimian

Abstract:

Molecular dynamics simulation of annular flow boiling in a nanochannel with 70000 particles is numerically investigated. In this research, an annular flow model is developed to predict the superheated flow boiling heat transfer characteristics in a nanochannel. To characterize the forced annular boiling flow in a nanochannel, an external driving force F ext ranging from 1to12PN (PN= Pico Newton) is applied along the flow direction to inlet fluid particles during the simulation. Based on an annular flow model analysis, it is found that saturation condition and superheat degree have great influences on the liquid-vapor interface. Also, the results show that due to the relatively strong influence of surface tension in small channel, the interface between the liquid film and vapor core is fairly smooth, and the mean velocity along the stream-wise direction does not change anymore.

Keywords: Lennard-Jones Potential, Molecular DynamicsSimulation, Periodic Boundary Conditions (PBC), Non-EquilibriumMolecular Dynamics (NEMD), Annular Flow Boiling

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2725 Impact of Personality and Loneliness on Life: Role of Online Flow Experiences

Authors: Asmita Shukla, Soma Parija

Abstract:

The present study examines the mediating effect of online flow experience on the relationship between extraversionintroversion, locus of control and loneliness, and depression and satisfaction with life. The data was obtained using a structured questionnaire prepared by adapting standardized scales available from a sample of 102 engineering students from different technical institutions at Bhubaneswar, India. The results indicate that there is a positive significant relationship between introversion, external locus of control, loneliness, depression and online flow experience, and extraversion, internal locus of control and satisfaction with life. The results also suggest that online flow experience mediates the relationship between the aforementioned variables.

Keywords: Life satisfaction and depression, loneliness, online flow experience, personality.

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2724 Investigation of the Effect of Grid Size on External Store Separation Trajectory Using CFD

Authors: Alaa A. Osman, Amgad M. Bayoumy, Ismail El baialy, Osama E. Abdellatif, Essam E. Khallil

Abstract:

In this paper, a numerical simulation of a finned store separating from a wing-pylon configuration has been studied and validated. A dynamic unstructured tetrahedral mesh approach is accomplished by using three grid sizes to numerically solving the discretized three dimensional, inviscid and compressible Euler equations. The method used for computations of separation of an external store assuming quasi-steady flow condition. Computations of quasi-steady flow have been directly coupled to a six degree-offreedom (6DOF) rigid-body motion code to generate store trajectories. The pressure coefficients at four different angular cuts and time histories of various trajectory parameters and wing pressure distribution during the store separation are compared for every grid size with published experimental data.

Keywords: CFD Modelling, Quasi-steady Flow, Moving-body Trajectories, Transonic Store Separation, Moving-body Trajectories.

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2723 Investigation of Increasing the Heat Transfer from Flat Surfaces Using Boundary Layer Excitation

Authors: M.H.Ghaffari

Abstract:

The present study is concerned with effect of exciting boundary layer on increase in heat transfer from flat surfaces. As any increase in heat transfer between a fluid inside a face and another one outside of it can cause an increase in some equipment's efficiency, so at this present we have tried to increase the wall's heat transfer coefficient by exciting the fluid boundary layer. By a collision between flow and the placed block at the fluid way, the flow pattern and the boundary layer stability will change. The flow way inside the channel is simulated as a 2&3-dimensional channel by Gambit TM software. With studying the achieved results by this simulation for the flow way inside the channel with a block coordinating with Fluent TM software, it's determined that the figure and dimensions of the exciter are too important for exciting the boundary layer so that any increase in block dimensions in vertical side against the flow and any reduction in its dimensions at the flow side can increase the average heat transfer coefficient from flat surface and increase the flow pressure loss. Using 2&3-dimensional analysis on exciting the flow at the flow way inside a channel by cylindrical block at the same time with the external flow, we came to this conclusion that the heat flux transferred from the surface, is increased considerably in terms of the condition without excitation. Also, the k-e turbulence model is used.

Keywords: Cooling, Heat transfer, Turbulence, Excitingboundary layer.

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2722 Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Flow and Heat Transfer of a Semi-Cylindrical Obstacle Located in a Channel

Authors: Omer F. Can, Nevin Celik

Abstract:

In this study, a semi-cylinder obstacle placed in a channel is handled to determine the effect of flow and heat transfer around the obstacle. Both faces of the semi-cylinder are used in the numerical analysis. First, the front face of the semi-cylinder is stated perpendicular to flow, than the rear face is placed. The study is carried out numerically, by using commercial software ANSYS 11.0. The well-known κ-ε model is applied as the turbulence model. Reynolds number is in the range of 104 to 105 and air is assumed as the flowing fluid. The results showed that, heat transfer increased approximately 15 % in the front faze case, while it enhanced up to 28 % in the rear face case.

Keywords: External flow, semi-cylinder obstacle, heat transfer, friction.

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2721 Numerical Study of Effects of Air Dam on the Flow Field and Pressure Distribution of a Passenger Car

Authors: Min Ye Koo, Ji Ho Ahn, Byung Il You, Gyo Woo Lee

Abstract:

Everything that is attached to the outside of the vehicle to improve the driving performance of the vehicle by changing the flow characteristics of the surrounding air or to pursue the external personality is called a tuning part. Typical tuning components include front or rear air dam, also known as spoilers, splitter, and side air dam. Particularly, the front air dam prevents the airflow flowing into the lower portion of the vehicle and increases the amount of air flow to the side and front of the vehicle body, thereby reducing lift force generation that lifts the vehicle body, and thus, improving the steering and driving performance of the vehicle. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of anterior air dam in the flow around a sedan passenger car using computational fluid dynamics. The effects of flow velocity, trajectory of fluid particles on static pressure distribution and pressure distribution on body surface were investigated by varying flow velocity and size of air dam. As a result, it has been confirmed that the front air dam improves the flow characteristics, thereby reducing the generation of lift force of the vehicle, so it helps in steering and driving characteristics.

Keywords: Numerical study, computational fluid dynamics, air dam, tuning parts, drag, lift force.

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2720 The Finite Difference Scheme for the Suspended String Equation with the Nonlinear External Forces

Authors: Jaipong Kasemsuwan

Abstract:

This paper presents the finite difference scheme and the numerical simulation of suspended string. The vibration solutions when the various external forces are taken into account are obtained and compared with the solutions without external force. In addition, we also investigate how the external forces and their powers and coefficients affect the amplitude of vibration.

Keywords: Nonlinear external forces, Numerical simulation, Suspended string equation.

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2719 Hemodynamic Characteristics in the Human Carotid Artery Model Induced by Blood-Arterial Wall Interactions

Authors: Taewon Seo

Abstract:

The characteristics of physiological blood flow in human carotid arterial bifurcation model have been numerically studied using a fully coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analysis. This computational model with the fluid-structure interaction is constructed to investigate the flow characteristics and wall shear stress in the carotid artery. As the flow begins to decelerate after the peak flow, a large recirculation zone develops at the non-divider wall of both internal carotid artery (ICA) and external carotid artery (ECA) in FSI model due to the elastic energy stored in the expanding compliant wall. The calculated difference in wall shear stress (WSS) in both Non-FSI and FSI models is a range of between 5 and 11% at the mean WSS. The low WSS corresponds to regions of carotid artery that are more susceptible to atherosclerosis.

Keywords: Carotid artery, Fluid-structure interaction, Hemodynamics, Wall shear stress.

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2718 Usage of Military Spending, Debt Servicing and Growth for Dealing with Emergency Plan of Indian External Debt

Authors: Sahbi Farhani

Abstract:

This study investigates the relationship between external debt and military spending in case of India over the period of 1970–2012. In doing so, we have applied the structural break unit root tests to examine stationarity properties of the variables. The Auto-Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach is used to test whether cointegration exists in presence of structural breaks stemming in the series. Our results indicate the cointegration among external debt, military spending, debt servicing, and economic growth. Moreover, military spending and debt servicing add in external debt. Economic growth helps in lowering external debt. The Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) analysis and Granger causality test reveal that military spending and economic growth cause external debt. The feedback effect also exists between external debt and debt servicing in case of India.

Keywords: External debt, military spending, ARDL approach, structural breaks, India.

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2717 Internal and External Validity in Experimental Economics

Authors: H. Chytilová, R. Maialeh

Abstract:

Experimental economics is subject to criticism with regards to frequently discussed the trade-off between internal and external validity requirements, which seems to be critically flawed. This paper evaluates incompatibility of trade-off condition and condition of internal validity as a prerequisite for external validity. In addition, it outlines the imprecise concept of artificiality, which is found to be rather improving the external validity and seems to strengthen the illusory status of external versus internal validity tension. Internal validity is further analyzed with regards to Duhem- Quine problem, where unpredictability argument is significantly weakened trough application of inductivism within the illustrative hypothetical-deductive model. Our discussion partially weakens critical arguments related to the robustness of results in experimental economics, if the perfectly controlled experimental environment is secured.

Keywords: Duhem-Quine Problem, external validity, inductivism, internal validity.

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2716 Exploring the Determinants for Successful Collaboration of SMEs

Authors: Heeyong Noh, Sungjoo Lee

Abstract:

The goal of this research is discovering the determinants of the success or failure of external cooperation in small and medium enterprises (SMEs). For this, a survey was given to 190 SMEs that experienced external cooperation within the last 3 years. A logistic regression model was used to derive organizational or strategic characteristics that significantly influence whether external collaboration of domestic SMEs is successful or not. Results suggest that research and development (R&D) features in general characteristics (both idea creation and discovering market opportunities) that focused on and emphasized indirected-market stakeholders (such as complementary companies and affiliates) and strategies in innovative strategic characteristics raise the probability of successful external cooperation. This can be used meaningfully to build a policy or strategy for inducing successful external cooperation or to understand the innovation of SMEs.

Keywords: External collaboration, Innovation strategy, Logisticregression, SMEs.

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2715 Performance Improvement of a Supersonic External Compression Inlet by Heat Source Addition

Authors: Mohammad Reza Soltani, Mohammad Farahani, Javad Sepahi Younsi

Abstract:

Heat source addition to the axisymmetric supersonic inlet may improve the performance parameters, which will increase the inlet efficiency. In this investigation the heat has been added to the flow field at some distance ahead of an axisymmetric inlet by adding an imaginary thermal source upstream of cowl lip. The effect of heat addition on the drag coefficient, mass flow rate and the overall efficiency of the inlet have been investigated. The results show that heat addition causes flow separation, hence to prevent this phenomena, roughness has been added on the spike surface. However, heat addition reduces the drag coefficient and the inlet mass flow rate considerably. Furthermore, the effects of position, size, and shape on the inlet performance were studied. It is found that the thermal source deflects the flow streamlines. By improper location of the thermal source, the optimum condition has been obtained. For the optimum condition, the drag coefficient is considerably reduced and the inlet mass flow rate and its efficiency have been increased slightly. The optimum shape of the heat source is obtained too.

Keywords: Drag coefficient, heat source, performanceparameters, supersonic inlet.

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2714 Dual Solutions in Mixed Convection Boundary Layer Flow: A Stability Analysis

Authors: Anuar Ishak

Abstract:

The mixed convection stagnation point flow toward a vertical plate is investigated. The external flow impinges normal to the heated plate and the surface temperature is assumed to vary linearly with the distance from the stagnation point. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into a set of ordinary differential equations, which are then solved numerically using MATLAB routine boundary value problem solver bvp4c. Numerical results show that dual solutions are possible for a certain range of the mixed convection parameter. A stability analysis is performed to determine which solution is linearly stable and physically realizable.

Keywords: Dual solutions, heat transfer, mixed convection, stability analysis.

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2713 Pull-In Instability Determination of Microcapacitive Sensor for Measuring Special Range of Pressure

Authors: Yashar Haghighatfar, Shahrzad Mirhosseini

Abstract:

Pull-in instability is a nonlinear and crucial effect that is important for the design of microelectromechanical system devices. In this paper, the appropriate electrostatic voltage range is determined by measuring fluid flow pressure via micro pressure sensor based microbeam. The microbeam deflection contains two parts, the static and perturbation deflection of static. The second order equation regarding the equivalent stiffness, mass and damping matrices based on Galerkin method is introduced to predict pull-in instability due to the external voltage. Also the reduced order method is used for solving the second order nonlinear equation of motion. Furthermore, in the present study, the micro capacitive pressure sensor is designed for measuring special fluid flow pressure range. The results show that the measurable pressure range can be optimized, regarding damping field and external voltage.

Keywords: MEMS, pull-in instability, electrostatically actuated microbeam, reduced order method.

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2712 Effects of Mach Number and Angle of Attack on Mass Flow Rates and Entropy Gain in a Supersonic Inlet

Authors: Taher Fodeibou, Ziaul Huque, Jenny Galvis

Abstract:

A parametric study of a mixed-compression supersonic inlet is performed and reported. The effects of inlet Mach Numbers, varying from 4 to 10, and angle of attack, varying from 0 to 10, are reported for a constant inlet dynamic pressure. The paper looked at the variations of mass flow rates through the inlet, gain in entropy through the inlet, and the angles of the external oblique shocks. The mass flow rates were found to decrease monotonically with Mach numbers and increase with angle of attacks. On the other hand the entropy gain through the inlet increased with increasing Mach number and angle of attack. The variation in static pressure was found to be identical from the inlet throat to the exit for Mach number values higher than 6.

Keywords: Angle of attack, entropy gain, mass flow rates, supersonic inlets.

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2711 Measurement of Reverse Flow Generated at Cold Exit of Vortex Tube

Authors: Mohd Hazwan bin Yusof, Hiroshi Katanoda

Abstract:

In order to clarify the structure of the cold flow discharged from the vortex tube (VT), the pressure of the cold flow was measured, and a simple flow visualization technique using a 0.75mm-diameter needle and an oily paint is made to study the reverse flow at the cold exit. It is clear that a negative pressure and positive pressure region exist at a certain pressure and cold fraction area, and that a reverse flow is observed in the negative pressure region.

Keywords: Flow visualization, Pressure measurement, Reverse flow, Vortex tube.

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2710 The External Debt in the Context of Economic Growth: The Sample of Turkey

Authors: Ayşen Edirneligil, Mehmet Mucuk

Abstract:

In developing countries, one of the most important restrictions about the economic growth is the lack of national savings which are supposed to finance the investments. In order to overcome this restriction and achieve the higher rate of economic growth by increasing the level of output, countries choose the external borrowing. However, there is a dispute in the literature over the correlation between external debt and economic growth. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of external debt on Turkish economic growth by using VAR analysis with the quarterly data over the period of 2002:01-2014:04. In this respect, Johansen Cointegration Test, Impulse- Response Function and Variance Decomposition Tests will be used for analyses. Empirical findings show that there is no cointegration in the long run.

Keywords: Economic growth, external debt, time series analysis, Turkish economy.

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2709 Numerical Study of Microscale Gas Flow-Separation Using Explicit Finite Volume Method

Authors: A. Chaudhuri, C. Guha, T. K. Dutta

Abstract:

Pressure driven microscale gas flow-separation has been investigated by solving the compressible Navier-Stokes (NS) system of equations. A two dimensional explicit finite volume (FV) compressible flow solver has been developed using modified advection upwind splitting methods (AUSM+) with no-slip/first order Maxwell-s velocity slip conditions to predict the flowseparation behavior in microdimensions. The effects of scale-factor of the flow geometry and gas species on the microscale gas flowseparation have been studied in this work. The intensity of flowseparation gets reduced with the decrease in scale of the flow geometry. In reduced dimension, flow-separation may not at all be present under similar flow conditions compared to the larger flow geometry. The flow-separation patterns greatly depend on the properties of the medium under similar flow conditions.

Keywords: AUSM+, FVM, Flow-separation, Microflow.

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2708 Wangle the Organizational Internal and External Knowledge – A New Horizon for Sustaining the Business Stability

Authors: Asim N., M. Mazhar Manzoor, Shariq A.

Abstract:

Knowledge is renowned as a significant component for sustaining competitive advantage and gives leading edge in business. This study emphasizes towards proper and effectuate utilization of internal and external (both either explicit or tacit) knowledge comes from stakeholders, highly supportive to combat with the challenges and enhance organizational productivity. Furthermore, it proposed a model under context of IRSA framework which facilitates the organization including flow of knowledge and experience sharing among employees. In discussion section an innovative model which indulges all functionality as mentioned in analysis section.

Keywords: Effective Decision-Making, Internal & ExternalKnowledge, Knowledge Management, Tacit & Explicit Knowledge.

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2707 Hydrological Method to Evaluate Environmental Flow (Case Study: Gharasou River, Ardabil)

Authors: Mehdi Fuladipanah, Mehdi Jorabloo

Abstract:

Water flow management is one of the most important parts of river engineering. Non-uniformity distribution of rainfall and various flow demand with unreasonable flow management will be caused destroyed of river ecosystem. Then, it is very serious to determine ecosystem flow requirement. In this paper, Flow duration curve indices method which has hydrological based was used to evaluate environmental flow in Gharasou River, Ardabil, Iran. Using flow duration curve, Q90 and Q95 for different return periods were calculated. Their magnitude were determined as 1-day, 3-day, 7-day and 30 day. According the second method, hydraulic alteration indices often had low and medium range. In order to maintain river at an acceptable ecological condition, minimum daily discharge of index Q95 is 0.7 m3.s-1.

Keywords: Ardabil, Environmental flow, Flow Duration Curve, Gharasou River.

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2706 File Format of Flow Chart Simulation Software - CFlow

Authors: Syahanim Mohd Salleh, Zaihosnita Hood, Hairulliza Mohd Judi, Marini Abu Bakar

Abstract:

CFlow is a flow chart software, it contains facilities to draw and evaluate a flow chart. A flow chart evaluation applies a simulation method to enable presentation of work flow in a flow chart solution. Flow chart simulation of CFlow is executed by manipulating the CFlow data file which is saved in a graphical vector format. These text-based data are organised by using a data classification technic based on a Library classification-scheme. This paper describes the file format for flow chart simulation software of CFlow.

Keywords: CFlow, flow chart, file format.

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2705 Study of Aero-thermal Effects with Heat Radiation in Optical Side Window

Authors: Chun-Chi Li, Da-Wei Huang, Yin-Chia Su, Liang-Chih Tasi

Abstract:

In hypersonic environments, the aerothermal effect makes it difficult for the optical side windows of optical guided missiles to withstand high heat. This produces cracking or breaking, resulting in an inability to function. This study used computational fluid mechanics to investigate the external cooling jet conditions of optical side windows. The turbulent models k-ε and k-ω were simulated. To be in better accord with actual aerothermal environments, a thermal radiation model was added to examine suitable amounts of external coolants and the optical window problems of aero-thermodynamics. The simulation results indicate that when there are no external cooling jets, because airflow on the optical window and the tail groove produce vortices, the temperatures in these two locations reach a peak of approximately 1600 K. When the external cooling jets worked at 0.15 kg/s, the surface temperature of the optical windows dropped to approximately 280 K. When adding thermal radiation conditions, because heat flux dissipation was faster, the surface temperature of the optical windows fell from 280 K to approximately 260 K. The difference in influence of the different turbulence models k-ε and k-ω on optical window surface temperature was not significant.

Keywords: aero-optical side window, aerothermal effect, cooling, hypersonic flow

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2704 Oil Displacement by Water in Hauterivian Sandstone Reservoir of Kashkari Oil Field

Authors: A. J. Nazari, S. Honma

Abstract:

This paper evaluates oil displacement by water in Hauterivian sandstone reservoir of Kashkari oil field in North of Afghanistan. The core samples of this oil field were taken out from well No-21st, and the relative permeability and fractional flow are analyzed. Steady state flow laboratory experiments are performed to empirically obtain the fractional flow curves and relative permeability in different water saturation ratio. The relative permeability represents the simultaneous flow behavior in the reservoir. The fractional flow approach describes the individual phases as fractional of the total flow. The fractional flow curve interprets oil displacement by water, and from the tangent of fractional flow curve can find out the average saturation behind the water front flow saturation. Therefore, relative permeability and fractional flow curves are suitable for describing the displacement of oil by water in a petroleum reservoir. The effects of irreducible water saturation, residual oil saturation on the displaceable amount of oil are investigated through Buckley-Leveret analysis.

Keywords: Fractional flow, oil displacement, relative permeability, simultaneously flow.

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2703 Estimating the Flow Velocity Using Flow Generated Sound

Authors: Saeed Hosseini, Ali Reza Tahavvor

Abstract:

Sound processing is one the subjects that newly attracts a lot of researchers. It is efficient and usually less expensive than other methods. In this paper the flow generated sound is used to estimate the flow speed of free flows. Many sound samples are gathered. After analyzing the data, a parameter named wave power is chosen. For all samples the wave power is calculated and averaged for each flow speed. A curve is fitted to the averaged data and a correlation between the wave power and flow speed is found. Test data are used to validate the method and errors for all test data were under 10 percent. The speed of the flow can be estimated by calculating the wave power of the flow generated sound and using the proposed correlation.

Keywords: Flow generated sound, sound processing, speed, wave power.

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2702 Automatic Discrimimation of the Modes of Permanent Flow of a Liquid Simulating Blood

Authors: Malika.D Kedir-Talha, Mohamed Mehenni

Abstract:

In order to be able to automatically differentiate between two modes of permanent flow of a liquid simulating blood, it was imperative to put together a data bank. Thus, the acquisition of the various amplitude spectra of the Doppler signal of this liquid in laminar flow and other spectra in turbulent flow enabled us to establish an automatic difference between the two modes. According to the number of parameters and their nature, a comparative study allowed us to choose the best classifier.

Keywords: Doppler spectrum, flow mode, pattern recognition, permanent flow.

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2701 Controlling Water Temperature during the Electrocoagulation Process Using an Innovative Flow Column-Electrocoagulation Reactor

Authors: Khalid S. Hashim, Andy Shaw, Rafid Alkhaddar, Montserrat Ortoneda Pedrola

Abstract:

A flow column has been innovatively used in the design of a new electrocoagulation reactor (ECR1) that will reduce the temperature of water being treated; where the flow columns work as a radiator for the water being treated. In order to investigate the performance of ECR1 and compare it to that of traditional reactors; 600 mL water samples with an initial temperature of 350C were pumped continuously through these reactors for 30 min at current density of 1 mA/cm2. The temperature of water being treated was measured at 5 minutes intervals over a 30 minutes period using a thermometer. Additional experiments were commenced to investigate the effects of initial temperature (15-350C), water conductivity (0.15 – 1.2 S) and current density (0.5 -3 mA/cm2) on the performance of ECR1. The results obtained demonstrated that the ECR1, at a current density of 1 mA/cm2 and continuous flow model, reduced water temperature from 350C to the vicinity of 280C during the first 15 minutes and kept the same level till the end of the treatment time. While, the temperature increased from 28.1 to 29.80C and from 29.8 to 31.90C in the batch and the traditional continuous flow models respectively. In term of initial temperature, ECR1 maintained the temperature of water being treated within the range of 22 to 280C without the need for external cooling system even when the initial temperatures varied over a wide range (15 to 350C). The influent water conductivity was found to be a significant variable that affect the temperature. The desirable value of water conductivity is 0.6 S. However, it was found that the water temperature increased rapidly with a higher current density.

Keywords: Water temperature, flow column, electrocoagulation.

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2700 Large Eddy Simulation of Flow Separation Control over a NACA2415 Airfoil

Authors: M. Tahar Bouzaher

Abstract:

This study involves a numerical simulation of the flow around a NACA2415 airfoil, with a 15°angle of attack, and flow separation control using a rod, It reposes inputting a cylindrical rod upstream of the leading edge in order to accelerate the transition of the boundary layer by interaction between the rod wake and the boundary layer. The viscous, non-stationary flow is simulated using ANSYS FLUENT 13. Our results showed a substantial modification in the flow behavior and a maximum drag reduction of 51%.

Keywords: CFD, Flow separation, Active control, Boundary layer, rod, NACA 2415.

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