@article{(Open Science Index):https://publications.waset.org/pdf/9798,
	  title     = {Ripper and Sugar Effects on Hydroxymethylfurfural Formation in Gingerbread Biscuits},
	  author    = {A. Komarovska and  V. Kreicbergs and  F. Diminš},
	  country	= {},
	  institution	= {},
	  abstract     = {Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is formed by thermally
treating products rich in carbohydrates. HMF and other furan
derivatives are toxic.
The aim of the research was to establish the content of HMF in
gingerbread biscuits with honey and sugar syrup additives by using
three leavening agents— ammonium carbonate (NH4HCO3 and
(NH4)2CO3), baking powder, and baking soda (NaHCO3).
The content of HMF is significantly affected by the leavening
agent used. The content of HMF with honey where ammonium
carbonate was used as additive range from 5.7 to 27.3mg 100g-1, but
when sugar syrup is used the content varies from 2.3 to 7.4mg 100g-1.
When baking powder and baking soda are used as leavening agents,
the content of HMF exceeds 4mg 100g-1 in the event honey had been
added and the baking time had been longer (10 minutes at 180°C or
9 minutes at 200°C).},
	    journal   = {International Journal of Nutrition and Food Engineering},
	  volume    = {7},
	  number    = {5},
	  year      = {2013},
	  pages     = {1288 - 1291},
	  ee        = {https://publications.waset.org/pdf/9798},
	  url   	= {https://publications.waset.org/vol/77},
	  bibsource = {https://publications.waset.org/},
	  issn  	= {eISSN: 1307-6892},
	  publisher = {World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology},
	  index 	= {Open Science Index 77, 2013},