Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1041

Search results for: spatial statistics

1041 Performance Degradation for the GLR Test-Statistics for Spatial Signal Detection

Authors: Olesya Bolkhovskaya, Alexander Maltsev

Abstract:

Antenna arrays are widely used in modern radio systems in sonar and communications. The solving of the detection problems of a useful signal on the background of noise is based on the GLRT method. There is a large number of problem which depends on the known a priori information. In this work, in contrast to the majority of already solved problems, it is used only difference  spatial properties of the signal and noise for detection. We are analyzing the influence of the degree of non-coherence of signal and noise unhomogeneity on the performance characteristics of different GLRT statistics. The description of the signal and noise is carried out by means of the spatial covariance matrices C in the cases of different number of known information. The partially coherent signalis is simulated as a plane wave with a random angle of incidence of the wave concerning a normal. Background noise is simulated as random process with uniform distribution function in each element. The results of investigation of degradation of performance characteristics for different cases are represented in this work.

Keywords: GLRT, Neumann-Pearson’s criterion, test-statistics, degradation, spatial processing, multielement antenna array

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1040 Efficiency of Different GLR Test-statistics for Spatial Signal Detection

Authors: Olesya Bolkhovskaya, Alexander Maltsev

Abstract:

In this work the characteristics of spatial signal detec¬tion from an antenna array in various sample cases are investigated. Cases for a various number of available prior information about the received signal and the background noise are considered. The spatial difference between a signal and noise is only used. The performance characteristics and detecting curves are presented. All test-statistics are obtained on the basis of the generalized likelihood ratio (GLR). The received results are correct for a short and long sample.

Keywords: GLR test-statistic, detection task, generalized likelihood ratio, antenna array, detection curves, performance characteristics.

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1039 Integrating Decision Tree and Spatial Cluster Analysis for Landslide Susceptibility Zonation

Authors: Chien-Min Chu, Bor-Wen Tsai, Kang-Tsung Chang

Abstract:

Landslide susceptibility map delineates the potential zones for landslide occurrence. Previous works have applied multivariate methods and neural networks for mapping landslide susceptibility. This study proposed a new approach to integrate decision tree model and spatial cluster statistic for assessing landslide susceptibility spatially. A total of 2057 landslide cells were digitized for developing the landslide decision tree model. The relationships of landslides and instability factors were explicitly represented by using tree graphs in the model. The local Getis-Ord statistics were used to cluster cells with high landslide probability. The analytic result from the local Getis-Ord statistics was classed to create a map of landslide susceptibility zones. The map was validated using new landslide data with 482 cells. Results of validation show an accuracy rate of 86.1% in predicting new landslide occurrence. This indicates that the proposed approach is useful for improving landslide susceptibility mapping.

Keywords: Landslide susceptibility Zonation, Decision treemodel, Spatial cluster, Local Getis-Ord statistics.

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1038 Spatial Mapping of Dengue Incidence: A Case Study in Hulu Langat District, Selangor, Malaysia

Authors: Er, A. C., Rosli, M. H., Asmahani A., Mohamad Naim M. R., Harsuzilawati M.

Abstract:

Dengue is a mosquito-borne infection that has peaked to an alarming rate in recent decades. It can be found in tropical and sub-tropical climate. In Malaysia, dengue has been declared as one of the national health threat to the public. This study aimed to map the spatial distributions of dengue cases in the district of Hulu Langat, Selangor via a combination of Geographic Information System (GIS) and spatial statistic tools. Data related to dengue was gathered from the various government health agencies. The location of dengue cases was geocoded using a handheld GPS Juno SB Trimble. A total of 197 dengue cases occurring in 2003 were used in this study. Those data then was aggregated into sub-district level and then converted into GIS format. The study also used population or demographic data as well as the boundary of Hulu Langat. To assess the spatial distribution of dengue cases three spatial statistics method (Moran-s I, average nearest neighborhood (ANN) and kernel density estimation) were applied together with spatial analysis in the GIS environment. Those three indices were used to analyze the spatial distribution and average distance of dengue incidence and to locate the hot spot of dengue cases. The results indicated that the dengue cases was clustered (p < 0.01) when analyze using Moran-s I with z scores 5.03. The results from ANN analysis showed that the average nearest neighbor ratio is less than 1 which is 0.518755 (p < 0.0001). From this result, we can expect the dengue cases pattern in Hulu Langat district is exhibiting a cluster pattern. The z-score for dengue incidence within the district is -13.0525 (p < 0.0001). It was also found that the significant spatial autocorrelation of dengue incidences occurs at an average distance of 380.81 meters (p < 0.0001). Several locations especially residential area also had been identified as the hot spots of dengue cases in the district.

Keywords: Dengue, geographic information system (GIS), spatial analysis, spatial statistics

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1037 Spatial thinking Issues: Towards Rural Sociological Research Agenda in the Third Millennium

Authors: Abdel-Samad M. Ali

Abstract:

Does the spatial perspective provide a common thread for rural sociology? Have rural sociologists succeeded in bringing order to their data using spatial analysis models and techniques? A trial answer to such questions, as touchstones of theoretical and applied sociological studies in rural areas, is the point at issue in the present paper. Spatial analyses have changed the way rural sociologists approach scientific problems. Rural sociology is spatial by nature because much, if not most, of its research topics has a spatial “awareness." However, such spatial awareness is not quite the same as spatial analysis because it is not typically associated with underlying theories and hypotheses about spatial patterns that are designed to be tested for their specific spatial content. This paper presents pressing issues for future research to reintroduce mainstream rural sociology to the concept of space.

Keywords: Maps, Rural Sociology, Space, Spatial variations

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1036 Evaluation of Graph-based Analysis for Forest Fire Detections

Authors: Young Gi Byun, Yong Huh, Kiyun Yu, Yong Il Kim

Abstract:

Spatial outliers in remotely sensed imageries represent observed quantities showing unusual values compared to their neighbor pixel values. There have been various methods to detect the spatial outliers based on spatial autocorrelations in statistics and data mining. These methods may be applied in detecting forest fire pixels in the MODIS imageries from NASA-s AQUA satellite. This is because the forest fire detection can be referred to as finding spatial outliers using spatial variation of brightness temperature. This point is what distinguishes our approach from the traditional fire detection methods. In this paper, we propose a graph-based forest fire detection algorithm which is based on spatial outlier detection methods, and test the proposed algorithm to evaluate its applicability. For this the ordinary scatter plot and Moran-s scatter plot were used. In order to evaluate the proposed algorithm, the results were compared with the MODIS fire product provided by the NASA MODIS Science Team, which showed the possibility of the proposed algorithm in detecting the fire pixels.

Keywords: Spatial Outlier Detection, MODIS, Forest Fire

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1035 Spatial Structure and Spatial Impacts of the Jakarta Metropolitan Area: A Southeast Asian EMR Perspective

Authors: Ikhwan Hakim, Bruno Parolin

Abstract:

This paper investigates the spatial structure of employment in the Jakarta Metropolitan Area (JMA), with reference to the concept of the Southeast Asian extended metropolitan region (EMR). A combination of factor analysis and local Getis-Ord (Gi*) hot-spot analysis is used to identify clusters of employment in the region, including those of the urban and agriculture sectors. Spatial statistical analysis is further used to probe the spatial association of identified employment clusters with their surroundings on several dimensions, including the spatial association between the central business district (CBD) in Jakarta city on employment density in the region, the spatial impacts of urban expansion on population growth and the degree of urban-rural interaction. The degree of spatial interaction for the whole JMA is measured by the patterns of commuting trips destined to the various employment clusters. Results reveal the strong role of the urban core of Jakarta, and the regional CBD, as the centre for mixed job sectors such as retail, wholesale, services and finance. Manufacturing and local government services, on the other hand, form corridors radiating out of the urban core, reaching out to the agriculture zones in the fringes. Strong associations between the urban expansion corridors and population growth, and urban-rural mix, are revealed particularly in the eastern and western parts of JMA. Metropolitan wide commuting patterns are focussed on the urban core of Jakarta and the CBD, while relatively local commuting patterns are shown to be prevalent for the employment corridors.

Keywords: Jakarta Metropolitan Area, Southeast Asian EMR, spatial association, spatial statistics, spatial structure.

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1034 Undergraduate Students’ Attitude towards the Statistics Course

Authors: Somruay Apichatibutarapong

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to address and comparison of the attitudes towards the statistics course for undergraduate students. Data were collected from 120 students in Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University who enrolled in the statistics course. The quantitative approach was used to investigate the assessment and comparison of attitudes towards statistics course. It was revealed that the overall attitudes somewhat agree both in pre-test and post-test. In addition, the comparison of students’ attitudes towards the statistic course (Form A) has no difference in the overall attitudes. However, there is statistical significance in all dimensions and overall attitudes towards the statistics course (Form B).

Keywords: Statistics attitude, Student’s attitude, Statistics, Attitude test.

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1033 Spatial Econometric Approaches for Count Data: An Overview and New Directions

Authors: Paula Simões, Isabel Natário

Abstract:

This paper reviews a number of theoretical aspects for implementing an explicit spatial perspective in econometrics for modelling non-continuous data, in general, and count data, in particular. It provides an overview of the several spatial econometric approaches that are available to model data that are collected with reference to location in space, from the classical spatial econometrics approaches to the recent developments on spatial econometrics to model count data, in a Bayesian hierarchical setting. Considerable attention is paid to the inferential framework, necessary for structural consistent spatial econometric count models, incorporating spatial lag autocorrelation, to the corresponding estimation and testing procedures for different assumptions, to the constrains and implications embedded in the various specifications in the literature. This review combines insights from the classical spatial econometrics literature as well as from hierarchical modeling and analysis of spatial data, in order to look for new possible directions on the processing of count data, in a spatial hierarchical Bayesian econometric context.

Keywords: Spatial data analysis, spatial econometrics, Bayesian hierarchical models, count data.

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1032 Urban Greenery in the Greatest Polish Cities: Analysis of Spatial Concentration

Authors: Elżbieta Antczak

Abstract:

Cities offer important opportunities for economic development and for expanding access to basic services, including health care and education, for large numbers of people. Moreover, green areas (as an integral part of sustainable urban development) present a major opportunity for improving urban environments, quality of lives and livelihoods. This paper examines, using spatial concentration and spatial taxonomic measures, regional diversification of greenery in the cities of Poland. The analysis includes location quotients, Lorenz curve, Locational Gini Index, and the synthetic index of greenery and spatial statistics tools: (1) To verify the occurrence of strong concentration or dispersion of the phenomenon in time and space depending on the variable category, and, (2) To study if the level of greenery depends on the spatial autocorrelation. The data includes the greatest Polish cities, categories of the urban greenery (parks, lawns, street greenery, and green areas on housing estates, cemeteries, and forests) and the time span 2004-2015. According to the obtained estimations, most of cites in Poland are already taking measures to become greener. However, in the country there are still many barriers to well-balanced urban greenery development (e.g. uncontrolled urban sprawl, poor management as well as lack of spatial urban planning systems).

Keywords: Greenery, urban areas, regional spatial diversification and concentration, spatial taxonomic measure.

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1031 Semantic Spatial Objects Data Structure for Spatial Access Method

Authors: Kalum Priyanath Udagepola, Zuo Decheng, Wu Zhibo, Yang Xiaozong

Abstract:

Modern spatial database management systems require a unique Spatial Access Method (SAM) in order solve complex spatial quires efficiently. In this case the spatial data structure takes a prominent place in the SAM. Inadequate data structure leads forming poor algorithmic choices and forging deficient understandings of algorithm behavior on the spatial database. A key step in developing a better semantic spatial object data structure is to quantify the performance effects of semantic and outlier detections that are not reflected in the previous tree structures (R-Tree and its variants). This paper explores a novel SSRO-Tree on SAM to the Topo-Semantic approach. The paper shows how to identify and handle the semantic spatial objects with outlier objects during page overflow/underflow, using gain/loss metrics. We introduce a new SSRO-Tree algorithm which facilitates the achievement of better performance in practice over algorithms that are superior in the R*-Tree and RO-Tree by considering selection queries.

Keywords: Outlier, semantic spatial object, spatial objects, SSRO-Tree, topo-semantic.

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1030 Educational Values of Virtual Reality: The Case of Spatial Ability

Authors: Elinda Ai-Lim Lee, Kok Wai Wong, Chun Che Fung

Abstract:

The use of Virtual Reality (VR) in schools and higher education is proliferating. Due to its interactive and animated features, it is regarded as a promising technology to increase students- spatial ability. Spatial ability is assumed to have a prominent role in science and engineering domains. However, research concerning individual differences such as spatial ability in the context of VR is still at its infancy. Moreover, empirical studies that focus on the features of VR to improve spatial ability are to date rare. Thus, this paper explores the possible educational values of VR in relation to spatial ability to call for more research concerning spatial ability in the context of VR based on studies in computerbased learning. It is believed that the incorporation of state-of-the-art VR technology for educational purposes should be justified by the enhanced benefits for the target learners.

Keywords: Ability-as-compensator, ability-as-enhancer, spatialability, virtual reality.

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1029 Spatial Data Mining by Decision Trees

Authors: S. Oujdi, H. Belbachir

Abstract:

Existing methods of data mining cannot be applied on spatial data because they require spatial specificity consideration, as spatial relationships. This paper focuses on the classification with decision trees, which are one of the data mining techniques. We propose an extension of the C4.5 algorithm for spatial data, based on two different approaches Join materialization and Querying on the fly the different tables. Similar works have been done on these two main approaches, the first - Join materialization - favors the processing time in spite of memory space, whereas the second - Querying on the fly different tables- promotes memory space despite of the processing time. The modified C4.5 algorithm requires three entries tables: a target table, a neighbor table, and a spatial index join that contains the possible spatial relationship among the objects in the target table and those in the neighbor table. Thus, the proposed algorithms are applied to a spatial data pattern in the accidentology domain. A comparative study of our approach with other works of classification by spatial decision trees will be detailed.

Keywords: C4.5 Algorithm, Decision trees, S-CART, Spatial data mining.

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1028 Research on the Development and Space Optimization of Rental-Type Public Housing in Hangzhou

Authors: Xuran Zhang, Huiru Chen

Abstract:

In recent years, China has made great efforts to cultivate and develop the housing rental market, especially the rental-type public housing, which has been paid attention to by all sectors of the society. This paper takes Hangzhou rental-type public housing as the research object, and divides it into three development stages according to the different supply modes of rental-type public housing. Through data collection and field research, the paper summarizes the spatial characteristics of rental-type public housing from the five perspectives of spatial planning, spatial layout, spatial integration, spatial organization and spatial configuration. On this basis, the paper proposes the optimization of the spatial layout. The study concludes that the spatial layout of rental-type public housing should be coordinated with the development of urban planning. When planning and constructing, it is necessary to select more mixed construction modes, to be properly centralized, and to improve the surrounding transportation service facilities.  It is hoped that the recommendations in this paper will provide a reference for the further development of rental-type public housing in Hangzhou.

Keywords: Hangzhou, rental-type public housing, spatial distribution, spatial optimization.

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1027 A General Stochastic Spatial MIMO Channel Model for Evaluating Various MIMO Techniques

Authors: Fang Shu, Li Lihua, Zhang Ping

Abstract:

A general stochastic spatial MIMO channel model is proposed for evaluating various MIMO techniques in this paper. It can generate MIMO channels complying with various MIMO configurations such as smart antenna, spatial diversity and spatial multiplexing. The modeling method produces the stochastic fading involving delay spread, Doppler spread, DOA (direction of arrival), AS (angle spread), PAS (power azimuth Spectrum) of the scatterers, antenna spacing and the wavelength. It can be applied in various MIMO technique researches flexibly with low computing complexity.

Keywords: MIMO channel, Spatial Correlation, DOA, AS, PAS.

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1026 Optimizing Spatial Trend Detection By Artificial Immune Systems

Authors: M. Derakhshanfar, B. Minaei-Bidgoli

Abstract:

Spatial trends are one of the valuable patterns in geo databases. They play an important role in data analysis and knowledge discovery from spatial data. A spatial trend is a regular change of one or more non spatial attributes when spatially moving away from a start object. Spatial trend detection is a graph search problem therefore heuristic methods can be good solution. Artificial immune system (AIS) is a special method for searching and optimizing. AIS is a novel evolutionary paradigm inspired by the biological immune system. The models based on immune system principles, such as the clonal selection theory, the immune network model or the negative selection algorithm, have been finding increasing applications in fields of science and engineering. In this paper, we develop a novel immunological algorithm based on clonal selection algorithm (CSA) for spatial trend detection. We are created neighborhood graph and neighborhood path, then select spatial trends that their affinity is high for antibody. In an evolutionary process with artificial immune algorithm, affinity of low trends is increased with mutation until stop condition is satisfied.

Keywords: Spatial Data Mining, Spatial Trend Detection, Heuristic Methods, Artificial Immune System, Clonal Selection Algorithm (CSA)

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1025 Biological Soil Conservation Planning by Spatial Multi-Criteria Evaluation Techniques (Case Study: Bonkuh Watershed in Iran)

Authors: Ali Akbar Jamali

Abstract:

This paper discusses site selection process for biological soil conservation planning. It was supported by a valuefocused approach and spatial multi-criteria evaluation techniques. A first set of spatial criteria was used to design a number of potential sites. Next, a new set of spatial and non-spatial criteria was employed, including the natural factors and the financial costs, together with the degree of suitability for the Bonkuh watershed to biological soil conservation planning and to recommend the most acceptable program. The whole process was facilitated by a new software tool that supports spatial multiple criteria evaluation, or SMCE in GIS software (ILWIS). The application of this tool, combined with a continual feedback by the public attentions, has provided an effective methodology to solve complex decisional problem in biological soil conservation planning.

Keywords: GIS, Biological soil conservation planning, Spatial multi-criteria evaluation, Iran

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1024 Entropy Based Spatial Design: A Genetic Algorithm Approach (Case Study)

Authors: Abbas Siefi, Mohammad Javad Karimifar

Abstract:

We study the spatial design of experiment and we want to select a most informative subset, having prespecified size, from a set of correlated random variables. The problem arises in many applied domains, such as meteorology, environmental statistics, and statistical geology. In these applications, observations can be collected at different locations and possibly at different times. In spatial design, when the design region and the set of interest are discrete then the covariance matrix completely describe any objective function and our goal is to choose a feasible design that minimizes the resulting uncertainty. The problem is recast as that of maximizing the determinant of the covariance matrix of the chosen subset. This problem is NP-hard. For using these designs in computer experiments, in many cases, the design space is very large and it's not possible to calculate the exact optimal solution. Heuristic optimization methods can discover efficient experiment designs in situations where traditional designs cannot be applied, exchange methods are ineffective and exact solution not possible. We developed a GA algorithm to take advantage of the exploratory power of this algorithm. The successful application of this method is demonstrated in large design space. We consider a real case of design of experiment. In our problem, design space is very large and for solving the problem, we used proposed GA algorithm.

Keywords: Spatial design of experiments, maximum entropy sampling, computer experiments, genetic algorithm.

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1023 Color Image Segmentation using Adaptive Spatial Gaussian Mixture Model

Authors: M.Sujaritha, S. Annadurai

Abstract:

An adaptive spatial Gaussian mixture model is proposed for clustering based color image segmentation. A new clustering objective function which incorporates the spatial information is introduced in the Bayesian framework. The weighting parameter for controlling the importance of spatial information is made adaptive to the image content to augment the smoothness towards piecewisehomogeneous region and diminish the edge-blurring effect and hence the name adaptive spatial finite mixture model. The proposed approach is compared with the spatially variant finite mixture model for pixel labeling. The experimental results with synthetic and Berkeley dataset demonstrate that the proposed method is effective in improving the segmentation and it can be employed in different practical image content understanding applications.

Keywords: Adaptive; Spatial, Mixture model, Segmentation, Color.

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1022 Robust Variogram Fitting Using Non-Linear Rank-Based Estimators

Authors: Hazem M. Al-Mofleh, John E. Daniels, Joseph W. McKean

Abstract:

In this paper numerous robust fitting procedures are considered in estimating spatial variograms. In spatial statistics, the conventional variogram fitting procedure (non-linear weighted least squares) suffers from the same outlier problem that has plagued this method from its inception. Even a 3-parameter model, like the variogram, can be adversely affected by a single outlier. This paper uses the Hogg-Type adaptive procedures to select an optimal score function for a rank-based estimator for these non-linear models. Numeric examples and simulation studies will demonstrate the robustness, utility, efficiency, and validity of these estimates.

Keywords: Asymptotic relative efficiency, non-linear rank-based, robust, rank estimates, variogram.

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1021 Multi-Scale Urban Spatial Evolution Analysis Based on Space Syntax: A Case Study in Modern Yangzhou, China

Authors: Dai Zhimei, Hua Chen

Abstract:

The exploration of urban spatial evolution is an important part of urban development research. Therefore, the evolutionary modern Yangzhou urban spatial texture was taken as the research object, and Spatial Syntax was used as the main research tool, this paper explored Yangzhou spatial evolution law and its driving factors from the urban street network scale, district scale and street scale. The study has concluded that at the urban scale, Yangzhou urban spatial evolution is the result of a variety of causes, including physical and geographical condition, policy and planning factors, and traffic conditions, and the evolution of space also has an impact on social, economic, environmental and cultural factors. At the district and street scales, changes in space will have a profound influence on the history of the city and the activities of people. At the end of the article, the matters needing attention during the evolution of urban space were summarized.

Keywords: Space Syntax, spatial texture, urban space, Yangzhou.

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1020 Slovenian Spatial Legislation over Time and Its Issues

Authors: Andreja Benko

Abstract:

Article presents a short overview of the architects’ profession over time with outlined work of the architectural theoreticians. In the continuation is described a former affiliation of Slovenia as well as the spatial planning documents that were in use until the Slovenia joint Yugoslavia (last part in 1919). This legislation from former Austro-Hungarian monarchy was valid almost until 1950 in some parts of Yugoslavia even longer. Upon that will be mentioned some valid Slovenian spatial documents which will be compared with the German legislation. Analyzed will be the number of architect and spatial planners in Slovenia and also their number upon certain region in Slovenia. Based on that will be given also the number from statistical office of Slovenia of the number of buildings between years 2007 and 2012, and described also the collapse of the major construction companies in Slovenia and consequences of that. At the end will be outlined the morality and ethics by spatial interventions and lack of the architectural law in Slovenia as well as the problematic of minimal collaboration between the Ministry of infrastructure and spatial planning with the profession.

Keywords: Architect, history, legislation, Slovenia.

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1019 Spatial Abilities, Memory and Intellect of Drivers with Different Level of Professional Experience

Authors: N. Khon, A. Kim, T. Mukhitdinova

Abstract:

The aim of this research was to reveal the link between mental variables, such as spatial abilities, memory, intellect and professional experience of drivers. Participants were allocated to four groups: no experience, inexperienced, skilled and professionals (total 85 participants). The level of ability for spatial navigation and indicator of nonverbal memory grow along the process of accumulation of driving experience. At high levels of driving experience, this tendency is especially noticeable. The professionals having personal achievements in driving (racing) differ from skilled drivers in better feeling of direction, which is specific for them not just in a short-term situation of an experimental task, but also in life-size perspective. The level of ability of mental rotation does not grow with the growth of driving experience, which confirms the multiple intelligence theory according to which spatial abilities represent specific, other than logical intelligence type of intellect. The link between spatial abilities, memory, intellect and professional experience of drivers seems to be different relating spatial navigation or mental rotation as different kinds of spatial abilities.

Keywords: Memory, spatial abilities, intellect, drivers.

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1018 Spatial Variability in Human Development Patterns in Assiut, Egypt

Authors: Abdel-Samad M. Ali

Abstract:

Given the motivation of maps impact in enhancing the perception of the quality of life in a region, this work examines the use of spatial analytical techniques in exploring the role of space in shaping human development patterns in Assiut governorate. Variations of human development index (HDI) of the governorate-s villages, districts and cities are mapped using geographic information systems (GIS). Global and local spatial autocorrelation measures are employed to assess the levels of spatial dependency in the data and to map clusters of human development. Results show prominent disparities in HDI between regions of Assiut. Strong patterns of spatial association were found proving the presence of clusters on the distribution of HDI. Finally, the study indicates several "hot-spots" in the governorate to be area of more investigations to explore the attributes of such levels of human development. This is very important for accomplishing the development plan of poorest regions currently adopted in Egypt.

Keywords: Human development, Egypt, GIS, Spatial analysis.

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1017 Spatial Audio Player Using Musical Genre Classification

Authors: Jun-Yong Lee, Hyoung-Gook Kim

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a smart music player that combines the musical genre classification and the spatial audio processing. The musical genre is classified based on content analysis of the musical segment detected from the audio stream. In parallel with the classification, the spatial audio quality is achieved by adding an artificial reverberation in a virtual acoustic space to the input mono sound. Thereafter, the spatial sound is boosted with the given frequency gains based on the musical genre when played back. Experiments measured the accuracy of detecting the musical segment from the audio stream and its musical genre classification. A listening test was performed based on the virtual acoustic space based spatial audio processing.

Keywords: Automatic equalization, genre classification, music segment detection, spatial audio processing.

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1016 A Probabilistic View of the Spatial Pooler in Hierarchical Temporal Memory

Authors: Mackenzie Leake, Liyu Xia, Kamil Rocki, Wayne Imaino

Abstract:

In the Hierarchical Temporal Memory (HTM) paradigm the effect of overlap between inputs on the activation of columns in the spatial pooler is studied. Numerical results suggest that similar inputs are represented by similar sets of columns and dissimilar inputs are represented by dissimilar sets of columns. It is shown that the spatial pooler produces these results under certain conditions for the connectivity and proximal thresholds. Following the discussion of the initialization of parameters for the thresholds, corresponding qualitative arguments about the learning dynamics of the spatial pooler are discussed.

Keywords: Hierarchical Temporal Memory, HTM, Learning Algorithms, Machine Learning, Spatial Pooler.

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1015 An Application of Geographic Information System to Select Areas for Sanitary Landfill in Bang Nok- Khwaek Municipality

Authors: Musthaya Patchanee

Abstract:

The study of Sanitary landfill in Bang Nok-khwaek municipality consists of two procedures. First, to survey and create the spatial database by using physical factor, environmental factor, economical factor and social factor to follow the method of Geographic information system: GIS, second, to analyze the proper spatial for allocating the sanitary landfill in Bang Nok-khwaek municipality by using Overlay techniques to calculate the weighting linear total in Arc GIS program. The study found that there are 2.49 sq.km. proper spatial for the sanitary landfill in Bang Nok-khwaek municipals city which is 66.76% of the whole area. The highest proper spatial is 0.02 sq.km. which is 0.54%, The high proper spatial is 0.3 sq.km. which is 8.04%, the moderate spatial is 1.62 sq.km. which is 43.43% and the low proper spatial is 0.55 sq.km. which is 14.75%. These results will be used as the guideline to select the sanitary landfill area in accordance with sanitation standard for Subdistrict Administrative Organization and Subbdistrict Municipality in Samut Songkhram provice.

Keywords: An application of Geographic Information System, select areas for sanitary landfill and Bang Nok-khwaek municipality.

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1014 A Note on Penalized Power-Divergence Test Statistics

Authors: Aylin Alin

Abstract:

In this paper, penalized power-divergence test statistics have been defined and their exact size properties to test a nested sequence of log-linear models have been compared with ordinary power-divergence test statistics for various penalization, λ and main effect values. Since the ordinary and penalized power-divergence test statistics have the same asymptotic distribution, comparisons have been only made for small and moderate samples. Three-way contingency tables distributed according to a multinomial distribution have been considered. Simulation results reveal that penalized power-divergence test statistics perform much better than their ordinary counterparts.

Keywords: Contingency table, Log-linear models, Penalization, Power-divergence measure, Penalized power-divergence measure.

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1013 Choosing R-tree or Quadtree Spatial DataIndexing in One Oracle Spatial Database System to Make Faster Showing Geographical Map in Mobile Geographical Information System Technology

Authors: Maruto Masserie Sardadi, Mohd Shafry bin Mohd Rahim, Zahabidin Jupri, Daut bin Daman

Abstract:

The latest Geographic Information System (GIS) technology makes it possible to administer the spatial components of daily “business object," in the corporate database, and apply suitable geographic analysis efficiently in a desktop-focused application. We can use wireless internet technology for transfer process in spatial data from server to client or vice versa. However, the problem in wireless Internet is system bottlenecks that can make the process of transferring data not efficient. The reason is large amount of spatial data. Optimization in the process of transferring and retrieving data, however, is an essential issue that must be considered. Appropriate decision to choose between R-tree and Quadtree spatial data indexing method can optimize the process. With the rapid proliferation of these databases in the past decade, extensive research has been conducted on the design of efficient data structures to enable fast spatial searching. Commercial database vendors like Oracle have also started implementing these spatial indexing to cater to the large and diverse GIS. This paper focuses on the decisions to choose R-tree and quadtree spatial indexing using Oracle spatial database in mobile GIS application. From our research condition, the result of using Quadtree and R-tree spatial data indexing method in one single spatial database can save the time until 42.5%.

Keywords: Indexing, Mobile GIS, MapViewer, Oracle SpatialDatabase.

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1012 Websites for Hypothesis Testing

Authors: František Mošna

Abstract:

E-learning has become an efficient and widespread means of education at all levels of human activities. Statistics is no exception. Unfortunately the main focus in statistics teaching is usually paid to the substitution in formulas. Suitable websites can simplify and automate calculations and provide more attention and time to the basic principles of statistics, mathematization of real-life situations and following interpretation of results. We now introduce our own web-site for hypothesis testing. Its didactic aspects, the technical possibilities of the individual tools, the experience of use and the advantages or disadvantages are discussed in this paper. This web-site is not a substitute for common statistical software but should significantly improve the teaching of statistics at universities.

Keywords: E-learning, hypothesis testing, PHP, websites.

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