Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 178
178 Certain Important Aspects of Cost Contribution Arrangements in Financial Management

Authors: Tomáš Brabenec

Abstract:

Cost contribution arrangements (CCAs) and Cost sharing agreements (CCAs) belong to the tools of modern finance management. Costs spend by associated enterprises on developing producing or obtaining assets, services or rights (in general - benefits) are used for tax optimizing too. The main purpose of joint research and development, producing or obtaining benefits is to lower these costs as much as possible or to maximize the benefits. In this article is mentioned the problematic of transfer pricing and arm's length principle with connection of CCAs, CSAs. Next, there is mentioned how to settle participation shares of the total cost and benefits contributions with respect to the OECD Transfer pricing for MNEs Guidelines and with respect to other significant regulations.

Keywords: Arm's length principle, Cost contribution arrangements, Cost sharing agreements, Reasonable anticipated benefits, Relevant costs, Transfer prices.

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177 Cell Growth and Metabolites Produced by Fluorescent Pseudomonad R62 in Modified Chemically Defined Medium

Authors: K. Saharan, M.V. R. K. Sarma, A. S. Roesti, A. Prakash, B. N. Johri, M. Aragno, V. S. Bisaria, V. Sahai

Abstract:

Chemically defined Schlegel-s medium was modified to improve production of cell growth and other metabolites that are produced by fluorescent pseudomonad R62 strain. The modified medium does not require pH control as pH changes are kept within ± 0.2 units of the initial pH 7.1 during fermentation. The siderophore production was optimized for the fluorescent pseudomonad strain in the modified medium containing 1% glycerol as a major carbon source supplemented with 0.05% succinic acid and 0.5% Ltryptophan. Indole-3 acetic acid (IAA) production was higher when L-tryptophan was used at 0.5%. The 2,4- diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) was higher with amended three trace elements in medium. The optimized medium produced 2.28 g/l of dry cell mass and 900 mg/l of siderophore at the end of 36 h cultivation, while the production levels of IAA and DAPG were 65 mg/l and 81 mg/l respectively at the end of 48 h cultivation.

Keywords: Fluorescent pseudomonad, Fermentation, Metabolites production, PGPR.

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176 Estimation of Systolic and Diastolic Pressure using the Pulse Transit Time

Authors: Soo-young Ye, Gi-Ryon Kim, Dong-Keun Jung, Seong-wan Baik, Gye-rok Jeon

Abstract:

In this paper, algorithm estimating the blood pressure was proposed using the pulse transit time (PTT) as a more convenient method of measuring the blood pressure. After measuring ECG and pressure pulse, and photoplethysmography, the PTT was calculated from the acquired signals. Thereafter, the system to indirectly measure the systolic pressure and the diastolic pressure was composed using the statistic method. In comparison between the blood pressure indirectly measured by proposed algorithm estimating the blood pressure and real blood pressure measured by conventional sphygmomanometer, the systolic pressure indicates the mean error of ±3.24mmHg and the standard deviation of 2.53mmHg, while the diastolic pressure indicates the satisfactory result, that is, the mean error of ±1.80mmHg and the standard deviation of 1.39mmHg. These results are satisfied with the regulation of ANSI/AAMI for certification of sphygmomanometer that real measurement error value should be within the mean error of ±5mmHg and the standard deviation of 8mmHg. These results are suggest the possibility of applying to portable and long time blood pressure monitoring system hereafter.

Keywords: Blood pressure, Systolic, Diastolic, Pulse transit time.

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175 Managers' Empowerment in High School by Knowledge Management

Authors: B. Azizi Nejad, M.M. Seiied Abbaszadeh

Abstract:

The purpose of the present study is the investigation of the relationship between knowledge management and enabling managers based on achieving proper function. This research is descriptive and investigative. The sample includes all male and female high school managers of first and second regions of Urmia including 98 school and accordingly 98 managers. The instrument applied was a questionnaire. To sum up, there is a statistically significant relationship between knowledge management and empowering managers. In the end, several suggestions are provided.

Keywords: Empowering managers, high school managers' efficiency, knowledge, knowledge management.

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174 Fuzzy Metric Approach for Fuzzy Time Series Forecasting based on Frequency Density Based Partitioning

Authors: Tahseen Ahmed Jilani, Syed Muhammad Aqil Burney, C. Ardil

Abstract:

In the last 15 years, a number of methods have been proposed for forecasting based on fuzzy time series. Most of the fuzzy time series methods are presented for forecasting of enrollments at the University of Alabama. However, the forecasting accuracy rates of the existing methods are not good enough. In this paper, we compared our proposed new method of fuzzy time series forecasting with existing methods. Our method is based on frequency density based partitioning of the historical enrollment data. The proposed method belongs to the kth order and time-variant methods. The proposed method can get the best forecasting accuracy rate for forecasting enrollments than the existing methods.

Keywords: Fuzzy logical groups, fuzzified enrollments, fuzzysets, fuzzy time series.

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173 Certain Conditions for Strongly Starlike and Strongly Convex Functions

Authors: Sukhwinder Singh Billing, Sushma Gupta, Sukhjit Singh Dhaliwal

Abstract:

In the present paper, we investigate a differential subordination involving multiplier transformation related to a sector in the open unit disk E = {z : |z| < 1}. As special cases to our main result, certain sufficient conditions for strongly starlike and strongly convex functions are obtained.

Keywords: Analytic function, Multiplier transformation, Strongly starlike function, Strongly convex function.

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172 On λ− Summable of Orlicz Space of Gai Sequences of Fuzzy Numbers

Authors: N.Subramanian, S.Krishnamoorthy, S. Balasubramanian

Abstract:

In this paper the concept of strongly (λM)p - Ces'aro summability of a sequence of fuzzy numbers and strongly λM- statistically convergent sequences of fuzzy numbers is introduced.

Keywords: Fuzzy numbers, statistical convergence, Orlicz space, gai sequence.

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171 Some New Subclasses of Nonsingular H-matrices

Authors: Guangbin Wang, Liangliang Li, Fuping Tan

Abstract:

In this paper, we obtain some new subclasses of non¬singular H-matrices by using a diagonally dominant matrix

Keywords: H-matrix, diagonal dominance, a diagonally dominant matrix.

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170 A New Heuristic Approach for Large Size Zero-One Multi Knapsack Problem Using Intercept Matrix

Authors: K. Krishna Veni, S. Raja Balachandar

Abstract:

This paper presents a heuristic to solve large size 0-1 Multi constrained Knapsack problem (01MKP) which is NP-hard. Many researchers are used heuristic operator to identify the redundant constraints of Linear Programming Problem before applying the regular procedure to solve it. We use the intercept matrix to identify the zero valued variables of 01MKP which is known as redundant variables. In this heuristic, first the dominance property of the intercept matrix of constraints is exploited to reduce the search space to find the optimal or near optimal solutions of 01MKP, second, we improve the solution by using the pseudo-utility ratio based on surrogate constraint of 01MKP. This heuristic is tested for benchmark problems of sizes upto 2500, taken from literature and the results are compared with optimum solutions. Space and computational complexity of solving 01MKP using this approach are also presented. The encouraging results especially for relatively large size test problems indicate that this heuristic can successfully be used for finding good solutions for highly constrained NP-hard problems.

Keywords: 0-1 Multi constrained Knapsack problem, heuristic, computational complexity, NP-Hard problems.

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169 Parallel Alternating Two-stage Methods for Solving Linear System

Authors: Guangbin Wang, Ning Zhang, Fuping Tan

Abstract:

In this paper, we present parallel alternating two-stage methods for solving linear system Ax = b, where A is a monotone matrix or an H-matrix. And we give some convergence results of these methods for nonsingular linear system.

Keywords: Parallel, alternating two-stage, convergence, linear system.

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168 On Detour Spectra of Some Graphs

Authors: S.K.Ayyaswamy, S.Balachandran

Abstract:

The Detour matrix (DD) of a graph has for its ( i , j) entry the length of the longest path between vertices i and j. The DD-eigenvalues of a connected graph G are the eigenvalues for its detour matrix, and they form the DD-spectrum of G. The DD-energy EDD of the graph G is the sum of the absolute values of its DDeigenvalues. Two connected graphs are said to be DD- equienergetic if they have equal DD-energies. In this paper, the DD- spectra of a variety of graphs and their DD-energies are calculated.

Keywords: Detour eigenvalue (of a graph), detour spectrum(of a graph), detour energy(of a graph), detour - equienergetic graphs.

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167 On Strong(Weak) Domination in Fuzzy Graphs

Authors: C.Natarajan, S.K.Ayyaswamy

Abstract:

Let G be a fuzzy graph. Then D Ôèå V is said to be a strong (weak) fuzzy dominating set of G if every vertex v ∈ V -D is strongly (weakly) dominated by some vertex u in D. We denote a strong (weak) fuzzy dominating set by sfd-set (wfd-set). The minimum scalar cardinality of a sfd-set (wfd-set) is called the strong (weak) fuzzy domination number of G and it is denoted by γsf (G)γwf (G). In this paper we introduce the concept of strong (weak) domination in fuzzy graphs and obtain some interesting results for this new parameter in fuzzy graphs.

Keywords: Fuzzy graphs, fuzzy domination, strong (weak) fuzzy domination number.

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166 Centre Of Mass Selection Operator Based Meta-Heuristic For Unbounded Knapsack Problem

Authors: D.Venkatesan, K.Kannan, S. Raja Balachandar

Abstract:

In this paper a new Genetic Algorithm based on a heuristic operator and Centre of Mass selection operator (CMGA) is designed for the unbounded knapsack problem(UKP), which is NP-Hard combinatorial optimization problem. The proposed genetic algorithm is based on a heuristic operator, which utilizes problem specific knowledge. This center of mass operator when combined with other Genetic Operators forms a competitive algorithm to the existing ones. Computational results show that the proposed algorithm is capable of obtaining high quality solutions for problems of standard randomly generated knapsack instances. Comparative study of CMGA with simple GA in terms of results for unbounded knapsack instances of size up to 200 show the superiority of CMGA. Thus CMGA is an efficient tool of solving UKP and this algorithm is competitive with other Genetic Algorithms also.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, Unbounded Knapsack Problem, Combinatorial Optimization, Meta-Heuristic, Center of Mass

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165 A Meta-Heuristic Algorithm for Set Covering Problem Based on Gravity

Authors: S. Raja Balachandar, K. Kannan

Abstract:

A new Meta heuristic approach called "Randomized gravitational emulation search algorithm (RGES)" for solving large size set covering problems has been designed. This algorithm is found upon introducing randomization concept along with the two of the four primary parameters -velocity- and -gravity- in physics. A new heuristic operator is introduced in the domain of RGES to maintain feasibility specifically for the set covering problem to yield best solutions. The performance of this algorithm has been evaluated on a large set of benchmark problems from OR-library. Computational results showed that the randomized gravitational emulation search algorithm - based heuristic is capable of producing high quality solutions. The performance of this heuristic when compared with other existing heuristic algorithms is found to be excellent in terms of solution quality.

Keywords: Set covering problem, velocity, gravitational force, Newton's law, meta heuristic, combinatorial optimization.

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164 Splitting Modified Donor-Cell Schemes for Spectral Action Balance Equation

Authors: Tanapat Brikshavana, Anirut Luadsong

Abstract:

The spectral action balance equation is an equation that used to simulate short-crested wind-generated waves in shallow water areas such as coastal regions and inland waters. This equation consists of two spatial dimensions, wave direction, and wave frequency which can be solved by finite difference method. When this equation with dominating propagation velocity terms are discretized using central differences, stability problems occur when the grid spacing is chosen too coarse. In this paper, we introduce the splitting modified donorcell scheme for avoiding stability problems and prove that it is consistent to the modified donor-cell scheme with same accuracy. The splitting modified donor-cell scheme was adopted to split the wave spectral action balance equation into four one-dimensional problems, which for each small problem obtains the independently tridiagonal linear systems. For each smaller system can be solved by direct or iterative methods at the same time which is very fast when performed by a multi-cores computer.

Keywords: donor-cell scheme, parallel algorithm, spectral action balance equation, splitting method.

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163 Stability and Bifurcation Analysis in a Model of Hes1 Selfregulation with Time Delay

Authors: Kejun Zhuang, Hailong Zhu

Abstract:

The dynamics of a delayed mathematical model for Hes1 oscillatory expression are investigated. The linear stability of positive equilibrium and existence of local Hopf bifurcation are studied. Moreover, the global existence of large periodic solutions has been established due to the global bifurcation theorem.

Keywords: Hes1, Hopf bifurcation, time delay, transcriptional repression loop

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162 Periodic Solutions for a Delayed Population Model on Time Scales

Authors: Kejun Zhuang, Zhaohui Wen

Abstract:

This paper deals with a delayed single population model on time scales. With the assistance of coincidence degree theory, sufficient conditions for existence of periodic solutions are obtained. Furthermore, the better estimations for bounds of periodic solutions are established.

Keywords: Coincidence degree, continuation theorem, periodic solutions, time scales

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161 Some Separations in Covering Approximation Spaces

Authors: Xun Ge, Jinjin Li, Ying Ge

Abstract:

Adopting Zakowski-s upper approximation operator C and lower approximation operator C, this paper investigates granularity-wise separations in covering approximation spaces. Some characterizations of granularity-wise separations are obtained by means of Pawlak rough sets and some relations among granularitywise separations are established, which makes it possible to research covering approximation spaces by logical methods and mathematical methods in computer science. Results of this paper give further applications of Pawlak rough set theory in pattern recognition and artificial intelligence.

Keywords: Rough set, covering approximation space, granularitywise separation.

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160 Restarted Generalized Second-Order Krylov Subspace Methods for Solving Quadratic Eigenvalue Problems

Authors: Liping Zhou, Liang Bao, Yiqin Lin, Yimin Wei, Qinghua Wu

Abstract:

This article is devoted to the numerical solution of large-scale quadratic eigenvalue problems. Such problems arise in a wide variety of applications, such as the dynamic analysis of structural mechanical systems, acoustic systems, fluid mechanics, and signal processing. We first introduce a generalized second-order Krylov subspace based on a pair of square matrices and two initial vectors and present a generalized second-order Arnoldi process for constructing an orthonormal basis of the generalized second-order Krylov subspace. Then, by using the projection technique and the refined projection technique, we propose a restarted generalized second-order Arnoldi method and a restarted refined generalized second-order Arnoldi method for computing some eigenpairs of largescale quadratic eigenvalue problems. Some theoretical results are also presented. Some numerical examples are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

Keywords: Quadratic eigenvalue problem, Generalized secondorder Krylov subspace, Generalized second-order Arnoldi process, Projection technique, Refined technique, Restarting.

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159 Some Solitary Wave Solutions of Generalized Pochhammer-Chree Equation via Exp-function Method

Authors: Kourosh Parand, Jamal Amani Rad

Abstract:

In this paper, Exp-function method is used for some exact solitary solutions of the generalized Pochhammer-Chree equation. It has been shown that the Exp-function method, with the help of symbolic computation, provides a very effective and powerful mathematical tool for solving nonlinear partial differential equations. As a result, some exact solitary solutions are obtained. It is shown that the Exp-function method is direct, effective, succinct and can be used for many other nonlinear partial differential equations.

Keywords: Exp-function method, generalized Pochhammer- Chree equation, solitary wave solution, ODE's.

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158 Group of p-th Roots of Unity Modulo n

Authors: Rochdi Omami, Mohamed Omami, Raouf Ouni

Abstract:

Let n ≥ 3 be an integer and p be a prime odd number. Let us consider Gp(n) the subgroup of (Z/nZ)* defined by : Gp(n) = {x ∈ (Z/nZ)* / xp = 1}. In this paper, we give an algorithm that computes a generating set of this subgroup.

Keywords: Group, p-th roots, modulo, unity.

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157 Multimode Dynamics of the Beijing Road Traffic System

Authors: Zundong Zhang, Limin Jia, Xiaoliang Sun

Abstract:

The Beijing road traffic system, as a typical huge urban traffic system, provides a platform for analyzing the complex characteristics and the evolving mechanisms of urban traffic systems. Based on dynamic network theory, we construct the dynamic model of the Beijing road traffic system in which the dynamical properties are described completely. Furthermore, we come into the conclusion that urban traffic systems can be viewed as static networks, stochastic networks and complex networks at different system phases by analyzing the structural randomness. As well as, we demonstrate the evolving process of the Beijing road traffic network based on real traffic data, validate the stochastic characteristics and the scale-free property of the network at different phases

Keywords: Dynamic Network Models, Structural Randomness, Scale-free Property, Multi-mode character

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156 Notes on Fractional k-Covered Graphs

Authors: Sizhong Zhou, Yang Xu

Abstract:

A graph G is fractional k-covered if for each edge e of G, there exists a fractional k-factor h, such that h(e) = 1. If k = 2, then a fractional k-covered graph is called a fractional 2-covered graph. The binding number bind(G) is defined as follows, bind(G) = min{|NG(X)| |X| : ├ÿ = X Ôèå V (G),NG(X) = V (G)}. In this paper, it is proved that G is fractional 2-covered if δ(G) ≥ 4 and bind(G) > 5 3 .

Keywords: graph, binding number, fractional k-factor, fractional k-covered graph.

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155 Accurate Visualization of Graphs of Functions of Two Real Variables

Authors: Zeitoun D. G., Thierry Dana-Picard

Abstract:

The study of a real function of two real variables can be supported by visualization using a Computer Algebra System (CAS). One type of constraints of the system is due to the algorithms implemented, yielding continuous approximations of the given function by interpolation. This often masks discontinuities of the function and can provide strange plots, not compatible with the mathematics. In recent years, point based geometry has gained increasing attention as an alternative surface representation, both for efficient rendering and for flexible geometry processing of complex surfaces. In this paper we present different artifacts created by mesh surfaces near discontinuities and propose a point based method that controls and reduces these artifacts. A least squares penalty method for an automatic generation of the mesh that controls the behavior of the chosen function is presented. The special feature of this method is the ability to improve the accuracy of the surface visualization near a set of interior points where the function may be discontinuous. The present method is formulated as a minimax problem and the non uniform mesh is generated using an iterative algorithm. Results show that for large poorly conditioned matrices, the new algorithm gives more accurate results than the classical preconditioned conjugate algorithm.

Keywords: Function singularities, mesh generation, point allocation, visualization, collocation least squares method, Augmented Lagrangian method, Uzawa's Algorithm, Preconditioned Conjugate Gradien

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154 The Relationship between Internal Corporate Social Responsibility and Organizational Commitment within the Banking Sector in Jordan

Authors: Al-bdour, A. Ali., Ellisha Nasruddin., Soh Keng Lin

Abstract:

This study attempts to investigate the relationship between internal CSR practices and organizational commitment based on the social exchange theory (SET). Specifically, we examine the impact of five dimensions of internal CSR practices on organizational commitment: health and safety, human rights, training and education, work life balance and workplace diversity. The proposed model was tested on a sample of 336 frontline employees within the banking sector in Jordan. Results showed that all internal CSR dimensions are significantly and positively related to affective and normative commitment. In addition, the findings of this study indicate that all internal CSR dimensions did not have a significant relationship with continuance commitment. Limitations of the study, directions for future research, and implications of the findings are discussed.

Keywords: Internal CSR, organizational commitment, Jordan, banking sector.

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153 Household Demand for Solid Waste Disposal Options in Malaysia

Authors: Pek Chuen-Khee, Jamal Othman

Abstract:

This paper estimates the economic values of household preference for enhanced solid waste disposal services in Malaysia. The contingent valuation (CV) method estimates an average additional monthly willingness-to-pay (WTP) in solid waste management charges of Ôé¼0.77 to 0.80 for improved waste disposal services quality. The finding of a slightly higher WTP from the generic CV question than that of label-specific, further reveals a higher WTP for sanitary landfill, at Ôé¼0.90, than incineration, at Ôé¼0.63. This suggests that sanitary landfill is a more preferred alternative. The logistic regression estimation procedure reveals that household-s concern of where their rubbish is disposed, age, ownership of house, household income and format of CV question are significant factors in influencing WTP.

Keywords: contingent valuation, logistic regression, solid waste disposal, willingness-to-pay.

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152 Chances and Challenges of Intelligent Technologies in the Production and Retail Sector

Authors: Carsten Röcker

Abstract:

This paper provides an introduction into the evolution of information and communication technology and illustrates its usage in the work domain. The paper is sub-divided into two parts. The first part gives an overview over the different phases of information processing in the work domain. It starts by charting the past and present usage of computers in work environments and shows current technological trends, which are likely to influence future business applications. The second part starts by briefly describing, how the usage of computers changed business processes in the past, and presents first Ambient Intelligence applications based on identification and localization information, which are already used in the production and retail sector. Based on current systems and prototype applications, the paper gives an outlook of how Ambient Intelligence technologies could change business processes in the future.

Keywords: Ambient Intelligence, Ubiquitous Computing, Business Applications, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID).

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151 Communication Behaviors as Predictors of Long-Term Dyadic Adjustment: Personality as a Moderator

Authors: Ariane Lazaridès, Claude Bélanger, Stéphane Sabourin

Abstract:

In this longitudinal study, we examined the moderating role of personality in the relationship between communication behaviors and long-term dyadic adjustment. A sample of 82 couples completed the NEO Five-Factor Inventory and the Dyadic Adjustment Scale. These couples were also videotaped during a 15-minute problem-solving discussion. Approximately 2.5 years later, these couples completed again the Dyadic Adjustment Scale. Results show that personality of both men and women moderates the relationship between communication behaviors of the partner and long-term dyadic adjustment of the individual. Women-s openness and men-s extraversion moderate the relationship between some communication behaviors and long-term dyadic adjustment

Keywords: Communication Behavior, Couples, Dyadic Adjustment, Personality.

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150 Attributions by Team Members for Team Outcomes in Finnish Working Life

Authors: Maarit Valo, Pertti Hurme

Abstract:

This study focuses on teamwork in Finnish working life. Through a wide cross-section of teams the study examines the causes to which team members attribute the outcomes of their teams. Qualitative data was collected from 314 respondents. They wrote 616 stories to describe memorable experiences of success and failure in teamwork. The stories revealed 1930 explanations. The findings indicate that both favorable and unfavorable team outcomes are perceived as being caused by the characteristics of team members, relationships between members, team communication, team structure, team goals, team leadership, and external forces. The types represent different attribution levels in the context of organizational teamwork.

Keywords: Team, teamwork, team outcomes, workplace, working life.

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149 Dynamic-Stochastic Influence Diagrams: Integrating Time-Slices IDs and Discrete Event Systems Modeling

Authors: Xin Zhao, Yin-fan Zhu, Wei-ping Wang, Qun Li

Abstract:

The Influence Diagrams (IDs) is a kind of Probabilistic Belief Networks for graphic modeling. The usage of IDs can improve the communication among field experts, modelers, and decision makers, by showing the issue frame discussed from a high-level point of view. This paper enhances the Time-Sliced Influence Diagrams (TSIDs, or called Dynamic IDs) based formalism from a Discrete Event Systems Modeling and Simulation (DES M&S) perspective, for Exploring Analysis (EA) modeling. The enhancements enable a modeler to specify times occurred of endogenous events dynamically with stochastic sampling as model running and to describe the inter- influences among them with variable nodes in a dynamic situation that the existing TSIDs fails to capture. The new class of model is named Dynamic-Stochastic Influence Diagrams (DSIDs). The paper includes a description of the modeling formalism and the hiberarchy simulators implementing its simulation algorithm, and shows a case study to illustrate its enhancements.

Keywords: Time-sliced influence diagrams, discrete event systems, dynamic-stochastic influence diagrams, modeling formalism, simulation algorithm.

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148 Investigating the Individual Difference Antecedents of Perceived Enjoyment in the Acceptance of Blogging

Authors: Yi-Shun Wang, Hsin-Hui Lin, Yi-Wen Liao

Abstract:

With the proliferation of Weblogs (blogs) use in educational contexts, gaining a better understanding of why students are willing to utilize blog systems has become an important topic for practitioners and academics. While perceived enjoyment has been found to have a significant influence on behavioral intentions to use blogs or hedonic systems, few studies have investigated the antecedents of perceived enjoyment in the acceptance of blogging. The main purpose of the present study is to explore the individual difference antecedents of perceived enjoyment and examine how they influence behavioral intention to blog through the mediation of perceived enjoyment. Based on the previous literature, the Big Five personality traits (i.e., extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness to experience), as well as computer self-efficacy and personal innovation in information technology (PIIT), are hypothesized as potential antecedents of perceived enjoyment in the acceptance of blogging. Data collected from 358 respondents in Taiwan are tested against the research model using the structural equation modeling approach. The results indicate that extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and PIIT have a significant influence on perceived enjoyment, which in turn significantly influences the behavioral intention to blog. These findings lead to several important implications for future research.

Keywords: Individual difference, Big Five personality traits, perceived enjoyment, blogging

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147 Spam E-mail: How Malaysian E-mail Users Deal with It?

Authors: Yanti Rosmunie Bujang, Husnayati Hussin

Abstract:

This paper attempts to discuss the spam issue from the Malaysian e-mail users- perspective. The purpose is to discover how Malaysian users handle the spam e-mail problem. From the experiences we hope to discover the necessary effort needed to be undertaken to face this problem in the context of Malaysia. A survey was conducted to understand how Malaysian individual perceived spam and what they actually do with the spam e-mail they received in their daily life. The findings indicate that the level of awareness on spam issue in action is still low and need some extra effort by government and relevant agencies to increase their level of awareness.

Keywords: E-mail, Malaysia, spam, users' perspective.

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146 Mixture Design Experiment on Flow Behaviour of O/W Emulsions as Affected by Polysaccharide Interactions

Authors: Nor Hayati Ibrahim, Yaakob B. Che Man, Chin Ping Tan, Nor Aini Idris

Abstract:

Interaction effects of xanthan gum (XG), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), and locust bean gum (LBG) on the flow properties of oil-in-water emulsions were investigated by a mixture design experiment. Blends of XG, CMC and LBG were prepared according to an augmented simplex-centroid mixture design (10 points) and used at 0.5% (wt/wt) in the emulsion formulations. An appropriate mathematical model was fitted to express each response as a function of the proportions of the blend components that are able to empirically predict the response to any blend of combination of the components. The synergistic interaction effect of the ternary XG:CMC:LBG blends at approximately 33-67% XG levels was shown to be much stronger than that of the binary XG:LBG blend at 50% XG level (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, an antagonistic interaction effect became significant as CMC level in blends was more than 33% (p < 0.05). Yield stress and apparent viscosity (at 10 s-1) responses were successfully fitted with a special quartic model while flow behaviour index and consistency coefficient were fitted with a full quartic model (R2 adjusted ≥ 0.90). This study found that a mixture design approach could serve as a valuable tool in better elucidating and predicting the interaction effects beyond the conventional twocomponent blends.

Keywords: O/W emulsions, flow behavior, polysaccharideinteraction, mixture design.

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145 Treatment of Eutrophic-lake Water by Free Water Surface Wetland

Authors: Haodong Wu, Ping Huang, Junsan Wang

Abstract:

In China, with the rapid urbanization and industrialization, and highly accelerated economic development have resulted in degradation of water resource. The water quality deterioration usual result from eutrophication in most cases, so how to dispose this type pollution water higher efficiently is an urgent task. Hower, different with traditional technology, constructed wetlands are effective treatment systems that can be very useful because they are simple technology and low operational cost. A pilot-scale treatment including constructed wetlands was constructed at XingYun Lake, Yuxi, China, and operated as primary treatment measure before eutrophic-lake water draining to riverine landscape. Water quality indices were determined during the experiment, the results indicated that treatment removal efficiencies were high for Nitrate nitrogen, Chlorophyll–a and Algae, the final removal efficiency reached to 95.20%, 93.33% and 99.87% respectively, but the removal efficiency of Total phosphorous and Total nitrogen only reach to 68.83% and 50.00% respectively.

Keywords: Constructed wetland, Eutrophic-lake water, Nutrientremoval, Removal efficiency

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144 Risk Management Analysis: An Empirical Study Using Bivariate GARCH

Authors: Chin Wen Cheong

Abstract:

This study employs a bivariate asymmetric GARCH model to reveal the hidden dynamics price changes and volatility among the emerging markets of Thailand and Malaysian after the Asian financial crisis from January 2001 to December 2008. Our results indicated that the equity markets are sharing the common information (shock) that transmitted among each others. These empirical findings are used to demonstrate the importance of shock and volatility dynamic transmissions in the cross-market hedging and market risk.

Keywords: multivariate ARCH, structural change, value at risk.

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143 Increasing Convergence Rate of a Fractionally-Spaced Channel Equalizer

Authors: Waseem Khan

Abstract:

In this paper a technique for increasing the convergence rate of fractionally spaced channel equalizer is proposed. Instead of symbol-spaced updating of the equalizer filter, a mechanism has been devised to update the filter at a higher rate. This ensures convergence of the equalizer filter at a higher rate and therefore less time-consuming. The proposed technique has been simulated and tested for two-ray modeled channels with various delay spreads. These channels include minimum-phase and nonminimum- phase channels. Simulation results suggest that that proposed technique outperforms the conventional technique of symbol-spaced updating of equalizer filter.

Keywords: Channel equalization, Fractionally-spaced equalizer

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142 Ranking DMUs by Ideal PPS in Data Envelopment Analysis

Authors: V.Rezaie, M.Khanmohammady

Abstract:

An original DEA model is to evaluate each DMU optimistically, but the interval DEA Model proposed in this paper has been formulated to obtain an efficiency interval consisting of Evaluations from both the optimistic and the pessimistic view points. DMUs are improved so that their lower bounds become so large as to attain the maximum Value one. The points obtained by this method are called ideal points. Ideal PPS is calculated by ideal of efficiency DMUs. The purpose of this paper is to rank DMUs by this ideal PPS. Finally we extend the efficiency interval of a DMU under variable RTS technology.

Keywords: Data envelopment analysis (DEA), Decision makingunit (DMU), Interval DEA, Ideal points, Ideal PPS, Return to scale(RTS).

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141 A Hybrid Approach Using Particle Swarm Optimization and Simulated Annealing for N-queen Problem

Authors: Vahid Mohammadi Saffarzadeh, Pourya Jafarzadeh, Masoud Mazloom

Abstract:

This paper presents a hybrid approach for solving nqueen problem by combination of PSO and SA. PSO is a population based heuristic method that sometimes traps in local maximum. To solve this problem we can use SA. Although SA suffer from many iterations and long time convergence for solving some problems, By good adjusting initial parameters such as temperature and the length of temperature stages SA guarantees convergence. In this article we use discrete PSO (due to nature of n-queen problem) to achieve a good local maximum. Then we use SA to escape from local maximum. The experimental results show that our hybrid method in comparison of SA method converges to result faster, especially for high dimensions n-queen problems.

Keywords: PSO, SA, N-queen, CSP

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140 The Role of Immunogenic Adhesin Vibrio alginolyticus 49 k Da to Molecule Expression of Major Histocompatibility Complex on Receptors of Humpback Grouper Cromileptes altivelis

Authors: Uun Yanuhar

Abstract:

The purpose of research was to know the role of immunogenic protein of 49 kDa from V.alginolyticus which capable to initiate molecule expression of MHC Class II in receptor of Cromileptes altivelis. The method used was in vivo experimental research through testing of immunogenic protein 49 kDa from V.alginolyticus at Cromileptes altivelis (size of 250 - 300 grams) using 3 times booster by injecting an immunogenic protein in a intramuscular manner. Response of expressed MHC molecule was shown using immunocytochemistry method and SEM. Results indicated that adhesin V.alginolyticus 49 kDa which have immunogenic character could trigger expression of MHC class II on receptor of grouper and has been proven by staining using immunocytochemistry and SEM with labeling using antibody anti MHC (anti mouse). This visible expression based on binding between epitopes antigen and antibody anti MHC in the receptor. Using immunocytochemistry, intracellular response of MHC to in vivo induction of immunogenic adhesin from V.alginolyticus was shown.

Keywords: C.altivelis, immunogenic, MHC, V.alginolyticus.

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139 Microwave LNA Design Based On Adaptive Network Fuzzy Inference and Evolutionary Optimization

Authors: Samad Nejatian, Vahideh Rezaie, Vahid Asadpour

Abstract:

This paper presents a novel approach for the design of microwave circuits using Adaptive Network Fuzzy Inference Optimizer (ANFIO). The method takes advantage of direct synthesis of subsections of the amplifier using very fast and accurate ANFIO models based on exact simulations using ADS. A mapping from course space to fine space known as space mapping is also used. The proposed synthesis approach takes into account the noise and scattering parameters due to parasitic elements to achieve optimal results. The overall ANFIO system is capable of designing different LNAs at different noise and scattering criteria. This approach offers significantly reduced time in the design of microwave amplifiers within the validity range of the ANFIO system. The method has been proven to work efficiently for a 2.4GHz LNA example. The S21 of 10.1 dB and noise figure (NF) of 2.7 dB achieved for ANFIO while S21 of 9.05 dB and NF of 2.6 dB achieved for ANN.

Keywords: fuzzy system, low noise amplifier, microwaveamplifier, space mapping

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138 The Relation of College Students- Process of Study and Creativity: The Mediating Effect of Creative Self-Efficacy

Authors: Chih-Feng Chuang, Shih-Ching Shiu, Chao-Jen Cheng

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among students- process of study, creative self-efficacy and creativity while attending college. A total of 60 students enrolled in Hsiuping Institute of Technology in central Taiwan were selected as samples for the study. The instruments for this study included three questionnaires to explore the aforesaid aspects. This researchers tested creative self-efficacy and process of study, and creativity with Pearson correlation and hierarchical regression analyses. The major findings of this research are (1) the process of study had direct positive predictability on creativity, and (2) the relationship between process of study and creativity is partially mediated by creative self-efficacy.

Keywords: Process of study, Creative self-efficacy, Creativity

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137 Journey on Image Clustering Based on Color Composition

Authors: Achmad Nizar Hidayanto, Elisabeth Martha Koeanan

Abstract:

Image clustering is a process of grouping images based on their similarity. The image clustering usually uses the color component, texture, edge, shape, or mixture of two components, etc. This research aims to explore image clustering using color composition. In order to complete this image clustering, three main components should be considered, which are color space, image representation (feature extraction), and clustering method itself. We aim to explore which composition of these factors will produce the best clustering results by combining various techniques from the three components. The color spaces use RGB, HSV, and L*a*b* method. The image representations use Histogram and Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM), whereas the clustering methods use KMeans and Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering algorithm. The results of the experiment show that GMM representation is better combined with RGB and L*a*b* color space, whereas Histogram is better combined with HSV. The experiments also show that K-Means is better than Agglomerative Hierarchical for images clustering.

Keywords: Image clustering, feature extraction, RGB, HSV, L*a*b*, Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM), histogram, Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering (AHC), K-Means, Expectation-Maximization (EM).

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136 Performance of a Power Generator System Using Crude Plant Oil Blend with Diesel Fuel

Authors: Tsair-Wang Chung, Kuan-Ting Liu, Mai-Tzu Chen

Abstract:

Under the variation of crude oil price and the impact of greenhouse effect, it is urgent to find a potential alternative fuel. Among these alternative fuels, non edible plant oils are the most potential ones, because they don-t have the problem of food and cropland competitions. Among the non-edible plant oils, Jatropha oil is the most potential one. Jatropha oil is non-eatable oil and has good oil quality and low temperature performance. It has potential to become one of the most competitive biomass crude oils. The crude plant oil will be blended with diesel fuel to be tested in a power generator. The international collaboration between Taiwan and Indonesia on the production of Jatropha in Indonesia will also be presented in this study.

Keywords: Jatropha, plant oil, oil blend, diesel, power generator.

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135 A Grid Current-controlled Inverter with Particle Swarm Optimization MPPT for PV Generators

Authors: Hanny H. Tumbelaka, Masafumi Miyatake

Abstract:

This paper proposes a three-phase four-wire currentcontrolled Voltage Source Inverter (CC-VSI) for both power quality improvement and PV energy extraction. For power quality improvement, the CC-VSI works as a grid current-controlling shunt active power filter to compensate for harmonic and reactive power of loads. Then, the PV array is coupled to the DC bus of the CC-VSI and supplies active power to the grid. The MPPT controller employs the particle swarm optimization technique. The output of the MPPT controller is a DC voltage that determines the DC-bus voltage according to PV maximum power. The PSO method is simple and effective especially for a partially shaded PV array. From computer simulation results, it proves that grid currents are sinusoidal and inphase with grid voltages, while the PV maximum active power is delivered to loads.

Keywords: Active Power Filter, MPPT, PV Energy Conversion.

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134 Position Awareness Mechanisms for Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Seyed Mostafa Torabi

Abstract:

A Wireless sensor network (WSN) consists of a set of battery-powered nodes, which collaborate to perform sensing tasks in a given environment. Each node in WSN should be capable to act for long periods of time with scrimpy or no external management. One requirement for this independent is: in the presence of adverse positions, the sensor nodes must be capable to configure themselves. Hence, the nodes for determine the existence of unusual events in their surroundings should make use of position awareness mechanisms. This work approaches the problem by considering the possible unusual events as diseases, thus making it possible to diagnose them through their symptoms, namely, their side effects. Considering these awareness mechanisms as a foundation for highlevel monitoring services, this paper also shows how these mechanisms are included in the primal plan of an intrusion detection system.

Keywords: Awareness Mechanism, Intrusion Detection, Independent, Wireless Sensor Network

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133 Verified Experiment: Intelligent Fuzzy Weighted Input Estimation Method to Inverse Heat Conduction Problem

Authors: Chen-Yu Wang, Tsung-Chien Chen, Ming-Hui Lee, Jen-Feng Huang

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In this paper, the innovative intelligent fuzzy weighted input estimation method (FWIEM) can be applied to the inverse heat transfer conduction problem (IHCP) to estimate the unknown time-varying heat flux efficiently as presented. The feasibility of this method can be verified by adopting the temperature measurement experiment. We would like to focus attention on the heat flux estimation to three kinds of samples (Copper, Iron and Steel/AISI 304) with the same 3mm thickness. The temperature measurements are then regarded as the inputs into the FWIEM to estimate the heat flux. The experiment results show that the proposed algorithm can estimate the unknown time-varying heat flux on-line.

Keywords: Fuzzy Weighted Input Estimation Method, IHCP andHeat Flux.

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132 Compact Planar Antenna for UWB Applications

Authors: Rezaul Azim, Mohammad Tariqul Islam, Norbahiah Misran

Abstract:

In this paper, a planar antenna for UWB applications has been proposed. The antenna consists of a square patch, a partial ground plane and a slot on the ground plane. The proposed antenna is easy to be integrated with microwave circuitry for low manufacturing cost. The flat type antenna has a compact structure and the total size is 14.5×14.5mm2. The result shows that the impedance bandwidth (VSWR≤ 2) of the proposed antenna is 12.49 GHz (2.95 to 15.44 GHz), which is equivalent to 135.8%. Details of the proposed compact planar UWB antenna design is presented and discussed.

Keywords: Planar antenna, partial ground plane, ultrawideband(UWB) antenna.

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131 Design and Analysis of Two-Phase Boost DC-DC Converter

Authors: Taufik Taufik, Tadeus Gunawan, Dale Dolan, Makbul Anwari

Abstract:

Multiphasing of dc-dc converters has been known to give technical and economical benefits to low voltage high power buck regulator modules. A major advantage of multiphasing dc-dc converters is the improvement of input and output performances in the buck converter. From this aspect, a potential use would be in renewable energy where power quality plays an important factor. This paper presents the design of a 2-phase 200W boost converter for battery charging application. Analysis of results from hardware measurement of the boost converter demonstrates the benefits of using multiphase. Results from the hardware prototype of the 2-phase boost converter further show the potential extension of multiphase beyond its commonly used low voltage high current domains.

Keywords: Multiphase, boost converter, power electronics.

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130 A Cell-Based Multiphase Interleaving Buck Converter with Bypass Capacitors

Authors: T. Taufik, R. Prasetyo, D. Dolan, D. Garinto

Abstract:

Today-s Voltage Regulator Modules (VRMs) face increasing design challenges as the number of transistors in microprocessors increases per Moore-s Law. These challenges have recently become even more demanding as microprocessors operate at sub voltage range at significantly high current. This paper presents a new multiphase topology with cell configuration for improved performance in low voltage and high current applications. A lab scale hardware prototype of the new topology was design and constructed. Laboratory tests were performed on the proposed converter and compared with a commercially available VRM. Results from the proposed topology exhibit improved performance compared to the commercially available counterpart.

Keywords: Voltage Regulator Modules, dc-dc converters, powerelectronics.

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129 Partial Oxidation of Methane in the Pulsed Compression Reactor: Experiments and Simulation

Authors: Timo Roestenberg, Maxim Glushenkov, Alexander Kronberg, Anton A. Verbeek, Theo H. vd Meer

Abstract:

The Pulsed Compression Reactor promises to be a compact, economical and energy efficient alternative to conventional chemical reactors. In this article, the production of synthesis gas using the Pulsed Compression Reactor is investigated. This is done experimentally as well as with simulations. The experiments are done by means of a single shot reactor, which replicates a representative, single reciprocation of the Pulsed Compression Reactor with great control over the reactant composition, reactor temperature and pressure and temperature history. Simulations are done with a relatively simple method, which uses different models for the chemistry and thermodynamic properties of the species in the reactor. Simulation results show very good agreement with the experimental data, and give great insight into the reaction processes that occur within the cycle.

Keywords: Chemical reactors, Energy, Pulsed compressionreactor, Simulation

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128 Integration Process of Industrial Design and Engineering Design

Authors: Kazuhide Sugiyama, Hiroshi Osada

Abstract:

Lately management strategy that put Industrial Design (ID) in its core is recognized more important, as technology and price alone cannot differentiate a product. The needs to shorten the time to develop a product also shorten the development period of ID, and it necessitates the ID process management. This research analyzes the status of integration process of ID and Engineering Design (ED) of office equipment that requires the collaboration of ID and ED to clarify the issues for the efficiency of the development and to propose solutions.

Keywords: Industrial Design (ID), Engineering Design (ED), Integration process, Office equipment

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127 Adsorption of Textile Reactive Dye by Palm Shell Activated Carbon: Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Siti Maryam Rusly, Shaliza Ibrahim

Abstract:

The adsorption of simulated aqueous solution containing textile remazol reactive dye, namely Red 3BS by palm shell activated carbon (PSAC) as adsorbent was carried out using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). A Box-Behnken design in three most important operating variables; initial dye concentration, dosage of adsorbent and speed of impeller was employed for experimental design and optimization of results. The significance of independent variables and their interactions were tested by means of the analysis of variance (ANOVA) with 95% confidence limits. Model indicated that with the increasing of dosage and speed give the result of removal up to 90% with the capacity uptake more than 7 mg/g. High regression coefficient between the variables and the response (R-Sq = 93.9%) showed of good evaluation of experimental data by polynomial regression model.

Keywords: Adsorption, Box-Behnken Design, Palm ShellActivated Carbon, Red 3BS, RSM.

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126 Dataset Analysis Using Membership-Deviation Graph

Authors: Itgel Bayarsaikhan, Jimin Lee, Sejong Oh

Abstract:

Classification is one of the primary themes in computational biology. The accuracy of classification strongly depends on quality of a dataset, and we need some method to evaluate this quality. In this paper, we propose a new graphical analysis method using 'Membership-Deviation Graph (MDG)' for analyzing quality of a dataset. MDG represents degree of membership and deviations for instances of a class in the dataset. The result of MDG analysis is used for understanding specific feature and for selecting best feature for classification.

Keywords: feature, classification, machine learning algorithm.

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125 Gastroprotective Activity of Swietenia Mahagoni Seed Extract on Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injury in Rats

Authors: Salma Saleh Alrdahe, Mahmood Ameen Abdulla, Shaharudin Abul Razak, Farkaad Abdul Kadir, Pouya Hassandarvish

Abstract:

Swietenia mahagoni have been used in traditional medicine for treatment of different diseases. Present study was performed to evaluate anti-ulcerogenic activity of ethanol seed extract against ethanol induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. Six groups of rats were orally pre-treated respectively with carboxymethyl cellulose, omeprazole 20 mg/kg, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg plant extract one hour before oral administration of absolute ethanol to generate gastric mucosal injury. After additional hour, rats were sacrificed and ulcer areas of gastric walls were determined. Grossly, carboxymethyl cellulose group exhibited severe mucosal injury, whereas pre-treatment with plant extract exhibited significant protection of gastric mucosa. Histology, carboxymethyl cellulose group exhibited severe damage of gastric mucosa; edema and leucocytes infiltration of sub mucosa compared to plant extract which showed gastric protection. Acute toxicity study did not manifest any toxicological signs in rats. Conclusions, results suggest that S. mahagoni promotes ulcer protection as ascertained grossly and histologically.

Keywords: Cytoprotection, Gastric ulcer, Histology, Swieteniamahagoni seed.

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124 Properties of Bricks Produced With Recycled Fine Aggregate

Authors: S. Ismail, Z. Yaacob

Abstract:

The main aim of this research is to study the possible use of recycled fine aggregate made from waste rubble wall to substitute partially for the natural sand used in the production of cement and sand bricks. The bricks specimens were prepared by using 100% natural sand; they were then replaced by recycled fine aggregate at 25, 50, 75, and 100% by weight of natural sand. A series of tests was carried out to study the effect of using recycled aggregate on the physical and mechanical properties of bricks, such as density, drying shrinkage, water absorption characteristic, compressive and flexural strength. Test results indicate that it is possible to manufacture bricks containing recycled fine aggregate with good characteristics that are similar in physical and mechanical properties to those of bricks with natural aggregate, provided that the percentage of recycled fine aggregates is limited up to 50-75%.

Keywords: Bricks, cement, recycled aggregate, sand

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123 Peaceful Coexistence of IEEE 802.11 and IEEE802.16 Standards in 5GHz Unlicensed Bands

Authors: Raoul Zamblé, Michel Babri, Souleymane Oumtanaga, Boubacar Barry, Claude Lishou

Abstract:

Cognitive radio devices have been considered as a key technology for next-generation of wireless communication. These devices in the context of IEEE 802.11 standards and IEEE 802.16 standards, can opportunistically utilize the wireless spectrum to achieve better user performance and improve the overall spectrumutilization efficiency, mainly in the unlicensed 5 GHz bands. However, opportunistic use of wireless spectrum creates news problems such as peaceful coexistence with other wireless technologies, such as the radiolocation systems, as well as understanding the influence of interference that each of these networks can create. In this paper, we suggest a dynamic access model that considerably reduces this interference and allows efficiency and fairness use of the wireless spectrum.

Keywords: Dynamic access, exclusive access, spectrumopportunities, unlicensed band.

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122 Multivariable Predictive PID Control for Quadruple Tank

Authors: Qamar Saeed, Vali Uddin, Reza Katebi

Abstract:

In this paper multivariable predictive PID controller has been implemented on a multi-inputs multi-outputs control problem i.e., quadruple tank system, in comparison with a simple multiloop PI controller. One of the salient feature of this system is an adjustable transmission zero which can be adjust to operate in both minimum and non-minimum phase configuration, through the flow distribution to upper and lower tanks in quadruple tank system. Stability and performance analysis has also been carried out for this highly interactive two input two output system, both in minimum and non-minimum phases. Simulations of control system revealed that better performance are obtained in predictive PID design.

Keywords: Proportional-integral-derivative Control, GeneralizedPredictive Control, Predictive PID Control, Multivariable Systems

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121 A Fast Handover Scheme for Proxy Mobile IPv6 using IEEE 802.21 Media Independent Handover

Authors: Pyung-Soo Kim, Jeong Hun Choi

Abstract:

In this paper, to resolve the problem of existing schemes, an alternative fast handover Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6) scheme using the IEEE 802.21 Media Independent Handover (MIH) function is proposed for heterogeneous wireless networks. The proposed scheme comes to support fast handover for the mobile node (MN) irrespective of the presence or absence of MIH functionality as well as L3 mobility functionality, whereas the MN in existing schemes has to implement MIH functionality. That is, the proposed scheme does not require the MN to be involved in MIH related signaling required for handover procedure. The base station (BS) with MIH functionality performs handover on behalf of the MN. Therefore, the proposed scheme can reduce burden and power consumption of MNs with limited resource and battery power since MNs are not required to be involved for the handover procedure. In addition, the proposed scheme can reduce considerably traffic overhead over wireless links between MN and BS since signaling messages are reduced.

Keywords: Fast handover, PMIPv6, MIH.

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120 Prediction of Reusability of Object Oriented Software Systems using Clustering Approach

Authors: Anju Shri, Parvinder S. Sandhu, Vikas Gupta, Sanyam Anand

Abstract:

In literature, there are metrics for identifying the quality of reusable components but the framework that makes use of these metrics to precisely predict reusability of software components is still need to be worked out. These reusability metrics if identified in the design phase or even in the coding phase can help us to reduce the rework by improving quality of reuse of the software component and hence improve the productivity due to probabilistic increase in the reuse level. As CK metric suit is most widely used metrics for extraction of structural features of an object oriented (OO) software; So, in this study, tuned CK metric suit i.e. WMC, DIT, NOC, CBO and LCOM, is used to obtain the structural analysis of OO-based software components. An algorithm has been proposed in which the inputs can be given to K-Means Clustering system in form of tuned values of the OO software component and decision tree is formed for the 10-fold cross validation of data to evaluate the in terms of linguistic reusability value of the component. The developed reusability model has produced high precision results as desired.

Keywords: CK-Metric, Desicion Tree, Kmeans, Reusability.

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119 Drowsiness Warning System Using Artificial Intelligence

Authors: Nidhi Sharma, V. K. Banga

Abstract:

Nowadays, driving support systems, such as car navigation systems, are getting common, and they support drivers in several aspects. It is important for driving support systems to detect status of driver's consciousness. Particularly, detecting driver's drowsiness could prevent drivers from collisions caused by drowsy driving. In this paper, we discuss the various artificial detection methods for detecting driver's drowsiness processing technique. This system is based on facial images analysis for warning the driver of drowsiness or in attention to prevent traffic accidents.

Keywords: Neuro-Fuzzy Model, Halstead Model, Walston-FelixModel, Bailey-Basili Model, Doty Model, GA Based Model, GeneticAlgorithm.

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118 Soft Computing based Retrieval System for Medical Applications

Authors: Pardeep Singh, Sanjay Sharma

Abstract:

With increasing data in medical databases, medical data retrieval is growing in popularity. Some of this analysis including inducing propositional rules from databases using many soft techniques, and then using these rules in an expert system. Diagnostic rules and information on features are extracted from clinical databases on diseases of congenital anomaly. This paper explain the latest soft computing techniques and some of the adaptive techniques encompasses an extensive group of methods that have been applied in the medical domain and that are used for the discovery of data dependencies, importance of features, patterns in sample data, and feature space dimensionality reduction. These approaches pave the way for new and interesting avenues of research in medical imaging and represent an important challenge for researchers.

Keywords: CBIR, GA, Rough sets, CBMIR, SVM.

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117 A Medical Images Based Retrieval System using Soft Computing Techniques

Authors: Pardeep Singh, Sanjay Sharma

Abstract:

Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) has been one on the most vivid research areas in the field of computer vision over the last 10 years. Many programs and tools have been developed to formulate and execute queries based on the visual or audio content and to help browsing large multimedia repositories. Still, no general breakthrough has been achieved with respect to large varied databases with documents of difering sorts and with varying characteristics. Answers to many questions with respect to speed, semantic descriptors or objective image interpretations are still unanswered. In the medical field, images, and especially digital images, are produced in ever increasing quantities and used for diagnostics and therapy. In several articles, content based access to medical images for supporting clinical decision making has been proposed that would ease the management of clinical data and scenarios for the integration of content-based access methods into Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) have been created. This paper gives an overview of soft computing techniques. New research directions are being defined that can prove to be useful. Still, there are very few systems that seem to be used in clinical practice. It needs to be stated as well that the goal is not, in general, to replace text based retrieval methods as they exist at the moment.

Keywords: CBIR, GA, Rough sets, CBMIR

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116 A Dynamic RGB Intensity Based Steganography Scheme

Authors: Mandep Kaur, Surbhi Gupta, Parvinder S. Sandhu, Jagdeep Kaur

Abstract:

Steganography meaning covered writing. Steganography includes the concealment of information within computer files [1]. In other words, it is the Secret communication by hiding the existence of message. In this paper, we will refer to cover image, to indicate the images that do not yet contain a secret message, while we will refer to stego images, to indicate an image with an embedded secret message. Moreover, we will refer to the secret message as stego-message or hidden message. In this paper, we proposed a technique called RGB intensity based steganography model as RGB model is the technique used in this field to hide the data. The methods used here are based on the manipulation of the least significant bits of pixel values [3][4] or the rearrangement of colors to create least significant bit or parity bit patterns, which correspond to the message being hidden. The proposed technique attempts to overcome the problem of the sequential fashion and the use of stego-key to select the pixels.

Keywords: Steganography, Stego Image, RGB Image, Cryptography, LSB.

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115 A Subtractive Clustering Based Approach for Early Prediction of Fault Proneness in Software Modules

Authors: Ramandeep S. Sidhu, Sunil Khullar, Parvinder S. Sandhu, R. P. S. Bedi, Kiranbir Kaur

Abstract:

In this paper, subtractive clustering based fuzzy inference system approach is used for early detection of faults in the function oriented software systems. This approach has been tested with real time defect datasets of NASA software projects named as PC1 and CM1. Both the code based model and joined model (combination of the requirement and code based metrics) of the datasets are used for training and testing of the proposed approach. The performance of the models is recorded in terms of Accuracy, MAE and RMSE values. The performance of the proposed approach is better in case of Joined Model. As evidenced from the results obtained it can be concluded that Clustering and fuzzy logic together provide a simple yet powerful means to model the earlier detection of faults in the function oriented software systems.

Keywords: Subtractive clustering, fuzzy inference system, fault proneness.

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114 Identification of Reusable Software Modules in Function Oriented Software Systems using Neural Network Based Technique

Authors: Sonia Manhas, Parvinder S. Sandhu, Vinay Chopra, Nirvair Neeru

Abstract:

The cost of developing the software from scratch can be saved by identifying and extracting the reusable components from already developed and existing software systems or legacy systems [6]. But the issue of how to identify reusable components from existing systems has remained relatively unexplored. We have used metric based approach for characterizing a software module. In this present work, the metrics McCabe-s Cyclometric Complexity Measure for Complexity measurement, Regularity Metric, Halstead Software Science Indicator for Volume indication, Reuse Frequency metric and Coupling Metric values of the software component are used as input attributes to the different types of Neural Network system and reusability of the software component is calculated. The results are recorded in terms of Accuracy, Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE).

Keywords: Software reusability, Neural Networks, MAE, RMSE, Accuracy.

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113 Application of Biogas Technology in Turkey

Authors: B. Demirel, T.T. Onay, O. Yenigün

Abstract:

The potential, opportunities and drawbacks of biogas technology use in Turkey are evaluated in this paper. Turkey is dependent on foreign sources of energy. Therefore, use of biogas technology would provide a safe way of waste disposal and recovery of renewable energy, particularly from a sustainable domestic source, which is less unlikely to be influenced by international price or political fluctuations. Use of biogas technology would especially meet the cooking, heating and electricity demand in rural areas and protect the environment, additionally creating new job opportunities and improving social-economical conditions.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, agricultural biogas plant, biogas, biomass, methane, waste

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112 Public User Assessment of Malaysia's E-Government Applications

Authors: M. N. Norshita, B. Z. Halimah, T. S. Tengku Mohammad

Abstract:

The implementation of electronic government started since the initiation of Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC) by the Malaysia government. The introduction of ICT in the public sector especially e-Government initiatives opens up a new book in the government administration throughout the world. The aim or this paper is to discuss the implementation of e-government in Malaysia, covering the result of public user self assessment on Malaysia's electronic government applications. E-services, e-procurement, Generic Office Environment (GOE), Human Resources Management Information System (HRMIS), Project Monitoring System (PMS), Electronic Labor Exchange (ELX) and e-syariah(religion) were the seven flagship application assessed. The study adopted a crosssectional survey research approach and information system literature were used. The analysis was done for 35 responden in pilot test and there was evidence from public user's perspective to suggest that the e-government applications were generally successful.

Keywords: Electronic government, flagship, multimedia super corridor, public user.

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111 A CBR System to New Product Development: An Application for Hearing Devices Design

Authors: J.L. Castro, K. Benghazi, M.V. Hurtado, M. Navarro, J.M. Zurita

Abstract:

Nowadays, quick technological changes force companies to develop innovative products in an increasingly competitive environment. Therefore, how to enhance the time of new product development is very important. This design problem often lacks the exact formula for getting it, and highly depends upon human designers- past experiences. For these reasons, in this work, a Casebased reasoning (CBR) system to assist in new product development is proposed. When a case is recovered from the case base, the system will take into account not only the attribute-s specific value and how important it is. It will also take into account if the attribute has a positive influence over the product development. Hence the manufacturing time will be improved. This information will be introduced as a new concept called “adaptability". An application to this method for hearing instrument new design illustrates the proposed approach.

Keywords: Case based reasoning, Fuzzy logic, New product development, Retrieval stage, Similarity.

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110 Sound Absorption of Arenga Pinnata Natural Fiber

Authors: Lindawati Ismail, Mohd. Imran Ghazali, Shahruddin Mahzan, Ahmad Mujahid Ahmad Zaidi

Abstract:

Arenga pinnata is an abundantly natural fiber that can be used for sound proof material. However, the scientific data of acoustics properties of Arenga pinnata was not available yet. In this study the sound absorption of pure arenga pinnata was measured. The thickness of Arenga pinnata was varied in 10 mm, 20 mm, 30mm, and 40mm. This work was carried out to investigate the potential of using Arenga pinnata fiber as raw material for sound absorbing material. Impedance Tube Method was used to measure sound absorption coefficient (α). The Measurements was done in accordance with ASTM E1050-98, that is the standard test method for impedance and absorption of acoustical materials using a tube, two microphones and a digital frequency analysis system . The results showed that sound absorption coefficients of Arenga pinnata were good from 2000 Hz to 5000 Hz within the range of 0.75 – 0.90. The optimum sound absorption coefficient was obtained from the thickness of 40 mm. These results indicated that Arenga pinnata fiber is promising to be used as raw material of sound absorbing material with low cost, light, and biodegradable.

Keywords: Sound absorption, Arenga pinnata, raw material.

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109 Characterization of Acetogenic and Methanogenic Leachates Generated from a Sanitary Landfill Site

Authors: Aik Heng Lee, Hamid Nikraz, Yung Tse Hung

Abstract:

Decomposition processes take place in landfill generate leachates that can be categorized mainly of acetogenic and methanogenic in nature. BOD:COD ratio computed in this study for a landfill site over a 3 years duration revealed as a good indicator to identify acetogenic leachate from methanogenic leachate. Correlation relationships to predict pollutant level taking into consideration of climatic condition are derived.

Keywords: Acetogenic Leachate, Methanogenic Leachate, BOD:COD Ratio.

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108 Evaluation of the Degree of the Sufficiency of Public Green Spaces as an Indicator of Urban Density in the Chubu Metropolitan Area in Japan

Authors: Kayoko Yamamoto

Abstract:

This study uses GIS (Geographic Information Systems) to conduct an evaluation of the degree of the sufficiency of public green spaces such as parks and urban green areas as an indicator of the density of metropolitan areas, in particular the Chubu metropolitan area, in Japan. To that end, it first grasps the distribution situation of green spaces in the three metropolitan areas in Japan, especially in the Chubu metropolitan area, using GIS digital maps. And based on this result, it conducts a GIS evaluation of the degree of sufficiency of public green spaces and arranges the result for every distance belt from the central part to compare and exam for every distance belt away from the center in the Chubu metropolitan area. Furthermore, after pointing out the insufficient areas of public green spaces based on the result, it also proposes the improvement policy which can be introduced in the Chubu metropolitan area.

Keywords: Public Green Spaces, Urban Density, MetropolitanAreas, Land Use, Urbanization, GIS (Geographic InformationSystems)

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107 Customer Value Creation by CRM System in Electronic Device Companies

Authors: Hideki.Kobayashi, Hiroshi.Osada

Abstract:

The service industry accounts for about 70% of GDP of Japan, and the importance of the service innovation is pointed out. The importance of the system use and the support service increases in the information system that is one of the service industries. However, because the system is not used enough, the purpose for which it was originally intended cannot often be achieved in the CRM system. To promote the use of the system, the effective service method is needed. It is thought that the service model's making and the clarification of the success factors are necessary to improve the operation service of the CRM system. In this research the model of the operation service in the CRM system is made.

Keywords: Information system, Operation service, Serviceinnovation, Solution

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106 A Proposal of Community based Facility Management Performance (CbFM) in the Education System of Batubara District in Indonesia

Authors: Amilia Hasbullah, Wan Zahari Wan Yussof, Maziah Ismail

Abstract:

The primary education system in Indonesia involved the community recognized as the school committee, to take a part in the process of achieving the quality of education via the school facility performance, the low level of school committee involvement in the education system has become the issue in the development of education and reflected to the quality of education. This paper will discuss the conceptual framework and methodology for the performance of school committees within the management of school facilities in Batubara district of Indonesia. The concepts of Community based Facility Management (CbFM) and Logometrix are used as a basis to measure the school committee performance in order to address the needs of quality school management. The data will be taken from questionnaires distributed for those who work and use school facilities spread over seven sub district of Batubara, Indonesia. The result of this study is expected to provide a guide for evaluating the performance of existing school committee in improving the quality of education in Indonesia.

Keywords: community based facility management, School facility management, School committee performance.

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105 Computational Intelligence Hybrid Learning Approach to Time Series Forecasting

Authors: Chunshien Li, Jhao-Wun Hu, Tai-Wei Chiang, Tsunghan Wu

Abstract:

Time series forecasting is an important and widely popular topic in the research of system modeling. This paper describes how to use the hybrid PSO-RLSE neuro-fuzzy learning approach to the problem of time series forecasting. The PSO algorithm is used to update the premise parameters of the proposed prediction system, and the RLSE is used to update the consequence parameters. Thanks to the hybrid learning (HL) approach for the neuro-fuzzy system, the prediction performance is excellent and the speed of learning convergence is much faster than other compared approaches. In the experiments, we use the well-known Mackey-Glass chaos time series. According to the experimental results, the prediction performance and accuracy in time series forecasting by the proposed approach is much better than other compared approaches, as shown in Table IV. Excellent prediction performance by the proposed approach has been observed.

Keywords: forecasting, hybrid learning (HL), Neuro-FuzzySystem (NFS), particle swarm optimization (PSO), recursiveleast-squares estimator (RLSE), time series

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104 Optimization of Enzymatic Activities in Malting of Oat

Authors: E. Hosseini, M. Kadivar, M. Shahedi

Abstract:

Malting is usually carried out on intact barley seed, while hull is still attached to it. In this study, oat grain with and without hull was subjected to controlled germination to optimize its enzymes activity, in such a way that lipase has the lowest and α- amylase and proteinase the highest activities. Since pH has a great impact on the activity of the enzymes, the pH of germination media was set up to 3 to 8. In dehulled oats, lipase and α-amylase had the lowest and highest activities in pHs 3 and 6, respectively whereas the highest proteinase activity was evidenced at pH 7 and 4 in the oats with and without hull respectively. While measurements indicated that the effect of hull on the enzyme activities particularly in lipase and amylase at each level of the pH are significantly different, the best results were obtained in those samples in which their hull had been removed. However, since the similar lipase activity in germinated dehulled oat were recorded at the pHs 4 and 5, therefore it was concluded that pH 5 in dehulled oat seed may provide the optimum enzyme activity for all the enzymes.

Keywords: Enzyme activity, malting, oat, optimization.

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103 Implementation of the SIP Express Router with Mediaproxy Method on VoIP

Authors: Heru Nurwarsito, R. Arief Setyawan, Rakhmadhany Primananda

Abstract:

Voice Over IP (VoIP) is a technology that could pass the voice traffic and data packet form over an IP network. Network can be used for intranet or Internet. Phone calls using VoIP has advantages in terms of cheaper cost of PSTN phone to more than half, because the cost is calculated by the cost of the global nature of the Internet. Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is a signaling protocol at the application layer which serves to establish, modify, and terminate a multimedia session involving one or more users. This SIP signaling has SIP message in text form that is used for session management by the SIP components, such as User Agent, Registrar, Redirect Server, and Proxy Server. To build a SIP communication is required SIP Express Router (SER) to be able to receive SIP messages, for handling the basic functions of SIP messages. Problems occur when the NAT through which affects the voice communication will be blocked starting from the sound that is not sent or one side of the sound are sent (half duplex). How that could be used to penetrate NAT is to use a given mediaproxy random RTP port to penetrate NAT.

Keywords: VoIP, SIP, SIP Express Router, NAT, Mediaproxy.

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102 Real-time Tracking in Image Sequences based-on Parameters Updating with Temporal and Spatial Neighborhoods Mixture Gaussian Model

Authors: Hu Haibo, Zhao Hong

Abstract:

Gaussian mixture background model is widely used in moving target detection of the image sequences. However, traditional Gaussian mixture background model usually considers the time continuity of the pixels, and establishes background through statistical distribution of pixels without taking into account the pixels- spatial similarity, which will cause noise, imperfection and other problems. This paper proposes a new Gaussian mixture modeling approach, which combines the color and gradient of the spatial information, and integrates the spatial information of the pixel sequences to establish Gaussian mixture background. The experimental results show that the movement background can be extracted accurately and efficiently, and the algorithm is more robust, and can work in real time in tracking applications.

Keywords: Gaussian mixture model, real-time tracking, sequence image, gradient.

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101 Numerical Analysis of Thermal Conductivity of Non-Charring Material Ablation Carbon-Carbon and Graphite with Considering Chemical Reaction Effects, Mass Transfer and Surface Heat Transfer

Authors: H. Mohammadiun, A. Kianifar, A. Kargar

Abstract:

Nowadays, there is little information, concerning the heat shield systems, and this information is not completely reliable to use in so many cases. for example, the precise calculation cannot be done for various materials. In addition, the real scale test has two disadvantages: high cost and low flexibility, and for each case we must perform a new test. Hence, using numerical modeling program that calculates the surface recession rate and interior temperature distribution is necessary. Also, numerical solution of governing equation for non-charring material ablation is presented in order to anticipate the recession rate and the heat response of non-charring heat shields. the governing equation is nonlinear and the Newton- Rafson method along with TDMA algorithm is used to solve this nonlinear equation system. Using Newton- Rafson method for solving the governing equation is one of the advantages of the solving method because this method is simple and it can be easily generalized to more difficult problems. The obtained results compared with reliable sources in order to examine the accuracy of compiling code.

Keywords: Ablation rate, surface recession, interior temperaturedistribution, non charring material ablation, Newton Rafson method.

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100 Long Term Effect of Rice Husk Ash on Strength of Mortar

Authors: A. Md. Harunur Rashid B. Md. Keramat Ali Molla C. Tarif Uddin Ahmed

Abstract:

This paper represents the results of long term strength of mortar incorporating Rice Husk Ash (RHA). For these work mortar samples were made according to ASTM standard C 109/C. OPC cement was partially replaced by RHA at 0, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 percent replacement level. After casting all samples were kept in controlled environment and curing was done up to 90 days. Test of mortar was performed on 3, 7, 28, 90, 365 and 700 days. It is noticed that OPC mortar shows better strength at early age than mortar having RHA but at 90 days and onward the picture is different. At 700 days it is observed that mortar containing 20% RHA shows better result than any other samples.

Keywords: OPC, RHA, replacement level, long term, strength.

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99 Durability of Mortar in Presence of Rice Husk Ash

Authors: Md. Harunur Rashid, Md. Keramat Ali Molla, Tarif Uddin Ahmed

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the durability of cement mortar in presence of Rice Husk Ash (RHA). The strength and durability of mortar with different replacement level (0%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30%) of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) by RHA is investigated here. RHA was manufactured from an uncontrolled burning process. Test samples were prepared with river sand of FM 2.73. Samples were kept in controlled environment up to test time. The results show that addition of RHA was shown better results for 20% replacement level than OPC at 90 days. In durability test all samples passed for 20 cycles except 25% and 30% replacement level.

Keywords: Rice Husk Ash; durability; mortar, graded sand.

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98 The Influence of RHA on the Mechanical Properties of Mortar Heated Up To High Temperature

Authors: Md. Harunur Rashid, S. M. Kamal Uddin, Sobura khatun

Abstract:

The performance of mortar subjected to high temperature and cooled in normal ambient temperature was examined in the laboratory to comply with the situation of burning & cooling of a structure. Four series of cubical (5 X 5 X 5 cm) mortar specimens were made from OPC, and partial replacement (10, 15, 20, 25 & 30%) of OPC by Rice Husk Ash (RHA) produced in the uncontrolled environment. These specimens were heated in electric furnace to 200, 300, 400, 500 and 7000C. The specimens were kept in normal room temperature for cooling. They were then tested for mechanical properties and the results shows that particular 20% RHA mixed mortar shows better fire performance.

Keywords: Fire performance, Rice Husk

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97 Comparison of the Parameter using ECG with Bisepctrum Parameter using EEG during General Anesthesia

Authors: Seong-wan Baik, Soo-young Ye, Byeong-cheol Choi, Gye-rok Jeon

Abstract:

The measurement of anesthetic depth is necessary in anesthesiology. NN10 is very simple method among the RR intervals analysis methods. NN10 parameter means the numbers of above the 10 ms intervals of the normal to normal RR intervals. Bispectrum analysis is defined as 2D FFT. EEG signal reflected the non-linear peristalsis phenomena according to the change brain function. After analyzing the bispectrum of the 2 dimension, the most significant power spectrum density peaks appeared abundantly at the specific area in awakening and anesthesia state. These points are utilized to create the new index since many peaks appeared at the specific area in the frequency coordinate. The measured range of an index was 0-100. An index is 20-50 at an anesthesia, while the index is 90-60 at the awake. In this paper, the relation between NN10 parameter using ECG and bisepctrum index using EEG is observed to estimate the depth of anesthesia during anesthesia and then we estimated the utility of the anesthetic.

Keywords: Anesthesia, Bispectrum index, ECG, EEG

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96 Optimization of Unweighted Minimum Vertex Cover

Authors: S. Balaji, V. Swaminathan, K. Kannan

Abstract:

The Minimum Vertex Cover (MVC) problem is a classic graph optimization NP - complete problem. In this paper a competent algorithm, called Vertex Support Algorithm (VSA), is designed to find the smallest vertex cover of a graph. The VSA is tested on a large number of random graphs and DIMACS benchmark graphs. Comparative study of this algorithm with the other existing methods has been carried out. Extensive simulation results show that the VSA can yield better solutions than other existing algorithms found in the literature for solving the minimum vertex cover problem.

Keywords: vertex cover, vertex support, approximation algorithms, NP - complete problem.

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95 Involving Action Potential Morphology on a New Cellular Automata Model of Cardiac Action Potential Propagation

Authors: F. Pourhasanzade, S. H. Sabzpoushan

Abstract:

Computer modeling has played a unique role in understanding electrocardiography. Modeling and simulating cardiac action potential propagation is suitable for studying normal and pathological cardiac activation. This paper presents a 2-D Cellular Automata model for simulating action potential propagation in cardiac tissue. We demonstrate a novel algorithm in order to use minimum neighbors. This algorithm uses the summation of the excitability attributes of excited neighboring cells. We try to eliminate flat edges in the result patterns by inserting probability to the model. We also preserve the real shape of action potential by using linear curve fitting of one well known electrophysiological model.

Keywords: Cellular Automata, Action Potential Propagation, cardiac tissue, Isotropic Pattern, accurate shape of cardiac actionpotential.

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94 Multi-View Neural Network Based Gait Recognition

Authors: Saeid Fazli, Hadis Askarifar, Maryam Sheikh Shoaie

Abstract:

Human identification at a distance has recently gained growing interest from computer vision researchers. Gait recognition aims essentially to address this problem by identifying people based on the way they walk [1]. Gait recognition has 3 steps. The first step is preprocessing, the second step is feature extraction and the third one is classification. This paper focuses on the classification step that is essential to increase the CCR (Correct Classification Rate). Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) is used in this work. Neural Networks imitate the human brain to perform intelligent tasks [3].They can represent complicated relationships between input and output and acquire knowledge about these relationships directly from the data [2]. In this paper we apply MLP NN for 11 views in our database and compare the CCR values for these views. Experiments are performed with the NLPR databases, and the effectiveness of the proposed method for gait recognition is demonstrated.

Keywords: Human motion analysis, biometrics, gait recognition, principal component analysis, MLP neural network.

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93 An Advanced Stereo Vision Based Obstacle Detection with a Robust Shadow Removal Technique

Authors: Saeid Fazli, Hajar Mohammadi D., Payman Moallem

Abstract:

This paper presents a robust method to detect obstacles in stereo images using shadow removal technique and color information. Stereo vision based obstacle detection is an algorithm that aims to detect and compute obstacle depth using stereo matching and disparity map. The proposed advanced method is divided into three phases, the first phase is detecting obstacles and removing shadows, the second one is matching and the last phase is depth computing. We propose a robust method for detecting obstacles in stereo images using a shadow removal technique based on color information in HIS space, at the first phase. In this paper we use Normalized Cross Correlation (NCC) function matching with a 5 × 5 window and prepare an empty matching table τ and start growing disparity components by drawing a seed s from S which is computed using canny edge detector, and adding it to τ. In this way we achieve higher performance than the previous works [2,17]. A fast stereo matching algorithm is proposed that visits only a small fraction of disparity space in order to find a semi-dense disparity map. It works by growing from a small set of correspondence seeds. The obstacle identified in phase one which appears in the disparity map of phase two enters to the third phase of depth computing. Finally, experimental results are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Keywords: obstacle detection, stereo vision, shadowremoval, color, stereo matching

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92 A New Method for Identifying Broken Rotor Bars in Squirrel Cage Induction Motor Based on Particle Swarm Optimization Method

Authors: V. Rashtchi, R. Aghmasheh

Abstract:

Detection of squirrel cage induction motor (SCIM) broken bars has long been an important but difficult job in the detection area of motor faults. Early detection of this abnormality in the motor would help to avoid costly breakdowns. A new detection method based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) is presented in this paper. Stator current in an induction motor will be measured and characteristic frequency components of faylted rotor will be detected by minimizing a fitness function using pso. Supply frequency and side band frequencies and their amplitudes can be estimated by the proposed method. The proposed method is applied to a faulty motor with one and two broken bars in different loading condition. Experimental results prove that the proposed method is effective and applicable.

Keywords: broken bar, PSO, fault detection, SCIM

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91 PSS and SVC Controller Design by Chaos and PSO Algorithms to Enhancing the Power System Stability

Authors: Saeed jalilzadeh, Mohammad Reza Safari Tirtashi, Mohsen Sadeghi

Abstract:

this paper focuses on designing of PSS and SVC controller based on chaos and PSO algorithms to improve the stability of power system. Single machine infinite bus (SMIB) system with SVC located at the terminal of generator has been considered to evaluate the proposed controllers where both SVC and PSS have the same controller. The coefficients of PSS and SVC controller have been optimized by chaos and PSO algorithms. Finally the system with proposed controllers has been simulated for the special disturbance in input power of generator, and then the dynamic responses of generator have been presented. The simulation results showed that the system composed with recommended controller has outstanding operation in fast damping of oscillations of power system.

Keywords: PSS, CHAOS, PSO, Stability

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90 Losses Analysis in TEP Considering Uncertainity in Demand by DPSO

Authors: S. Jalilzadeh, A. Kimiyaghalam, A. Ashouri

Abstract:

This paper presents a mathematical model and a methodology to analyze the losses in transmission expansion planning (TEP) under uncertainty in demand. The methodology is based on discrete particle swarm optimization (DPSO). DPSO is a useful and powerful stochastic evolutionary algorithm to solve the large-scale, discrete and nonlinear optimization problems like TEP. The effectiveness of the proposed idea is tested on an actual transmission network of the Azerbaijan regional electric company, Iran. The simulation results show that considering the losses even for transmission expansion planning of a network with low load growth is caused that operational costs decreases considerably and the network satisfies the requirement of delivering electric power more reliable to load centers.

Keywords: DPSO, TEP, Uncertainty

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89 Vibration of FGM Cylindrical Shells under Effect Clamped-simply Support Boundary Conditions using Hamilton's Principle

Authors: M.R.Isvandzibaei, E.Bidokh, M.R.Alinaghizadeh, A.Nasirian, A.Moarrefzadeh

Abstract:

In this paper a study on the vibration of thin cylindrical shells with ring supports and made of functionally graded materials (FGMs) composed of stainless steel and nickel is presented. Material properties vary along the thickness direction of the shell according to volume fraction power law. The cylindrical shells have ring supports which are arbitrarily placed along the shell and impose zero lateral deflections. The study is carried out based on third order shear deformation shell theory (T.S.D.T). The analysis is carried out using Hamilton-s principle. The governing equations of motion of FGM cylindrical shells are derived based on shear deformation theory. Results are presented on the frequency characteristics, influence of ring support position and the influence of boundary conditions. The present analysis is validated by comparing results with those available in the literature.

Keywords: Vibration, FGM, Cylindrical shell, Hamilton'sprinciple, Ring support.

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88 Amberlite XAD-4 Functionalized with 1-amino-2-naphthole for Determination and Preconcentration of Copper (II) in Aqueous Solution by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

Authors: Elham Moniri, Homayon Ahmad Panahi, Mahshid Nikpour Nezhati, Faranak Mahmoudi, Meghdad Karimi

Abstract:

A new chelating resin is prepared by coupling Amberlite XAD-4 with 1-amino-2-naphthole through an azo spacer. The resulting sorbent has been characterized by FT-IR, elemental analysis and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and studied for preconcentrating of Cu (II) using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) for metal monitoring. The optimum pH value for sorption of the copper ions was 6.5. The resin was subjected to evaluation through batch binding of mentioned metal ion. Quantitative desorption occurs instantaneously with 0.5 M HNO3. The sorption capacity was found 4.8 mmol.g-1 of resin for Cu (II) in the aqueous solution. The chelating resin can be reused for 10 cycles of sorption-desorption without any significant change in sorption capacity. A recovery of 99% was obtained the metal ions with 0.5 M HNO3 as eluting agent. The method was applied for metal ions determination from industrial waste water sample.

Keywords: Amberlite XAD-4; Copper (II); Flame atomicabsorption; Chelator; 1-amino-2- naphthole

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87 Recognition of Isolated Handwritten Latin Characters using One Continuous Route of Freeman Chain Code Representation and Feedforward Neural Network Classifier

Authors: Dewi Nasien, Siti S. Yuhaniz, Habibollah Haron

Abstract:

In a handwriting recognition problem, characters can be represented using chain codes. The main problem in representing characters using chain code is optimizing the length of the chain code. This paper proposes to use randomized algorithm to minimize the length of Freeman Chain Codes (FCC) generated from isolated handwritten characters. Feedforward neural network is used in the classification stage to recognize the image characters. Our test results show that by applying the proposed model, we reached a relatively high accuracy for the problem of isolated handwritten when tested on NIST database.

Keywords: Handwriting Recognition, Freeman Chain Code andFeedforward Backpropagation Neural Networks.

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86 A Laser Point Interaction System Integrating Mouse Functions

Authors: Ching-Sheng Wang, Lun-Ping Hung, Sheng-Yu Peng, Li-Chieh Cheng

Abstract:

The computer has become an essential tool in modern life, and the combined use of a computer with a projector is very common in teaching and presentations. However, as typical computer operating devices involve a mouse or keyboard, when making presentations, users often need to stay near the computer to execute functions such as changing pages, writing, and drawing, thus, making the operation time-consuming, and reducing interactions with the audience. This paper proposes a laser pointer interaction system able to simulate mouse functions in order that users need not remain near the computer, but can directly use laser pointer operations from at a distance. It can effectively reduce the users- time spent by the computer, allowing for greater interactions with the audience.

Keywords: laser pointer, presentation, interaction, mousefunction

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85 Building a Personalized Multidimensional Intelligent Learning System

Authors: Lun-Ping Hung, Nan-Chen Hsieh, Chia-Ling Ho, Chien-Liang Chen

Abstract:

Currently, most of distance learning courses can only deliver standard material to students. Students receive course content passively which leads to the neglect of the goal of education – “to suit the teaching to the ability of students". Providing appropriate course content according to students- ability is the main goal of this paper. Except offering a series of conventional learning services, abundant information available, and instant message delivery, a complete online learning environment should be able to distinguish between students- ability and provide learning courses that best suit their ability. However, if a distance learning site contains well-designed course content and design but fails to provide adaptive courses, students will gradually loss their interests and confidence in learning and result in ineffective learning or discontinued learning. In this paper, an intelligent tutoring system is proposed and it consists of several modules working cooperatively in order to build an adaptive learning environment for distance education. The operation of the system is based on the result of Self-Organizing Map (SOM) to divide students into different groups according to their learning ability and learning interests and then provide them with suitable course content. Accordingly, the problem of information overload and internet traffic problem can be solved because the amount of traffic accessing the same content is reduced.

Keywords: Distance Learning, Intelligent Tutoring System(ITS), Self-Organizing Map (SOM)

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84 A Cross-Layer Approach for Cooperative MIMO Multi-hop Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Jain-Shing Liu

Abstract:

In this work, we study the problem of determining the minimum scheduling length that can satisfy end-to-end (ETE) traffic demand in scheduling-based multihop WSNs with cooperative multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmission scheme. Specifically, we present a cross-layer formulation for the joint routing, scheduling and stream control problem by incorporating various power and rate adaptation schemes, and taking into account an antenna beam pattern model and the signal-to-interference-and-noise (SINR) constraint at the receiver. In the context, we also propose column generation (CG) solutions to get rid of the complexity requiring the enumeration of all possible sets of scheduling links.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks, Cross-Layer Design, CooperativeMIMO System, Column Generation.

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83 Evaluation of Edge Configuration in Medical Echo Images Using Genetic Algorithms

Authors: Ching-Fen Jiang

Abstract:

Edge detection is usually the first step in medical image processing. However, the difficulty increases when a conventional kernel-based edge detector is applied to ultrasonic images with a textural pattern and speckle noise. We designed an adaptive diffusion filter to remove speckle noise while preserving the initial edges detected by using a Sobel edge detector. We also propose a genetic algorithm for edge selection to form complete boundaries of the detected entities. We designed two fitness functions to evaluate whether a criterion with a complex edge configuration can render a better result than a simple criterion such as the strength of gradient. The edges obtained by using a complex fitness function are thicker and more fragmented than those obtained by using a simple fitness function, suggesting that a complex edge selecting scheme is not necessary for good edge detection in medical ultrasonic images; instead, a proper noise-smoothing filter is the key.

Keywords: edge detection, ultrasonic images, speckle noise

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82 Exploring the Behavior of Recreational Bicyclists: an Empirical Study in Danshuei and Bali, Northern Taiwan

Authors: Chih-Cheng Chen, Meng-Lung Lin, Yung-Tan Lee Tsun-I Hsiao, Yi-Cheng Chen

Abstract:

The Taiwan government has invested approximately 21 billion NT dollars in the construction of bicycle paths since bicycling has gained huge popularity as a healthy leisure and recreational activity. This study focuses on the behavior of recreational bicyclists in Danshuei and Bali, northern Taiwan. Data were collected from a field investigation carried out along the Danshuei bicycle path and Bali left-bank bicycle path. A total of 578 questionnaires were gathered for data analysis. Descriptive statistics and Chi-Square tests were used to assess bicyclists- behaviors. The frequency shows that, in these areas, Danshuei and Bali, most bicyclists rented bicycles, rode the bicycle path in the afternoon for about 2 hours. The used the bicycle path one time per week. For most, it was the first time to ride these bicycle paths. There were significant differences in distribution of bicycle ownership, time of day, duration of ride, ride frequency, and whether riding occurred on weekdays or weekends. Results indicated that most bicyclists in Danshuei and Bali were infrequent users.

Keywords: recreational bicyclist, bicyclist behaviors, NorthernTaiwan

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81 The Effect of TV and Online Shopping Value on Online Patronage Intention in a Multi-channel Retail Context

Authors: Hsin-Hui Lin

Abstract:

With the proliferation of multi-channel retailing, developing a better understanding of the factors that affect customers- purchase behaviors within a multi-channel retail context has become an important topic for practitioners and academics. While many studies have investigated the various customer behaviors associated with brick-and-mortar retailing, online retailing, and brick-and-click retailing, little research has explored how customer shopping value perceptions influence online purchase behaviors within the TV-and-online retail environment. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of TV and online shopping values on online patronage intention. Data collected from 116 respondents in Taiwan are tested against the research model using the partial least squares (PLS) approach. The results indicate that utilitarian and hedonic TV shopping values have indirect, positive influences on online patronage intention through their online counterparts in the TV-and-online retail context. The findings of this study provide several important theoretical and practical implications for multi-channel retailing.

Keywords: Multi-channel retailing, utilitarian shopping value, hedonic shopping value, online purchase

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80 Quick Spatial Assessment of Drought Information Derived from MODIS Imagery Using Amplitude Analysis

Authors: Meng-Lung Lin, Qiubing Wang, Fujun Sun, Tzu-How Chu, Yi-Shiang Shiu

Abstract:

The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and normalized difference moisture index (NDMI) derived from the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) have been widely used to identify spatial information of drought condition. The relationship between NDVI and NDMI has been analyzed using Pearson correlation analysis and showed strong positive relationship. The drought indices have detected drought conditions and identified spatial extents of drought. A comparison between normal year and drought year demonstrates that the amplitude analysis considered both vegetation and moisture condition is an effective method to identify drought condition. We proposed the amplitude analysis is useful for quick spatial assessment of drought information at a regional scale.

Keywords: NDVI, NDMI, Drought, remote sensing, spatialassessment.

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79 Mapping Paddy Rice Agriculture using Multi-temporal FORMOSAT-2 Images

Authors: Yi-Shiang Shiu, Meng-Lung Lin, Kang-Tsung Chang, Tzu-How Chu

Abstract:

Most paddy rice fields in East Asia are small parcels, and the weather conditions during the growing season are usually cloudy. FORMOSAT-2 multi-spectral images have an 8-meter resolution and one-day recurrence, ideal for mapping paddy rice fields in East Asia. To map rice fields, this study first determined the transplanting and the most active tillering stages of paddy rice and then used multi-temporal images to distinguish different growing characteristics between paddy rice and other ground covers. The unsupervised ISODATA (iterative self-organizing data analysis techniques) and supervised maximum likelihood were both used to discriminate paddy rice fields, with training areas automatically derived from ten-year cultivation parcels in Taiwan. Besides original bands in multi-spectral images, we also generated normalized difference vegetation index and experimented with object-based pre-classification and post-classification. This paper discusses results of different image classification methods in an attempt to find a precise and automatic solution to mapping paddy rice in Taiwan.

Keywords: paddy rice fields; multi-temporal; FORMOSAT-2images, normalized difference vegetation index, object-basedclassification.

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78 Effectiveness of Moringa oleifera Coagulant Protein as Natural Coagulant aid in Removal of Turbidity and Bacteria from Turbid Waters

Authors: B. Bina, M.H. Mehdinejad, Gunnel Dalhammer, Guna RajaraoM. Nikaeen, H. Movahedian Attar

Abstract:

Coagulation of water involves the use of coagulating agents to bring the suspended matter in the raw water together for settling and the filtration stage. Present study is aimed to examine the effects of aluminum sulfate as coagulant in conjunction with Moringa Oleifera Coagulant Protein as coagulant aid on turbidity, hardness, and bacteria in turbid water. A conventional jar test apparatus was employed for the tests. The best removal was observed at a pH of 7 to 7.5 for all turbidities. Turbidity removal efficiency was resulted between % 80 to % 99 by Moringa Oleifera Coagulant Protein as coagulant aid. Dosage of coagulant and coagulant aid decreased with increasing turbidity. In addition, Moringa Oleifera Coagulant Protein significantly has reduced the required dosage of primary coagulant. Residual Al+3 in treated water were less than 0.2 mg/l and meets the environmental protection agency guidelines. The results showed that turbidity reduction of % 85.9- % 98 paralleled by a primary Escherichia coli reduction of 1-3 log units (99.2 – 99.97%) was obtained within the first 1 to 2 h of treatment. In conclusions, Moringa Oleifera Coagulant Protein as coagulant aid can be used for drinking water treatment without the risk of organic or nutrient release. We demonstrated that optimal design method is an efficient approach for optimization of coagulation-flocculation process and appropriate for raw water treatment.

Keywords: MOCP, Coagulant aid, turbidity removal, E.coliremoval, water, treatment

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77 Identifying Dry Years by Using the Dependable Rainfall Index and Its Effects on the Olive Crop in Roudbar, Gilan, South Western of Caspian Sea

Authors: Bahman Ramezani Gourabi

Abstract:

Drought is one of the most important natural disasters which is probable to occur in all regions with completely different climates and in addition to causing death. It results in many economic losses and social consequences. For this reason. Studying the effects and losses caused by drought which include limitation or shortage of agricultural and drinking water resources. Decreased rainfall and increased evapotranspiration. Limited plant growth and decreased agricultural products. Especially those of dry-farming. Lower levels of surface and ground waters and increased immigrations. Etc. in the country is statistical period (1988-2007) for six stations in Roudbar town were used for statistical analysis and calculating humid and dry years. The dependable rainfall index (DRI) was the main method used in this research. Results showed that during the said statistical period and also during the years 1996-1998 and 2007. more than half of the stations had faced drought. With consideration of the conducted studies. Drawing diagrams and comparing the available data with those of dry and humid years it was found that drought affected agricultural products (e.g.olive) in a way that during the year 1996 1996 drought. Olive groves of Roudbar suffered the greatest damages. Whereupon about 70% of the crops were lost.

Keywords: Dependable rainfall, drought, annual rainfall, roudbar, olive, gilan.

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76 Geochemistry of Cenozoic Basaltic Rocksaround Liuhe National Geopark, Jiangsu Province, Eastern China: Petrogenesis and Mantle Source

Authors: Yung-Tan Lee, Ren-Yi Huang, Ju-Chin Chen, Jyh-Yi Shih, Meng-Lung Lin, Hsiao-Ling Yu, Yen-Tsui Hu, Chih-Cheng Chen

Abstract:

Cenozoic basalts found in Jiangsu province of eastern China include tholeiites and alkali basalts. The present paper analyzed the major, trace elements, rare earth elements of these Cenozoic basalts and combined with Sr-Nd isotopic compositions proposed by Chen et al. (1990)[1] in the literatures to discuss the petrogenesis of these basalts and the geochemical characteristics of the source mantle. Based on major, trace elements and fractional crystallization model established by Brooks and Nielsen (1982)[2] we suggest that the basaltic magma has experienced olivine + clinopyroxene fractionation during its evolution. The chemical compositions of basaltic rocks from Jiangsu province indicate that these basalts may belong to the same magmatic system. Spidergrams reveal that Cenozoic basalts from Jiangsu province have geochemical characteristics similar to those of ocean island basalts(OIB). The slight positive Nb and Ti anomalies found in basaltic rocks of this study suggest the presence of Ti-bearing minerals in the mantle source and these Ti-bearing minerals had contributed to basaltic magma during partial melting, indicating a metasomatic event might have occurred before the partial melting. Based on the Sr vs. Nd isotopic ratio plots, we suggest that Jiangsu basalts may be derived from partial melting of mantle source which may represent two-end members mixing of DMM and EM-I. Some Jiangsu basaltic magma may be derived from partial melting of EM-I heated by the upwelling asthenospheric mantle or asthenospheric diapirism.

Keywords: Geochemistry, Jiangsu Province, Cenozoic basalts, Fractional crystallization.

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75 Evolved Strokes in Non Photo–Realistic Rendering

Authors: Ashkan Izadi, Vic Ciesielski

Abstract:

We describe a work with an evolutionary computing algorithm for non photo–realistic rendering of a target image. The renderings are produced by genetic programming. We have used two different types of strokes: “empty triangle" and “filled triangle" in color level. We compare both empty and filled triangular strokes to find which one generates more aesthetic pleasing images. We found the filled triangular strokes have better fitness and generate more aesthetic images than empty triangular strokes.

Keywords: Artificial intelligence, Evolutionary programming, Geneticprogramming, Non photo–realistic rendering.

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74 A Similarity Function for Global Quality Assessment of Retinal Vessel Segmentations

Authors: Arturo Aquino, Manuel Emilio Gegundez, Jose Manuel Bravo, Diego Marin

Abstract:

Retinal vascularity assessment plays an important role in diagnosis of ophthalmic pathologies. The employment of digital images for this purpose makes possible a computerized approach and has motivated development of many methods for automated vascular tree segmentation. Metrics based on contingency tables for binary classification have been widely used for evaluating performance of these algorithms and, concretely, the accuracy has been mostly used as measure of global performance in this topic. However, this metric shows very poor matching with human perception as well as other notable deficiencies. Here, a new similarity function for measuring quality of retinal vessel segmentations is proposed. This similarity function is based on characterizing the vascular tree as a connected structure with a measurable area and length. Tests made indicate that this new approach shows better behaviour than the current one does. Generalizing, this concept of measuring descriptive properties may be used for designing functions for measuring more successfully segmentation quality of other complex structures.

Keywords: Retinal vessel segmentation, quality assessment, performanceevaluation, similarity function.

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73 Computer-aided Sequence Planning of Shearing Operations in Progressive Dies

Authors: Alan C. Lin, Dean K. Sheu

Abstract:

This paper aims to study the methodology of building the knowledge of planning adequate punches in order to complete the task of strip layout for shearing processes, using progressive dies. The proposed methodology uses die design rules and characteristics of different types of punches to classify them into five groups: prior use (the punches must be used first), posterior use (must be used last), compatible use (may be used together), sequential use (certain punches must precede some others) and simultaneous use (must be used together). With these five groups of punches, the searching space of feasible designs will be greatly reduced, and superimposition becomes a more effective method of punch layout. The superimposition scheme will generate many feasible solutions, an evaluation function based on number of stages, moment balancing and strip stability is developed for helping designers to find better solutions.

Keywords: Manufacturing systems, advances in metal forming, computer-aided design, progressive die.

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72 Two-dimensional Heat Conduction of Direct Cooling in the Rotor of an Electrical Generator(Numerical Analysis)

Authors: A. Kargar, A. Kianifar, H. Mohammadiun

Abstract:

Two-dimensional heat conduction within a composed solid material with a constant internal heat generation has been investigated numerically in a sector of the rotor a generator. The heat transfer between two adjacent materials is assumed to be purely conduction. Boundary conditions are assumed to be forced convection on the fluid side and adiabatic on symmetry lines. The control volume method is applied for the diffusion energy equation. Physical coordinates are transformed to the general curvilinear coordinates. Then by using a line-by-line method, the temperature distribution in a sector of the rotor has been determined. Finally, the results are normalized and the effect of cooling fluid on the maximum temperature of insulation is investigated.

Keywords: general curvilinear coordinates , jacobian, controlvolume.

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71 Multiple Power Flow Solutions Using Particle Swarm Optimization with Embedded Local Search Technique

Authors: P. Acharjee, S. K. Goswami

Abstract:

Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) with elite PSO parameters has been developed for power flow analysis under practical constrained situations. Multiple solutions of the power flow problem are useful in voltage stability assessment of power system. A method of determination of multiple power flow solutions is presented using a hybrid of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and local search technique. The unique and innovative learning factors of the PSO algorithm are formulated depending upon the node power mismatch values to be highly adaptive with the power flow problems. The local search is applied on the pbest solution obtained by the PSO algorithm in each iteration. The proposed algorithm performs reliably and provides multiple solutions when applied on standard and illconditioned systems. The test results show that the performances of the proposed algorithm under critical conditions are better than the conventional methods.

Keywords: critical conditions, ill-conditioned systems, localsearch technique, multiple power flow solutions, particle swarmoptimization.

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70 A New Preconditioned AOR Method for Z-matrices

Authors: Guangbin Wang, Ning Zhang, Fuping Tan

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a preconditioned AOR-type iterative method for solving the linear systems Ax = b, where A is a Z-matrix. And give some comparison theorems to show that the rate of convergence of the preconditioned AOR-type iterative method is faster than the rate of convergence of the AOR-type iterative method.

Keywords: Z-matrix, AOR-type iterative method, precondition, comparison.

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69 Haar wavelet Method for Solving Initial and Boundary Value Problems of Bratu-type

Authors: S.G.Venkatesh, S.K.Ayyaswamy, G.Hariharan

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a framework to determine Haar solutions of Bratu-type equations that are widely applicable in fuel ignition of the combustion theory and heat transfer. The method is proposed by applying Haar series for the highest derivatives and integrate the series. Several examples are given to confirm the efficiency and the accuracy of the proposed algorithm. The results show that the proposed way is quite reasonable when compared to exact solution.

Keywords: Haar wavelet method, Bratu's problem, boundary value problems, initial value problems, adomain decomposition method.

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68 Haar Wavelet Method for Solving Fitz Hugh-Nagumo Equation

Authors: G.Hariharan, K.Kannan

Abstract:

In this paper, we develop an accurate and efficient Haar wavelet method for well-known FitzHugh-Nagumo equation. The proposed scheme can be used to a wide class of nonlinear reaction-diffusion equations. The power of this manageable method is confirmed. Moreover the use of Haar wavelets is found to be accurate, simple, fast, flexible, convenient, small computation costs and computationally attractive.

Keywords: FitzHugh-Nagumo equation, Haar wavelet method, adomain decomposition method, computationally attractive.

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67 Generalized Inverse Eigenvalue Problems for Symmetric Arrow-head Matrices

Authors: Yongxin Yuan

Abstract:

In this paper, we first give the representation of the general solution of the following inverse eigenvalue problem (IEP): Given X ∈ Rn×p and a diagonal matrix Λ ∈ Rp×p, find nontrivial real-valued symmetric arrow-head matrices A and B such that AXΛ = BX. We then consider an optimal approximation problem: Given real-valued symmetric arrow-head matrices A, ˜ B˜ ∈ Rn×n, find (A, ˆ Bˆ) ∈ SE such that Aˆ − A˜2 + Bˆ − B˜2 = min(A,B)∈SE (A−A˜2 +B −B˜2), where SE is the solution set of IEP. We show that the optimal approximation solution (A, ˆ Bˆ) is unique and derive an explicit formula for it.

Keywords: Partially prescribed spectral information, symmetric arrow-head matrix, inverse problem, optimal approximation.

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66 On Finite Hjelmslev Planes of Parameters (pk−1, p)

Authors: Atilla Akpinar

Abstract:

In this paper, we study on finite projective Hjelmslev planes M(Zq) coordinatized by Hjelmslev ring Zq (where prime power q = pk). We obtain finite hyperbolic Klingenberg planes from these planes under certain conditions. Also, we give a combinatorical result on M(Zq), related by deleting a line from lines in same neighbour.

Keywords: Finite Klingenberg plane, finite hyperbolic Klingenberg plane.

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65 Some New Upper Bounds for the Spectral Radius of Iterative Matrices

Authors: Guangbin Wang, Xue Li, Fuping Tan

Abstract:

In this paper, we present some new upper bounds for the spectral radius of iterative matrices based on the concept of doubly α diagonally dominant matrix. And subsequently, we give two examples to show that our results are better than the earlier ones.

Keywords: doubly α diagonally dominant matrix, eigenvalue, iterative matrix, spectral radius, upper bound.

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64 Portable Virtual Piano Design

Authors: Yu-Xiang Zhao, Chien-Hsing Chou, Mu-Chun Su, Yi-Zeng Hsieh

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to design a portable virtual piano. By utilizing optical fiber gloves and the virtual piano software designed by this study, the user can play the piano anywhere at any time. This virtual piano consists of three major parts: finger tapping identification, hand movement and positioning identification, and MIDI software sound effect simulation. To play the virtual piano, the user wears optical fiber gloves and simulates piano key tapping motions. The finger bending information detected by the optical fiber gloves can tell when piano key tapping motions are made. Images captured by a video camera are analyzed, hand locations and moving directions are positioned, and the corresponding scales are found. The system integrates finger tapping identification with information about hand placement in relation to corresponding piano key positions, and generates MIDI piano sound effects based on this data. This experiment shows that the proposed method achieves an accuracy rate of 95% for determining when a piano key is tapped.

Keywords: virtual piano, portable, identification, optical fibergloves.

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63 Bifurcation Analysis for a Physiological Control System with Delay

Authors: Kejun Zhuang

Abstract:

In this paper, a delayed physiological control system is investigated. The sufficient conditions for stability of positive equilibrium and existence of local Hopf bifurcation are derived. Furthermore, global existence of periodic solutions is established by using the global Hopf bifurcation theory. Finally, numerical examples are given to support the theoretical analysis.

Keywords: Physiological control system, global Hopf bifurcation, periodic solutions.

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62 k-Fuzzy Ideals of Ternary Semirings

Authors: Sathinee Malee, Ronnason Chinram

Abstract:

The notion of k-fuzzy ideals of semirings was introduced by Kim and Park in 1996. In 2003, Dutta and Kar introduced a notion of ternary semirings. This structure is a generalization of ternary rings and semirings. The main purpose of this paper is to introduce and study k-fuzzy ideals in ternary semirings analogous to k-fuzzy ideals in semirings considered by Kim and Park.

Keywords: k-ideals, k-fuzzy ideals, fuzzy k-ideals, ternarysemirings

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61 A Contractor Iteration Method Using Eigenpairs for Positive Solutions of Nonlinear Elliptic Equation

Authors: Hailong Zhu, Zhaoxiang Li, Kejun Zhuang

Abstract:

By means of Contractor Iteration Method, we solve and visualize the Lane-Emden(-Fowler) equation Δu + up = 0, in Ω, u = 0, on ∂Ω. It is shown that the present method converges quadratically as Newton’s method and the computation of Contractor Iteration Method is cheaper than the Newton’s method.

Keywords: Positive solutions, newton's method, contractor iteration method, Eigenpairs.

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60 Existence of Periodic Solutions in a Food Chain Model with Holling–type II Functional Response

Authors: Zhaohui Wen

Abstract:

In this paper, a food chain model with Holling type II functional response on time scales is investigated. By using the Mawhin-s continuation theorem in coincidence degree theory, sufficient conditions for existence of periodic solutions are obtained.

Keywords: Periodic solutions, food chain model, coincidence degree, time scales.

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59 Improved Robust Stability and Stabilization Conditions of Discrete-time Delayed System

Authors: Zixin Liu

Abstract:

The problem of robust stability and robust stabilization for a class of discrete-time uncertain systems with time delay is investigated. Based on Tchebychev inequality, by constructing a new augmented Lyapunov function, some improved sufficient conditions ensuring exponential stability and stabilization are established. These conditions are expressed in the forms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), whose feasibility can be easily checked by using Matlab LMI Toolbox. Compared with some previous results derived in the literature, the new obtained criteria have less conservatism. Two numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the improvement and effectiveness of the proposed method.

Keywords: Robust stabilization, robust stability, discrete-time system, time delay.

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58 The Game of Synchronized Quadromineering

Authors: Alessandro Cincotti

Abstract:

In synchronized games players make their moves simultaneously rather than alternately. Synchronized Quadromineering is the synchronized version of Quadromineering, a variants of a classical two-player combinatorial game called Domineering. Experimental results for small m × n boards (with m + n < 15) and some theoretical results for general k × n boards (with k = 4, 5, 6) are presented. Moreover, some Synchronized Quadromineering variants are also investigated.

Keywords: Combinatorial games, Synchronized games, Quadromineering.

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57 More Realistic Model for Simulating Min Protein Dynamics: Lattice Boltzmann Method Incorporating the Role of Nucleoids

Authors: J.Yojina, W. Ngamsaad, N. Nuttavut, D.Triampo, Y. Lenbury, W. Triampo, P. Kanthang, S.Sriyab

Abstract:

The dynamics of Min proteins plays a center role in accurate cell division. Although the nucleoids may presumably play an important role in prokaryotic cell division, there is a lack of models to account for its participation. In this work, we apply the lattice Boltzmann method to investigate protein oscillation based on a mesoscopic model that takes into account the nucleoid-s role. We found that our numerical results are in reasonably good agreement with the previous experimental results On comparing with the other computational models without the presence of nucleoids, the highlight of our finding is that the local densities of MinD and MinE on the cytoplasmic membrane increases, especially along the cell width, when the size of the obstacle increases, leading to a more distinct cap-like structure at the poles. This feature indicated the realistic pattern and reflected the combination of Min protein dynamics and nucleoid-s role.

Keywords: lattice Boltzmann method, cell division, Minproteins oscillation, nucleoid

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56 A Numerical Algorithm for Positive Solutions of Concave and Convex Elliptic Equation on R2

Authors: Hailong Zhu, Zhaoxiang Li

Abstract:

In this paper we investigate numerically positive solutions of the equation -Δu = λuq+up with Dirichlet boundary condition in a boundary domain ╬® for λ > 0 and 0 < q < 1 < p < 2*, we will compute and visualize the range of λ, this problem achieves a numerical solution.

Keywords: positive solutions, concave-convex, sub-super solution method, pseudo arclength method.

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55 Analysis of Explosive Shock Wave and its Application in Snow Avalanche Release

Authors: Mahmoud Zarrini, R. N. Pralhad

Abstract:

Avalanche velocity (from start to track zone) has been estimated in the present model for an avalanche which is triggered artificially by an explosive devise. The initial development of the model has been from the concept of micro-continuum theories [1], underwater explosions [2] and from fracture mechanics [3] with appropriate changes to the present model. The model has been computed for different slab depth R, slope angle θ, snow density ¤ü, viscosity μ, eddy viscosity η*and couple stress parameter η. The applicability of the present model in the avalanche forecasting has been highlighted.

Keywords: Snow avalanche velocity, avalanche zones, shockwave, couple stress fluids.

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54 The Inverse Problem of Nonsymmetric Matrices with a Submatrix Constraint and its Approximation

Authors: Yongxin Yuan, Hao Liu

Abstract:

In this paper, we first give the representation of the general solution of the following least-squares problem (LSP): Given matrices X ∈ Rn×p, B ∈ Rp×p and A0 ∈ Rr×r, find a matrix A ∈ Rn×n such that XT AX − B = min, s. t. A([1, r]) = A0, where A([1, r]) is the r×r leading principal submatrix of the matrix A. We then consider a best approximation problem: given an n × n matrix A˜ with A˜([1, r]) = A0, find Aˆ ∈ SE such that A˜ − Aˆ = minA∈SE A˜ − A, where SE is the solution set of LSP. We show that the best approximation solution Aˆ is unique and derive an explicit formula for it. Keyw

Keywords: Inverse problem, Least-squares solution, model updating, Singular value decomposition (SVD), Optimal approximation.

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53 New Delay-dependent Stability Conditions for Neutral Systems with Nonlinear Perturbations

Authors: Lianglin Xiong, Xiuyong Ding, Shouming Zhong

Abstract:

In this paper, the problem of asymptotical stability of neutral systems with nonlinear perturbations is investigated. Based on a class of novel augment Lyapunov functionals which contain freeweighting matrices, some new delay-dependent asymptotical stability criteria are formulated in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) by using new inequality analysis technique. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the derived condition are much less conservative than those given in the literature.

Keywords: Asymptotical stability, neutral system, nonlinear perturbation, delay-dependent, linear matrix inequality (LMI).

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52 Stability Analysis of Impulsive BAM Fuzzy Cellular Neural Networks with Distributed Delays and Reaction-diffusion Terms

Authors: Xinhua Zhang, Kelin Li

Abstract:

In this paper, a class of impulsive BAM fuzzy cellular neural networks with distributed delays and reaction-diffusion terms is formulated and investigated. By employing the delay differential inequality and inequality technique developed by Xu et al., some sufficient conditions ensuring the existence, uniqueness and global exponential stability of equilibrium point for impulsive BAM fuzzy cellular neural networks with distributed delays and reaction-diffusion terms are obtained. In particular, the estimate of the exponential convergence rate is also provided, which depends on system parameters, diffusion effect and impulsive disturbed intention. It is believed that these results are significant and useful for the design and applications of BAM fuzzy cellular neural networks. An example is given to show the effectiveness of the results obtained here.

Keywords: Bi-directional associative memory, fuzzy cellular neuralnetworks, reaction-diffusion, delays, impulses, global exponentialstability.

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51 A Schur Method for Solving Projected Continuous-Time Sylvester Equations

Authors: Yiqin Lin, Liang Bao, Qinghua Wu, Liping Zhou

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a direct method based on the real Schur factorization for solving the projected Sylvester equation with relatively small size. The algebraic formula of the solution of the projected continuous-time Sylvester equation is presented. The computational cost of the direct method is estimated. Numerical experiments show that this direct method has high accuracy.

Keywords: Projected Sylvester equation, Schur factorization, Spectral projection, Direct method.

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50 Large Deviations for Lacunary Systems

Authors: Bainian Li, Kongsheng Zhang

Abstract:

Let Xi be a Lacunary System, we established large deviations inequality for Lacunary System. Furthermore, we gained Marcinkiewicz Larger Number Law with dependent random variables sequences.

Keywords: Lacunary system, larger deviations, Locally GeneralizedGaussian, Strong law of large numbers.

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49 Positive Definite Quadratic Forms, Elliptic Curves and Cubic Congruences

Authors: Ahmet Tekcan

Abstract:

Let F(x, y) = ax2 + bxy + cy2 be a positive definite binary quadratic form with discriminant Δ whose base points lie on the line x = -1/m for an integer m ≥ 2, let p be a prime number and let Fp be a finite field. Let EF : y2 = ax3 + bx2 + cx be an elliptic curve over Fp and let CF : ax3 + bx2 + cx ≡ 0(mod p) be the cubic congruence corresponding to F. In this work we consider some properties of positive definite quadratic forms, elliptic curves and cubic congruences.

Keywords: Binary quadratic form, elliptic curves, cubic congruence.

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48 Existence of Solution for Four-Point Boundary Value Problems of Second-Order Impulsive Differential Equations (II)

Authors: Li Ge

Abstract:

In this paper, we study the existence of solution of the four-point boundary value problem for second-order differential equations with impulses by using leray-Schauder theory:

Keywords: impulsive differential equations, impulsive integraldifferentialequation, boundary value problems

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47 Existence of Solution for Four-Point Boundary Value Problems of Second-Order Impulsive Differential Equations (I)

Authors: Li Ge

Abstract:

In this paper, we study the existence of solution of the four-point boundary value problem for second-order differential equations with impulses by using leray-Schauder theory:

Keywords: impulsive differential equations, impulsive integraldifferentialequation, boundary value problems

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46 Parallel Multisplitting Methods for Singular Linear Systems

Authors: Guangbin Wang, Fuping Tan

Abstract:

In this paper, we discuss convergence of the extrapolated iterative methods for linear systems with the coefficient matrices are singular H-matrices. And we present the sufficient and necessary conditions for convergence of the extrapolated iterative methods. Moreover, we apply the results to the GMAOR methods. Finally, we give one numerical example.

Keywords: Singular H-matrix, linear systems, extrapolated iterative method, GMAOR method, convergence.

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45 Two New Collineations of some Moufang-Klingenberg Planes

Authors: Atilla Akpinar, Basri Çelik

Abstract:

In this paper we are interested in Moufang-Klingenberg planesM(A) defined over a local alternative ring A of dual numbers. We introduce two new collineations of M(A).

Keywords: Moufang-Klingenberg planes, local alternative ring, projective collineation.

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44 Periodic Solutions for a Third-order p-Laplacian Functional Differential Equation

Authors: Yanling Zhu, Kai Wang

Abstract:

By means of Mawhin’s continuation theorem, we study a kind of third-order p-Laplacian functional differential equation with distributed delay in the form: ϕp(x (t)) = g  t,  0 −τ x(t + s) dα(s)  + e(t), some criteria to guarantee the existence of periodic solutions are obtained.

Keywords: p–Laplacian, distributed delay, periodic solution, Mawhin's continuation theorem.

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43 An Iterative Updating Method for Damped Gyroscopic Systems

Authors: Yongxin Yuan

Abstract:

The problem of updating damped gyroscopic systems using measured modal data can be mathematically formulated as following two problems. Problem I: Given Ma ∈ Rn×n, Λ = diag{λ1, ··· , λp} ∈ Cp×p, X = [x1, ··· , xp] ∈ Cn×p, where p<n and both Λ and X are closed under complex conjugation in the sense that λ2j = λ¯2j−1 ∈ C, x2j = ¯x2j−1 ∈ Cn for j = 1, ··· , l, and λk ∈ R, xk ∈ Rn for k = 2l + 1, ··· , p, find real-valued symmetric matrices D,K and a real-valued skew-symmetric matrix G (that is, GT = −G) such that MaXΛ2 + (D + G)XΛ + KX = 0. Problem II: Given real-valued symmetric matrices Da, Ka ∈ Rn×n and a real-valued skew-symmetric matrix Ga, find (D, ˆ G, ˆ Kˆ ) ∈ SE such that Dˆ −Da2+Gˆ−Ga2+Kˆ −Ka2 = min(D,G,K)∈SE (D− Da2 + G − Ga2 + K − Ka2), where SE is the solution set of Problem I and · is the Frobenius norm. This paper presents an iterative algorithm to solve Problem I and Problem II. By using the proposed iterative method, a solution of Problem I can be obtained within finite iteration steps in the absence of roundoff errors, and the minimum Frobenius norm solution of Problem I can be obtained by choosing a special kind of initial matrices. Moreover, the optimal approximation solution (D, ˆ G, ˆ Kˆ ) of Problem II can be obtained by finding the minimum Frobenius norm solution of a changed Problem I. A numerical example shows that the introduced iterative algorithm is quite efficient.

Keywords: Model updating, iterative algorithm, gyroscopic system, partially prescribed spectral data, optimal approximation.

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42 The Pell Equation x2 − Py2 = Q

Authors: Ahmet Tekcan, Arzu Özkoç, Canan Kocapınar, Hatice Alkan

Abstract:

Let p be a prime number such that p ≡ 1(mod 4), say p = 1+4k for a positive integer k. Let P = 2k + 1 and Q = k2. In this paper, we consider the integer solutions of the Pell equation x2-Py2 = Q over Z and also over finite fields Fp. Also we deduce some relations on the integer solutions (xn, yn) of it.

Keywords: Pell equation, solutions of Pell equation.

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41 PTH Moment Exponential Stability of Stochastic Recurrent Neural Networks with Distributed Delays

Authors: Zixin Liu, Jianjun Jiao Wanping Bai

Abstract:

In this paper, the issue of pth moment exponential stability of stochastic recurrent neural network with distributed time delays is investigated. By using the method of variation parameters, inequality techniques, and stochastic analysis, some sufficient conditions ensuring pth moment exponential stability are obtained. The method used in this paper does not resort to any Lyapunov function, and the results derived in this paper generalize some earlier criteria reported in the literature. One numerical example is given to illustrate the main results.

Keywords: Stochastic recurrent neural networks, pth moment exponential stability, distributed time delays.

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40 4-Transitivity and 6-Figures in Finite Klingenberg Planes of Parameters (p2k−1, p)

Authors: Atilla Akpinar, Basri Celik, Suleyman Ciftci

Abstract:

In this paper, we carry over some of the results which are valid on a certain class of Moufang-Klingenberg planes M(A) coordinatized by an local alternative ring A := A(ε) = A+Aε of dual numbers to finite projective Klingenberg plane M(A) obtained by taking local ring Zq (where prime power q = pk) instead of A. So, we show that the collineation group of M(A) acts transitively on 4-gons, and that any 6-figure corresponds to only one inversible m ∈ A.

Keywords: finite Klingenberg plane, projective collineation, 4-transitivity, 6-figures.

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39 Periodicity for a Semi–Ratio–Dependent Predator–Prey System with Delays on Time Scales

Authors: Kejun Zhuang

Abstract:

In this paper, the semi–ratio–dependent predator-prey system with nonmonotonic functional response on time scales is investigated. By using the coincidence degree theory, sufficient conditions for existence of periodic solutions are obtained.

Keywords: Semi–ratio–dependent, predator–prey system, coincidence degree, time scales.

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38 Hopf Bifurcation Analysis for a Delayed Predator–prey System with Stage Structure

Authors: Kejun Zhuang

Abstract:

In this paper, a delayed predator–prey system with stage structure is investigated. Sufficient conditions for the system to have multiple periodic solutions are obtained when the delay is sufficiently large by applying Bendixson-s criterion. Further, some numerical examples are given.

Keywords: Predator-prey system, Stage structure, Hopf bifurcation, Periodic solutions.

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37 An Effective Algorithm for Minimum Weighted Vertex Cover Problem

Authors: S. Balaji, V. Swaminathan, K. Kannan

Abstract:

The Minimum Weighted Vertex Cover (MWVC) problem is a classic graph optimization NP - complete problem. Given an undirected graph G = (V, E) and weighting function defined on the vertex set, the minimum weighted vertex cover problem is to find a vertex set S V whose total weight is minimum subject to every edge of G has at least one end point in S. In this paper an effective algorithm, called Support Ratio Algorithm (SRA), is designed to find the minimum weighted vertex cover of a graph. Computational experiments are designed and conducted to study the performance of our proposed algorithm. Extensive simulation results show that the SRA can yield better solutions than other existing algorithms found in the literature for solving the minimum vertex cover problem.

Keywords: Weighted vertex cover, vertex support, approximation algorithms, NP-complete problem.

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36 On the Solution of Fully Fuzzy Linear Systems

Authors: Hsuan-Ku Liu

Abstract:

A linear system is called a fully fuzzy linear system (FFLS) if quantities in this system are all fuzzy numbers. For the FFLS, we investigate its solution and develop a new approximate method for solving the FFLS. Observing the numerical results, we find that our method is accurate than the iterative Jacobi and Gauss- Seidel methods on approximating the solution of FFLS.

Keywords: Fully fuzzy linear equations, iterative method, homotopy perturbation method, approximate solutions.

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35 Improved Robust Stability Criteria for Discrete-time Neural Networks

Authors: Zixin Liu, Shu Lü, Shouming Zhong, Mao Ye

Abstract:

In this paper, the robust exponential stability problem of uncertain discrete-time recurrent neural networks with timevarying delay is investigated. By constructing a new augmented Lyapunov-Krasovskii function, some new improved stability criteria are obtained in forms of linear matrix inequality (LMI). Compared with some recent results in literature, the conservatism of the new criteria is reduced notably. Two numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the less conservatism and effectiveness of the proposed results.

Keywords: Robust exponential stability, delay-dependent stability, discrete-time neutral networks, time-varying delays.

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34 Elliptic Divisibility Sequences over Finite Fields

Authors: Betül Gezer, Ahmet Tekcan, Osman Bizim

Abstract:

In this work, we study elliptic divisibility sequences over finite fields. Morgan Ward in [14], [15] gave arithmetic theory of elliptic divisibility sequences and formulas for elliptic divisibility sequences with rank two over finite field Fp. We study elliptic divisibility sequences with rank three, four and five over a finite field Fp, where p > 3 is a prime and give general terms of these sequences and then we determine elliptic and singular curves associated with these sequences.

Keywords: Elliptic divisibility sequences, singular elliptic divisibilitysequences, elliptic curves, singular curves.

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33 The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Micro-enterprise Development in Kenya: A Study of Obunga Slum in Kisumu

Authors: C. A. Oloo, C. Ojwang

Abstract:

The performances of small and medium enterprises have stagnated in the last two decades. This has mainly been due to the emergence of HIV / Aids. The disease has had a detrimental effect on the general economy of the country leading to morbidity and mortality of the Kenyan workforce in their primary age. The present study sought to establish the economic impact of HIV / Aids on the micro-enterprise development in Obunga slum – Kisumu, in terms of production loss, increasing labor related cost and to establish possible strategies to address the impact of HIV / Aids on microenterprises. The study was necessitated by the observation that most micro-enterprises in the slum are facing severe economic and social crisis due to the impact of HIV / Aids, they get depleted and close down within a short time due to death of skilled and experience workforce. The study was carried out between June 2008 and June 2009 in Obunga slum. Data was subjected to computer aided statistical analysis that included descriptive statistic, chi-squared and ANOVA techniques. Chi-squared analysis on the micro-enterprise owners opinion on the impact of HIV / Aids on depletion of microenterprise compared to other diseases indicated high levels of the negative effects of the disease at significance levels of P<0.01. Analysis of variance on the impact of HIV / Aids on the performance and productivity of micro-enterprises also indicated a negative effect on the general performance of micro-enterprise at significance levels of P<0.01. Therefore reducing the negative impacts of HIV/Aids on micro-enterprise development, there is need to improve the socioeconomic environment, mobilize donors and stake holders in training and funding, and review the current strategies for addressing the disease. Further conclusive research should also be conducted on a bigger scale.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, HIV-AIDS, Micro-enterprise, Poverty.

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32 Energy Consumption and Economic Growth in South Asian Countries: A Co-integrated Panel Analysis

Authors: S. Noor, M. W. Siddiqi

Abstract:

This study examines causal link between energy use and economic growth for five South Asian countries over period 1971-2006. Panel cointegration, ECM and FMOLS are applied for short and long run estimates. In short run unidirectional causality from per capita GDP to per capita energy consumption is found, but not vice versa. In long run one percent increase in per capita energy consumption tend to decrease 0.13 percent per capita GDP. i.e. Energy use discourage economic growth. This short and long run relationship indicate energy shortage crisis in South Asia due to increased energy use coupled with insufficient energy supply. Beside this long run estimated coefficient of error term suggest that short term adjustment to equilibrium are driven by adjustment back to long run equilibrium. Moreover, per capita energy consumption is responsive to adjustment back to equilibrium and it takes 59 years approximately. It specifies long run feedback between both variables.

Keywords: Energy consumption, Income, Panel co-integration, Causality.

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31 Differences in IT Effectiveness among Firms: An Empirical Investigation

Authors: Crystal X. Jiang, Tess Han, George J. Titus, Matthew J. Liberatore

Abstract:

Information is a critical asset and an important source for gaining competitive advantage in firms. The effective maintenance of IT becomes an important task. In order to better understand the determinants of IT effectiveness, this study employs the Industrial Organization (I/O) and Resource Based View (RBV) theories and investigates the industry effect and several major firmspecific factors in relation to their impact on firms- IT effectiveness. The data consist of a panel data of ten-year observations of firms whose IT excellence had been recognized by the CIO Magazine. The non-profit organizations were deliberately excluded, as explained later. The results showed that the effectiveness of IT management varied significantly across industries. Industry also moderated the effects of firm demographic factors such as size and age on IT effectiveness. Surprisingly, R & D investment intensity had negative correlation to IT effectiveness. For managers and practitioners, this study offers some insights for evaluation criteria and expectation for IT project success. Finally, the empirical results indicate that the sustainability of IT effectiveness appears to be short in duration.

Keywords: Firm effect, industry effect, IT effectiveness, sustained IT effectiveness.

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30 Application of Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System in the Prediction of Economic Crisis Periods in USA

Authors: Eleftherios Giovanis

Abstract:

In this paper discrete choice models, Logit and Probit are examined in order to predict the economic recession or expansion periods in USA. Additionally we propose an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system with triangular membership function. We examine the in-sample period 1947-2005 and we test the models in the out-of sample period 2006-2009. The forecasting results indicate that the Adaptive Neuro-fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) model outperforms significant the Logit and Probit models in the out-of sample period. This indicates that neuro-fuzzy model provides a better and more reliable signal on whether or not a financial crisis will take place.

Keywords: ANFIS, discrete choice models, financial crisis, USeconomy

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29 Are Economic Crises and Government Changes Related? A Descriptive Statistic Analysis

Authors: Şakir Görmüş, Ali Kabasakal

Abstract:

The main purpose of this study is to provide a detailed statistical overview of the time and regional distribution, relative timing occurrence of economic crises and government changes in 51 economies over the 1990–2007 periods. At the same time, the predictive power of the economic crises on set government changes will be examined using “signal approach". The result showed that the percentage of government changes is highest in transition economies (86 percent of observations) and lowest in Latin American economies (39 percent of observations). The percentages of government changes are same in both developed and developing countries (43 percent of observations). However, average crises per year (frequency of crises) are higher (lower) in developing (developed) countries than developed (developing) countries. Also, the predictive power of economic crises about the onset of a government change is highest in Transition economies (81 percent) and lowest in Latin American countries (30 percent). The predictive power of economic crises in developing countries (43 percent) is lower than developed countries (55 percent).

Keywords: Economic crises, Government Changes, PoliticalEconomy, Signal Approach.

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28 Customer Loyalty and the Impacts of Service Quality:The Case of Five Star Hotels in Jordan

Authors: Al-Rousan, M. Ramzi, Badaruddin Mohamed

Abstract:

In the present Jordan hotels scenario, service quality is a vital competitive policy to keep customer support and build great base. Hotels are trying to win customer loyalty by providing enhanced quality services. This paper attempts to examine the impact of tourism service quality dimension in the Jordanian five star hotels. A total of 322 surveys were administrated to tourists who were staying at three branches Marriott hotel in Jordan. The results show that dimensions of service quality such as empathy, reliability, responsiveness and tangibility significantly predict customer loyalty. Specifically, among the dimension of tourism service quality, the most significant predictor of customer loyalty is tangibility. This paper implies that five star hotels in Jordan should also come forward and try their best to present better tourism service quality to win back their customers- loyalty.

Keywords: Tourism, Service Quality, Loyalty, Five Star hotels, Jordan.

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27 Does Corporate Governance or Transparency Affect Foreign Direct Investment?

Authors: Haksoon Kim

Abstract:

The paper investigates the relationship between the foreign direct investment (FDI) and the corporate governance or transparency by investigating the country-level FDI flows, FDI inward performance, corporate governance and transparency variables. From the regression analysis with Newey-West estimator of 28 country panel data from 1990- 2002, we find strong positive relationships between corporate governance or transparency level of hosting countries and FDI inward performance within hosting countries. A strong positive relationship is found between anti-director rights level or number of analysts of hosting countries and FDI inward performance within hosting countries. Also, we find a positive relationship between the number of analysts of hosting countries and FDI inflows. The empirical results are consistent with stock market liberalizations and corporate governance explanations of reasons for FDI.

Keywords: corporate governance, corporate transparency, FDIflows, FDI inward performance

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26 Value–based Group Decision on Support Bridge Selection

Authors: Christiono Utomo, Arazi Idrus

Abstract:

Value-based group decision is very complicated since many parties involved. There are different concern caused by differing preferences, experiences, and background. Therefore, a support system is required to enable each stakeholder to evaluate and rank the solution alternatives before engaging into negotiation with the other stakeholders. The support system is based on combination between value-based analysis, multi criteria group decision making based on satisfying options, and negotiation process based on coalition formation. This paper presents the group decision and negotiation on the selection of suitable material for a support bridge structure involving three decision makers, who are an estate manager, a project manager, and an engineer. There are three alternative solutions for the material of the support bridge structure, which are (a1) steel structure, (a2) reinforced concrete structure and (a3) wooden structure.

Keywords: Value-based, group decision, negotiation support, construction.

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25 The Impact of Revenue Gap on Economic Growth: A Case Study of Pakistan

Authors: M. Ilyas, M. W. Siddiqi

Abstract:

This study employs auto-regressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds approach to cointegration for long run and errorcorrection modeling (ECM) for short run analysis to examine the relationship between revenue gap and economic growth for Pakistan using annual time series data over the period 1980 to 2008. The short and long run results indicate that revenue gap is statistical significant and negatively effect economic growth. The significant and negative coefficient of error correction term in ECM indicates that after a shock, the long rum equilibrium will again converge towards equilibrium about 10.406 percent within a year.

Keywords: ARDL cointegration, Economic Growth, RevenueGap, Pakistan.

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24 Assessing Local Knowledge Dynamics: Regional Knowledge Economy Indicators

Authors: Francesca Affortunato, Edgardo Bucciarelli, Mariateresa Ciommi, Gianfranco Giulioni

Abstract:

The paper represents a reflection on how to select proper indicators to assess the progress of regional contexts towards a knowledge-based society. Taking the first research methodologies elaborated at an international level (World Bank, OECD, etc.) as a reference point, this work intends to identify a set of indicators of the knowledge economy suitable to adequately understand in which manner and to which extent the territorial development dynamics are correlated with the knowledge-base of the considered local society. After a critical survey of the variables utilized within other approaches adopted by international or national organizations, this paper seeks to elaborate a framework of variables, named Regional Knowledge Economy Indicators (ReKEI), necessary to describe the knowledge-based relations of subnational socio-economic contexts. The realization of this framework has a double purpose: an analytical one consisting in highlighting the regional differences in the governance of knowledge based processes, and an operative one consisting in providing some reference parameters for contributing to increasing the effectiveness of those economic policies aiming at enlarging the knowledge bases of local societies.

Keywords: Knowledge economy, knowledge society, information society, regional innovation system, territorial competitiveness, local development.

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23 Application of the Transtheoretical Model of Exercise Behavior Change Plan in High School Students

Authors: Frank C. Pan, Chih-Hao Chen

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to discuss the effect of the intervention of exercise behavior change plan for high school students on study subjects- social and psychological factors and exercise stages. This research uses the transtheoretical model as the research framework. One experiment group and one control group were used in a quasi-experimental design research. The experimental group accepted health-related physical fitness course and the traditional course; the control group accepted traditional physical education course. There is a significant difference before and after the intervention in the experimental group. Karl-s test shows the experimental group gained a better improvement than that in the control group. The Analysis of Covariance had shown the exercise stages (F=7.62, p<0.05), and the perceived exercise benefit (F=16.91, p<0.05) of the experimental group were obviously larger than those of the control group. There was no major effect on the perceived exercise barrier (F=0.61, p>0.05) after the intervention of exercise behavior change plan. However, the rate of high school students the practical implementation of the exercise is not high, obviously influenced by the exercise barrier. The academic and examination pressure may be the major causes of the exercise barrier in the high school.

Keywords: Transtheoretical model (TTM), High school students, exercise behavior

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22 Parental Attitudes as a Predictor of Cyber Bullying among Primary School Children

Authors: Bülent Dilmaç, Didem Aydoğan

Abstract:

Problem Statement:Rapid technological developments of the 21st century have advanced our daily lives in various ways. Particularly in education, students frequently utilize technological resources to aid their homework and to access information. listen to radio or watch television (26.9 %) and e-mails (34.2 %) [26]. Not surprisingly, the increase in the use of technologies also resulted in an increase in the use of e-mail, instant messaging, chat rooms, mobile phones, mobile phone cameras and web sites by adolescents to bully peers. As cyber bullying occurs in the cyber space, lesser access to technologies would mean lesser cyber-harm. Therefore, the frequency of technology use is a significant predictor of cyber bullying and cyber victims. Cyber bullies try to harm the victim using various media. These tools include sending derogatory texts via mobile phones, sending threatening e-mails and forwarding confidential emails to everyone on the contacts list. Another way of cyber bullying is to set up a humiliating website and invite others to post comments. In other words, cyber bullies use e-mail, chat rooms, instant messaging, pagers, mobile texts and online voting tools to humiliate and frighten others and to create a sense of helplessness. No matter what type of bullying it is, it negatively affects its victims. Children who bully exhibit more emotional inhibition and attribute themselves more negative self-statements compared to non-bullies. Students whose families are not sympathetic and who receive lower emotional support are more prone to bully their peers. Bullies have authoritarian families and do not get along well with them. The family is the place where the children-s physical, social and psychological needs are satisfied and where their personalities develop. As the use of the internet became prevalent so did parents- restrictions on their children-s internet use. However, parents are unaware of the real harm. Studies that explain the relationship between parental attitudes and cyber bullying are scarce in literature. Thus, this study aims to investigate the relationship between cyber bullying and parental attitudes in the primary school. Purpose of Study: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between cyber bullying and parental attitudes. A second aim was to determine whether parental attitudes could predict cyber bullying and if so which variables could predict it significantly. Methods:The study had a cross-sectional and relational survey model. A demographics information form, questions about cyber bullying and a Parental Attitudes Inventory were conducted with a total of 346 students (189 females and 157 males) registered at various primary schools. Data was analysed by multiple regression analysis using the software package SPSS 16.

Keywords: Cyber bullying, cyber victim, parental attitudes, primary school students.

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21 Job Stressors and Coping Mechanisms among Emergency Department Nurses in the Armed Force Hospitals of Taiwan

Authors: Wei-Wen Liu, Feng-Chuan Pan, Pei-Chi Wen, Sen-Ji Chen, Su-Hui Lin

Abstract:

Nurses in an Armed Force Hospital (AFH) expose to stronger stress than those in a civil hospital, especially in an emergency department (ED). Ironically, stresses of these nurses received few if any attention in academic research in the past. This study collects 227 samples from the emergency departments of four armed force hospitals in central and southern Taiwan. The research indicates that the top five stressors are a massive casualty event, delayed physician support, overloads of routine work, overloads of assignments, and annoying paper work. Excessive work loading was found to be the primary source of stress. Nurses who were perceived to have greater stress levels were more inclined to deploy emotion-oriented approaches and more likely to seek job rotations. Professional stressors and problem-oriented approaches were positively correlated. Unlike other local studies, this study concludes that the excessive work-loading is more stressful in an AFH.

Keywords: Emergency nurse, Job stressor, Coping behavior, Armed force hospital.

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20 Innovativeness, Risk Taking, Focusing on Opportunity Attitudes on Nurse Managers and Nurses

Authors: Melek Kalkan, Hatice Odacı, Hatice Epli Koç

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to compare the innovativeness, risk taking, and focusing on opportunity of the nurse managers and nurses. The data are collected from nurse managers and nurses in Ondokuz Mayıs University, Faculty of Medicine Hospital and Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Medicine Hospital. The study sample consisted of 151 participants, 76 nurse managers (50.3%) and 75 nurses (49.7%). All participants have been assessed by Participant Information Form and Corporate Entrepreneurship Scale. In data analysis, independent t-test has applied. The results show that there are significant differences between nurse managers and nurses on innovativeness (t = 2.42, p < 0.05), risk taking (t = 3.62, p < 0.01), and focusing on opportunity (t = 2.16, p < 0.05). Consequently, it can be said that nurse managers have more innovativeness than nurses and tend to take more risks and focus more on opportunities. 

Keywords: Focusing on opportunity attitudes, innovativeness, risk taking, nurse.

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19 The Experiences of Coronary Heart Disease Patients: Biopsychosocial Perspective

Authors: Christopher C. Anyadubalu

Abstract:

Biological, psychological and social experiences and perceptions of healthcare services in patients medically diagnosed of coronary heart disease were investigated using a sample of 10 participants whose responses to the in-depth interview questions were analyzed based on inter-and-intra-case analyses. The results obtained revealed that advancing age, single status, divorce and/or death of spouse and the issue of single parenting negatively impacted patients- biopsychosocial experiences. The patients- experiences of physical signs and symptoms, anxiety and depression, past serious medical conditions, use of self-prescribed medications, family history of poor mental/medical or physical health, nutritional problems and insufficient physical activities heightened their risk of coronary attack. Collectivist culture served as a big source of relieve to the patients. Patients- temperament, experience of different chronic life stresses/challenges, mood alteration, regular drinking, smoking/gambling, and family/social impairments compounded their health situation. Patients were satisfied with the biomedical services rendered by the healthcare personnel, whereas their psychological and social needs were not attended to. Effective procedural treatment model, a holistic and multidimensional approach to the treatment of heart disease patients was proposed.

Keywords: Biopsychosocial, Coronary Heart Disease, Experience, Patients, Perception, Perspective.

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18 Gender Differences of Elementary Prospective Teachers in Mathematical Beliefs and Mathematics Teaching Anxiety

Authors: Ersen Yazıcı, Erhan Ertekin

Abstract:

In this study, any possible differences between mathematics beliefs and anxiety of prospective elementary mathematics teachers have been investigated according to their gender. In this purpose, 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th grade students from a Government University in Turkey were selected as a sample. Mathematics Teaching Anxiety Scale (MATAS) and Beliefs About Mathematics Survey (BAMS) has been used as data collection tools. As a result of the study, it has been observed that prospective male teachers have more instrumentalist approach in learning mathematics than females according to their mathematical beliefs. On the other hand, females have more mathematics teaching anxiety than males especially, for subject knowledge in mathematics and selfconfidence.

Keywords: Mathematical beliefs, mathematics teaching anxiety, gender, prospective elementary mathematics teachers.

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17 Counseling For Distance Learners in Malaysia According to Gender

Authors: A.A.Andaleeb, Rozhan.M.Idrus, Issham Ismail

Abstract:

This survey highlights a number of important issues which relate to the needs to counseling for distance learners studying at the School of Distance Education in University science Malaysia (DEUSM) according to their gender. Data were obtained by selfreport questionnaire that had been developed by the researchers in counseling and educational psychology and interviews were take place. 116 voluntary respondents complete the Questionnaire and returned it back during new student-s registration week.64% of the respondents were female and 52% were males that means 55%ofthem were females and 45% were males. The data was analyzed to find out the frequencies of respondents agreements of the items. The average of the female was 18 and the average of the male was 19.6 by using t- test there is no significant values between the genders. The findings show that respondents have needs for counseling. (22) Significant needs for mails (DEUSM) the highest was their families complain about the amount of time they spend at work. (11) Significant needs for females the highest was they convinced themselves that they only need 4 to 5 hours of sleep per night.

Keywords: Counseling, Needs, Distance Education, Malaysia.

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16 Primary School Principles- Views about In-service Training Activities

Authors: Sadık Kartal

Abstract:

This study was carried out to determine the feedback from the primary school headmasters on in-service training activities. 384 primary school headmasters were asked to give feedback on the in-service training facilities organized by the Ministry of Education through an open –ended question. The study group was formed by 359 primary school headmasters who attended “Management Skills" seminars which were organized in March, April and May in the extent of 2006 In-service Training Facilities Plan by the Ministry of Education and were also volunteers to give feedback on the inservice training activities. The qualitative research method was used in the analysis of the data since the primary school headmasters gave written feedback on the in-service training activities. Having analyzed the feedback, certain categories were formed by coding it. Certain frequencies and percentages were determined according to the codes. It was made obvious that the primary school headmasters benefitted from those facilities by sharing their experiences, problems and their possible solutions mutually

Keywords: In-service training, primary school principles, educates.

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15 Modality and Redundancy Effects on Music Theory Learning Among Pupils of Different Anxiety Levels

Authors: Soon Fook Fong, Aldalalah, M. Osamah

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of modality and redundancy principles on music theory learning among pupils of different anxiety levels. The lesson of music theory was developed in three different modes, audio and image (AI), text with image (TI) and audio with image and text (AIT). The independent variables were the three modes of courseware. The moderator variable was the anxiety level, while the dependent variable was the post test score. The study sample consisted of 405 third-grade pupils. Descriptive and inferential statistics were conducted to analyze the collected data. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) and Post hoc were carried out to examine the main effects as well as the interaction effects of the independent variables on the dependent variable. The findings of this study showed that medium anxiety pupils performed significantly better than low and high anxiety pupils in all the three treatment modes. The AI mode was found to help pupils with high anxiety significantly more than the TI and AIT modes.

Keywords: Modality, Redundancy, Music theory, Cognitivetheory of multimedia learning, Cognitive load theory, Anxiety.

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14 The Direct and Indirect Effects of the Achievement Motivation on Nurturing Intellectual Giftedness

Authors: Al-Shabatat, M. Ahmad, Abbas, M., Ismail, H. Nizam

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Achievement motivation is believed to promote giftedness attracting people to invest in many programs to adopt gifted students providing them with challenging activities. Intellectual giftedness is founded on the fluid intelligence and extends to more specific abilities through the growth and inputs from the achievement motivation. Acknowledging the roles played by the motivation in the development of giftedness leads to an effective nurturing of gifted individuals. However, no study has investigated the direct and indirect effects of the achievement motivation and fluid intelligence on intellectual giftedness. Thus, this study investigated the contribution of motivation factors to giftedness development by conducting tests of fluid intelligence using Cattell Culture Fair Test (CCFT) and analytical abilities using culture reduced test items covering problem solving, pattern recognition, audio-logic, audio-matrices, and artificial language, and self report questionnaire for the motivational factors. A number of 180 highscoring students were selected using CCFT from a leading university in Malaysia. Structural equation modeling was employed using Amos V.16 to determine the direct and indirect effects of achievement motivation factors (self confidence, success, perseverance, competition, autonomy, responsibility, ambition, and locus of control) on the intellectual giftedness. The findings showed that the hypothesized model fitted the data, supporting the model postulates and showed significant and strong direct and indirect effects of the motivation and fluid intelligence on the intellectual giftedness.

Keywords: Achievement motivation, Intellectual Giftedness, Fluid Intelligence, Analytical Giftedness, CCFT, Structural EquationModeling.

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13 The Using of Rasch-Model in Validating the Arabic Version of Multiple Intelligence Development Assessment Scale (MIDAS)

Authors: Saher Ali Al-Sabbah, See Ching Mey, Ong Saw Lan

Abstract:

This article addresses the procedures to validate the Arabic version of Multiple Intelligence Development Assessment Scale (MIDAS). The content validity was examined based on the experts- judgments on the MIDAS-s items in the Arabic version. The content of eleven items in the Arabic version of MIDAS was modified to match the Arabic context. Then a translation from original English version of MIDAS into Arabic language was performed. The reliability of the Arabic MIDAS was calculated based on test and retest method and found to be 0.85 for the overall MIDAS and for the different subscales ranging between 0.78 - 0.87. The examination of construct validity for the overall Arabic MIDAS and its subscales was established by using Winsteps program version 6 based on Rasch model in order to fit the items into the Arabic context. The findings indicated that, the eight subscales in Arabic version of MIDAS scale have a unidimensionality, and the total number of kept items in the overall scale is 108 items.

Keywords: Rasch-Model, validation, multiple intelligence, and MIDAS scale.

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12 Advancing the Theory of Planned Behavior within Dietary and Physical Domains among Type 2 Diabetics: A Mixed Methods Approach

Authors: D.O. Omondi, M.K. Walingo, G.M. Mbagaya, L.O.A. Othuon

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Many studies have applied the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) in predicting health behaviors among unique populations. However, a new paradigm is emerging where focus is now directed to modification and expansion of the TPB model rather than utilization of the traditional theory. This review proposes new models modified from the Theory of Planned Behavior and suggest an appropriate study design that can be used to test the models within physical activity and dietary practice domains among Type 2 diabetics in Kenya. The review was conducted by means of literature search in the field of nutrition behavior, health psychology and mixed methods using predetermined key words. The results identify pre-intention and post intention gaps within the TPB model that need to be filled. Additional psychosocial factors are proposed to be included in the TPB model to generate new models and the efficacy of these models tested using mixed methods design.

Keywords: Physical activity, diet, Type 2 diabetes, behaviorchange theory, model.

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11 How Valid Are Our Language Test Interpretations? A Demonstrative Example

Authors: Masoud Saeedi, Shirin Rahimi Kazerooni, Vahid Parvaresh

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Validity is an overriding consideration in language testing. If a test score is intended for a particular purpose, this must be supported through empirical evidence. This article addresses the validity of a multiple-choice achievement test (MCT). The test is administered at the end of each semester to decide about students' mastery of a course in general English. To provide empirical evidence pertaining to the validity of this test, two criterion measures were used. In so doing, a Cloze test and a C-test which are reported to gauge general English proficiency were utilized. The results of analyses show that there is a statistically significant correlation among participants' scores on the MCT, Cloze, and Ctest. Drawing on the findings of the study, it can be cautiously deduced that these tests measure the same underlying trait. However, allowing for the limitations of using criterion measures to validate tests, we cannot make any absolute claim as to the validity of this MCT test.

Keywords: C-test, cloze test, multiple-choice test, validity argument.

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10 Do Students Really Understand Topology in the Lesson? A Case Study

Authors: Serkan Narli

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This study aims to specify to what extent students understand topology during the lesson and to determine possible misconceptions. 14 teacher trainees registered at Secondary School Mathematics education department were observed in the topology lessons throughout a semester and data collected at the first topology lesson is presented here. Students- knowledge was evaluated using a written test right before and after the topology lesson. Thus, what the students learnt in terms of the definition and examples of topologic space were specified as well as possible misconceptions. The findings indicated that students did not fully comprehend the topic and misunderstandings were due to insufficient pre-requisite knowledge of abstract mathematical topics and mathematical notation.

Keywords: Mathematics Education, Teacher Education, Topology.

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9 Integrating Technology into Mathematics Education: A Case Study from Primary Mathematics Students Teachers

Authors: Berna Cantürk-Günhan, Esra Bukova-Güzel

Abstract:

The purpose of the study is to determine the primary mathematics student teachers- views related to use instructional technology tools in course of the learning process and to reveal how the sample presentations towards different mathematical concepts affect their views. This is a qualitative study involving twelve mathematics students from a public university. The data gathered from two semi-structural interviews. The first one was realized in the beginning of the study. After that the representations prepared by the researchers were showed to the participants. These representations contain animations, Geometer-s Sketchpad activities, video-clips, spreadsheets, and power-point presentations. The last interview was realized at the end of these representations. The data from the interviews and content analyses were transcribed and read and reread to explore the major themes. Findings revealed that the views of the students changed in this process and they believed that the instructional technology tools should be used in their classroom.

Keywords: Integrating Technology, Mathematics Education, Primary Education, Teacher Education.

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8 Turkish Adolescents' Subjective Well-Being with Respect to Age, Gender and SES of Parents

Authors: Ali Eryılmaz

Abstract:

In this research it is aimed that the effect of some demographic factors on Turkish Adolescents' subjective well being is investigated. 432 adolescents who are 247 girls and 185 boys are participated in this study. They are ages 15-17, and also are high school students. The Positive and Negative Affect Scale and Life Satisfaction Scale are used for measuring adolescents' subjective well being. The ANOVA method is used in order to examine the effect of ages. For gender differences, independent t-test method is used, and finally the Pearson Correlation method is used so as to examine the effect of socio economic statues of adolescents' parents. According to results, there is no gender difference on adolescents' subjective well being. On the other hand, SES and age are effect significantly lover level on adolescents' subjective well being.

Keywords: Subjective wellbeing, adolescents, and age, gender, SES.

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7 Age and Sex Pattern of Children-s Disability and Its Severity in Parila Union of Rajshahi, Bangladesh

Authors: Md. Emaj Uddin, K. M. Rabiul Karim, Md. Delwar Hossain

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This study examines age and sex patterns of children-s disability in the Parila union of Rajshahi, Bangladesh. For this we assumed that (1) prevalence of disability patterns and its severity in the middle childhood are higher than in the infancy or latter childhood in the Parila union of Rajshahi, (2) prevalence of disability patterns and its severity among the boys compared to girls are higher in the study area of Bangladesh. In order to examine the assumptions 102 samples, including their mothers were selected based on snowball process and the respondents were individually interviewed with semi-structured questionnaire method. The results of the study suggest that disability patterns and its severity among the male children were two-fold higher than the female children. In addition, these patterns of children-s disability and its severity in the middle childhood were also higher than in the infancy or latter childhood. Further study should conduct how socio-structural factors influence age and sex patterns of children-s disability patterns and its severity in Bangladesh.

Keywords: Age, Bangladesh, Children's Disability Pattern, Sex, Severity.

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6 “Blood Family“ Activity With Respect To Comprehensive Guidance School Program

Authors: Ali Eryılmaz

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Children and adolescents developing in the worlds of today are facing a getting array of new and old challenges. School counselling is improving rapidly in contemporary education systems around the world. It can be said that counselling system in Turkey was newly borning. In this study, “Family of the Blood" activity is improved with respect to compherensive guidance school program. The sample included 22 adolescents who were high school students. The activity was carried out in 4 sessions, each of which lasted 45 minutes. In the first session, students- personal-social needs were determined. In the second session, in order to warm up, the students were asked three questions consisting of the constructional aspect. In the third session, the counselor and the teacher shared the results of students- responses obtained in the previous session. In the fourth session, the tables formed by students were presented in the classroom. In order to evaluate the activity, three questions were asked of the teacher and counselor. According to the results, the lesson aims of curriculum and counselling aims of curriculum were attained. In the light of literature, the results were discussed and some suggestions were made. It is taken into consideration that the activitiy was beneficial in many respects, similar studies should be carried out in the near future.

Keywords: Comprehensive guidance program, education, family

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5 The Views of Elementary Mathematics Education Preservice Teachers on Proving

Authors: Belma Turker, Cigdem Alkas, Ebru Aylar, Ramazan Gurel, Oylum Akkus Ispir

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This study has been prepared with the purpose to get the views of senior class Elementary Education Mathematics preservice teachers on proving. Data have been obtained via surveys and interviews carried out with 104 preservice teachers. According to the findings, although preservice teachers have positive views about using proving in mathematics teaching, it is seen that their experiences related to proving is limited to courses and they think proving is a work done only for the exams. Furthermore, they have expressed in the interviews that proving is difficult for them, and because of this reason they prefer memorizing instead of learning.

Keywords: Belief on Proving, Mathematics Education, Proof.

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4 Using of Positive Psychotheraphy Narratives at School

Authors: Ali Eryılmaz

Abstract:

In this study, how affects the narrative of Positive Psychothreapy which is named “The Three Small Gold Statues "the adloescent-s perception is investigated The sample included 90 adolescents who were high school students. Firstly the narrative was read. Then three questions which were about the narrative were asked. The questions were: What kind of things did you recall what kind of results did you conculde, and also how could you use this narrative in your real life problems. Responds were analyzed by content analysis method. According to research findings the narrative had a great effect for adolescent perceptions, and also the tale could be used at school counselling programs.

Keywords: Narrative, Positive Psychotherapy, SchoolCounselling Programs

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3 Spatial Mapping of Dengue Incidence: A Case Study in Hulu Langat District, Selangor, Malaysia

Authors: Er, A. C., Rosli, M. H., Asmahani A., Mohamad Naim M. R., Harsuzilawati M.

Abstract:

Dengue is a mosquito-borne infection that has peaked to an alarming rate in recent decades. It can be found in tropical and sub-tropical climate. In Malaysia, dengue has been declared as one of the national health threat to the public. This study aimed to map the spatial distributions of dengue cases in the district of Hulu Langat, Selangor via a combination of Geographic Information System (GIS) and spatial statistic tools. Data related to dengue was gathered from the various government health agencies. The location of dengue cases was geocoded using a handheld GPS Juno SB Trimble. A total of 197 dengue cases occurring in 2003 were used in this study. Those data then was aggregated into sub-district level and then converted into GIS format. The study also used population or demographic data as well as the boundary of Hulu Langat. To assess the spatial distribution of dengue cases three spatial statistics method (Moran-s I, average nearest neighborhood (ANN) and kernel density estimation) were applied together with spatial analysis in the GIS environment. Those three indices were used to analyze the spatial distribution and average distance of dengue incidence and to locate the hot spot of dengue cases. The results indicated that the dengue cases was clustered (p < 0.01) when analyze using Moran-s I with z scores 5.03. The results from ANN analysis showed that the average nearest neighbor ratio is less than 1 which is 0.518755 (p < 0.0001). From this result, we can expect the dengue cases pattern in Hulu Langat district is exhibiting a cluster pattern. The z-score for dengue incidence within the district is -13.0525 (p < 0.0001). It was also found that the significant spatial autocorrelation of dengue incidences occurs at an average distance of 380.81 meters (p < 0.0001). Several locations especially residential area also had been identified as the hot spots of dengue cases in the district.

Keywords: Dengue, geographic information system (GIS), spatial analysis, spatial statistics

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2 Food Deserts and the Sociology of Space: Distance to Food Retailers and Food Insecurity in an Urban American Neighborhood

Authors: Brian J. Thomas

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Recent changes in food retailing structure have led to the development of large supercenters in suburban areas of the United States. These changes have led some authors to suggest that there are food deserts in some urban areas, where food is difficult to access, especially for disadvantaged consumers. This study tests the food desert hypothesis by comparing the distance from food retailers to food secure and food insecure households in one urban, Midwest neighborhood. This study utilizes GIS to compare household survey respondent locations against the location of various types of area food retailers. Results of this study indicate no apparent difference between food secure and insecure households in the reported importance of distance on the decision to shop at various retailers. However, there were differences in the spatial relationship between households and retailers. Food insecure households tended to be located slightly farther from large food retailers and slightly closer to convenience stores. Furthermore, food insecure households reported traveling slightly farther to their primary food retailer. The differences between the two groups was, however, relatively small.

Keywords: Food desert, food retailer, food security, sociology.

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1 A Game-Theoretic Approach to Hedonic Housing Prices

Authors: Cielito F. Habito, Michael O. Santos, Andres G. Victorio

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A property-s selling price is described as the result of sequential bargaining between a buyer and a seller in an environment of asymmetric information. Hedonic housing prices are estimated based upon 17,333 records of New Zealand residential properties sold during the years 2006 and 2007.

Keywords: Housing demand, hedonics and valuation, residentialmarkets.

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