Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 232

Search results for: Crystal X. Jiang

232 Model Predictive Control Using Thermal Inputs for Crystal Growth Dynamics

Authors: Takashi Shimizu, Tomoaki Hashimoto

Abstract:

Recently, crystal growth technologies have made progress by the requirement for the high quality of crystal materials. To control the crystal growth dynamics actively by external forces is useuful for reducing composition non-uniformity. In this study, a control method based on model predictive control using thermal inputs is proposed for crystal growth dynamics of semiconductor materials. The control system of crystal growth dynamics considered here is governed by the continuity, momentum, energy, and mass transport equations. To establish the control method for such thermal fluid systems, we adopt model predictive control known as a kind of optimal feedback control in which the control performance over a finite future is optimized with a performance index that has a moving initial time and terminal time. The objective of this study is to establish a model predictive control method for crystal growth dynamics of semiconductor materials.

Keywords: Model predictive control, optimal control, crystal growth, process control.

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231 Texture Observation of Bending by XRD and EBSD Method

Authors: Takashi Sakai, Yuri Shimomura

Abstract:

The crystal orientation is a factor that affects the microscopic material properties. Crystal orientation determines the anisotropy of the polycrystalline material. And it is closely related to the mechanical properties of the material. In this paper, for pure copper polycrystalline material, two different methods; X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD); and the crystal orientation were analyzed. In the latter method, it is possible that the X-ray beam diameter is thicker as compared to the former, to measure the crystal orientation macroscopically relatively. By measurement of the above, we investigated the change in crystal orientation and internal tissues of pure copper.

Keywords: Bending, electron backscatter diffraction, X-ray diffraction, microstructure, IPF map, orientation distribution function.

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230 Voltage-Controllable Liquid Crystals Lens

Authors: Wen-Chi Hung, Tung-Kai Liu, Ming-Shan Tsai, Chun-Che Lee, I-Min Jiang

Abstract:

This study investigates a voltage-controllable liquid crystals lens with a Fresnel zone electrode. When applying a proper voltage on the liquid crystal cell, a Fresnel-zone-distributed electric field is induced to direct liquid crystals aligned in a concentric structure. Owing to the concentrically aligned liquid crystals, a Fresnel lens is formed. We probe the Fresnel liquid crystal lens using a polarized incident beam with a wavelength of 632.8 nm, finding that the diffraction efficiency depends on the applying voltage. A remarkable diffraction efficiency of ~39.5 % is measured at the voltage of 0.9V. Additionally, a dual focus lens is fabricated by attaching a plane-convex lens to the Fresnel liquid crystals cell. The Fresnel LC lens and the dual focus lens may be applied for DVD/CD pick-up head, confocal microscopy system, or electrically-controlling optical systems.

Keywords: Liquid Crystals Lens, Fresnel Lens, and Dual focus

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229 Carbamazepine Co-crystal Screening with Dicarboxylic Acids Co-Crystal Formers

Authors: Syarifah Abd Rahim, Fatinah Ab Rahman, Engku N. E. M. Nasir, Noor A. Ramle

Abstract:

Co-crystal is believed to improve the solubility and dissolution rates and thus, enhanced the bioavailability of poor water soluble drugs particularly during the oral route of administration. With the existing of poorly soluble drugs in pharmaceutical industry, the screening of co-crystal formation using carbamazepine (CBZ) as a model drug compound with dicarboxylic acids co-crystal formers (CCF) namely fumaric (FA) and succinic (SA) acids in ethanol has been studied. The co-crystal formations were studied by varying the mol ratio values of CCF to CBZ to access the effect of CCF concentration on the formation of the co-crystal. Solvent evaporation, slurry and cooling crystallization which representing the solution based method co-crystal screening were used. Based on the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis, the melting point of CBZ-SA in different ratio was in the range between 188oC-189oC. For CBZ-FA form A and CBZ-FA form B the melting point in different ratio were in the range of 174oC-175oC and 185oC-186oC respectively. The product crystal from the screening was also characterized using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). The XRPD pattern profile analysis has shown that the CBZ co-crystals with FA and SA were successfully formed for all ratios studied. The findings revealed that CBZ-FA co-crystal were formed in two different polymorphs. It was found that CBZ-FA form A and form B were formed from evaporation and slurry crystallization methods respectively. On the other hand, in cooling crystallization method, CBZ-FA form A was formed at lower mol ratio of CCF to CBZ and vice versa. This study disclosed that different methods and mol ratios during the co-crystal screening can affect the outcome of co-crystal produced such as polymorphic forms of co-crystal and thereof. Thus, it was suggested that careful attentions is needed during the screening since the co-crystal formation is currently one of the promising approach to be considered in research and development for pharmaceutical industry to improve the poorly soluble drugs.

Keywords: Carbamazepine, co-crystal, co-crystal former, dicarboxylic acid.

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228 Nepros- An Innovated Crystal Necklace

Authors: Amir A. N, Fadzilan A. M, Baskaran G.

Abstract:

In this paper, we proposed an invention of an accessory into a communication device that will help humans to be connected universally. Generally, this device will be made up of crystal and will combine many technologies that will enable the user to run various applications and software anywhere and everywhere. Bringing up the concept of from being user friendly, we had used the crystal as the main material of the device that will trap the surrounding lights to produce projection of its screen. This leads to a lesser energy consumption and allows smaller sized battery to be used, making the device less bulky. Additionally, we proposed the usage of micro batteries as our energy source. Thus, researches regarding crystal were made along with explanations in details of specification and function of the technology used in the device. Finally, we had also drawn several views of the invention from different sides to be visualized.

Keywords: Crystal, Communication Technology, Future concept device, Micro batteries.

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227 Applying the Crystal Model Approach on Light Nuclei for Calculating Radii and Density Distribution

Authors: A. Amar

Abstract:

A new model namely, the crystal model, has been modified to calculate radius and density distribution of light nuclei up to 8Be. The crystal model has been modified according to solid state physics which uses the analogy between nucleon distribution and atoms distribution in the crystal. The model has analytical analysis to calculate the radius where the density distribution of light nuclei has been obtained from the analogy of crystal lattice. The distribution of nucleons over crystal has been discussed in general form. The equation used to calculate binding energy was taken from the solid-state model of repulsive and attractive force. The numbers of the protons were taken to control repulsive force where the atomic number was responsible for the attractive force. The parameter has been calculated from the crystal model was found to be proportional to the radius of the nucleus. The density distribution of light nuclei was taken as a summation of two clusters distribution as in 6Li=alpha+deuteron configuration. A test has been done on the data obtained for radius and density distribution using double folding for d+6,7Li with M3Y nucleon-nucleon interaction. Good agreement has been obtained for both radius and density distribution of light nuclei. The model failed to calculate the radius of 9Be, so modifications should be done to overcome discrepancy.

Keywords: nuclear lattice, crystal model, light nuclei, nuclear density distributions

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226 Phase Diagram Including a Negative Pressure Region for a Thermotropic Liquid Crystal in a Metal Berthelot Tube

Authors: K. Hiro, T. Wada

Abstract:

Thermodynamic properties of liquids under negative pressures are interesting and important in fields of scienceand technology. Here, phase transitions of a thermotropic liquid crystal are investigatedin a range from positive to negative pressures with a metal Berthelot tube using a commercial pressure transducer.Two co-existinglines, namely crystal (Kr) –nematic (N), and isotropic liquid (I) - nematic (N) lines, weredrawn in a pressure - temperature plane. The I-N line was drawn to ca. -5 (MPa).

Keywords: Berthelot method, liquid crystal, negative pressure.

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225 ICF Neutron Detection Techniques Based on Doped ZnO Crystal

Authors: L. Chen, X. P. Ouyang, Z. B. Zhang, J. F. Zhang, J. L. Liu

Abstract:

Ultrafast doped zinc oxide crystal promised us a good opportunity to build new instruments for ICF fusion neutron measurement. Two pulsed neutron detectors based on ZnO crystal wafer have been conceptually designed, the superfast ZnO timing detector and the scintillation recoil proton neutron detection system. The structure of these detectors was presented, and some characters were studied as well. The new detectors could be much faster than existing systems, and would be more competent for ICF neutron diagnostics.

Keywords: ICF fusion neutron detection, proton recoil telescope, superfast timing, ZnO crystal

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224 The Catalytic Activity of Cu2O Microparticles

Authors: Kanda Wongwailikhit

Abstract:

Copper (I) oxide microparticles with the morphology of cubic and hollow sphere were synthesized with the assistance of surfactant as the shape controller. Both particles were then subjected to study the catalytic activity and observed the results of shape effects of catalysts on rate of catalytic reaction. The decolorizing reaction of crystal violet and sodium hydroxide was chosen and measured the decreasing of reactant with respect to times using spectrophotometer. The result revealed that morphology of crystal had no effect on the catalytic activity for crystal violet reaction but contributed to total surface area predominantly.

Keywords: Copper (I) oxide, Catalytic activity, Crystal violet.

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223 Effect of Chemical Additive on Fixed Abrasive Polishing of LBO Crystal with Non-water Based Slurry

Authors: Jun Li, Wenze Wang, Zhanggui Hu, Yongwei Zhu, Dunwen Zuo

Abstract:

Non-water based fixed abrasive polishing was adopted to manufacture LBO crystal for nano precision surface quality because of its deliquescent. Ethyl alcohol was selected as the non-water based slurry solvent and ethanediamine, lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide was added in the slurry as a chemical additive, respectively. Effect of different additives with non-water based slurry on material removal rate, surface topography, microscopic appearances, and surface roughness were investigated in fixed abrasive polishing of LBO crystal. The results show the best surface quality of LBO crystal with surface roughness Sa 8.2 nm and small damages was obtained by non-water based slurry with lactic acid. Non-water based fixed abrasive polishing can achieve nano precision surface quality of LBO crystal with high material removal.

Keywords: Non-water based slurry, LBO crystal, Fixed abrasive polishing, Surface roughness.

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222 The Effect of the Crystal Field Interaction on the Critical Temperatures and the Sublattice Magnetizations of a Mixed Spin-3/2 and Spin-5/2 Ferrimagnetic System

Authors: Fathi Abubrig, Mohamed Delfag, Suad M. Abuzariba

Abstract:

The influence of the crystal field interactions on the mixed spin-3/2 and spin-5/2 ferrimagnetic Ising system is considered by using the mean field theory based on Bogoliubov inequality for the Gibbs free energy. The ground-state phase diagram is constructed, the phase diagrams of the second-order critical temperatures are obtained, and the thermal variation of the sublattice magnetizations is investigated in detail. We find some interesting phenomena for the sublattice magnetizations at particular values of the crystal field interactions.

Keywords: Crystal field, Ising system, Ferrimagnetic, magnetization, phase diagrams.

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221 Propagation of Cos-Gaussian Beam in Photorefractive Crystal

Authors: A. Keshavarz

Abstract:

A physical model for guiding the wave in photorefractive media is studied. Propagation of cos-Gaussian beam as the special cases of sinusoidal-Gaussian beams in photorefractive crystal is simulated numerically by the Crank-Nicolson method in one dimension. Results show that the beam profile deforms as the energy transfers from the center to the tails under propagation. This simulation approach is of significant interest for application in optical telecommunication. The results are presented graphically and discussed.

Keywords: Beam propagation, cos-Gaussian beam, Numerical simulation, Photorefractive crystal.

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220 Experimental Study on Temperature Dependence of Absorption and Emission Properties of Yb:YAG Crystal as a Disk Laser Medium

Authors: M. Esmaeilzadeh, H. Roohbakhsh, A. Ghaedzadeh

Abstract:

In this paper, the absorption and fluorescence emission spectra of Yb:Y3Al5O12 (YAG)(25 at%) crystal as a disk laser medium are measured at high temperature (300-450K). The absorption and emission cross sections of Yb:YAG crystal are determined using Reciprocity method. Temperature dependence of 941nm absorption cross section and 1031nm emission cross section is extracted in the range of 300-450K. According to our experimental results, an exponential temperature dependence between 300K and 450K is acquired for the 1031nm peak emission cross section and also for 941nm peak absorption cross section of Yb:YAG crystal. These results could be used for simulation and design of high power highly doped Yb:YAG thin disk lasers.

Keywords: Yb:YAG crystal, Emission cross section, Absorption coefficient, Temperature dependence, Reciprocity method.

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219 In-situ Observations Using SEM-EBSD for Bending Deformation in Single-Crystal Materials

Authors: Yuko Matayoshi, Takashi Sakai, Ying-jun Jin, Jun-ichi Koyama

Abstract:

To elucidate the material characteristics of single crystals of pure aluminum and copper, the respective relations between crystallographic orientations and microstructures were examined, along with bending and mechanical properties. The texture distribution was also analysed. Bending tests were performed in a SEM apparatus while its behaviors were observed. Some analytical results related to crystal direction maps, inverse pole figures, and textures were obtained from electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analyses.

Keywords: Pure aluminum, Pure copper, Single crystal, Bending, SEM-EBSD analysis, Texture, Microstructure.

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218 The Effects of Software Size on Development Effort and Software Quality

Authors: Zhizhong Jiang, Peter Naudé, Binghua Jiang

Abstract:

Effective evaluation of software development effort is an important issue during project plan. This study provides a model to predict development effort based on the software size estimated with function points. We generalize the average amount of effort spent on each phase of the development, and give the estimates for the effort used in software building, testing, and implementation. Finally, this paper finds a strong correlation between software defects and software size. As the size of software constantly increases, the quality remains to be a matter which requires major concern.

Keywords: Development effort, function points, software quality, software size.

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217 Evaluation and Preparation of Crystal Modifications of Artesunate: In vivo Studies

Authors: S. Gupta, R. Chadha

Abstract:

Five crystal modifications of water insoluble artesunate were generated by recrystallizing it from various solvents with improved physicochemical properties. These generated crystal forms were characterized to select the most potent and soluble form. SEM of all the forms showed changes in external shape leading them to be different morphologically. DSC thermograms of Form III and Form V showed broad endotherm peaks at 83.04oC and 76.96oC prior to melting fusion of drug respectively. Calculated weight loss in TGA revealed that Form III and Form V are methanol and acetone solvates respectively. However, few additional peaks were appeared in XRPD pattern in these two solvate forms. All forms exhibit exothermic behavior in buffer and two solvates display maximum ease of molecular release from the lattice. Methanol and acetone solvates were found to be most soluble forms and exhibited higher antimalarial efficacy showing higher survival rate (83.3%) after 30 days.

Keywords: Artesunate, Crystal modifications, in vivo studies, Recrystallization.

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216 Low Nonlinear Effects Index-Guiding Nanostructured Photonic Crystal Fiber

Authors: S. Olyaee, M. Seifouri, A. Nikoosohbat, M. Shams Esfand Abadi

Abstract:

Photonic Crystal Fibers (PCFs) can be used in optical communications as transmission lines. For this reason, the PCFs with low confinement loss, low chromatic dispersion, and low nonlinear effects are highly suitable transmission media. In this paper, we introduce a new design of index-guiding nanostructured photonic crystal fiber (IG-NPCF) with ultra-low chromatic dispersion, low nonlinearity effects, and low confinement loss. Relatively low dispersion is achieved in the wavelength range of 1200 to 1600nm using the proposed design. According to the new structure of nanostructured PCF presented in this study, the chromatic dispersion slope is -30(ps/km.nm) and the confinement loss reaches below 10-7 dB/km. While in the wavelength range mentioned above at the same time an effective area of more than 50.2μm2 is obtained.

Keywords: Optical communication systems, nanostructured, index-guiding, dispersion, confinement loss, photonic crystal fiber.

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215 Durability Enhancement of CaSO4 in Repetitive Operation of Chemical Heat Pump

Authors: Y. Shiren, M. Masuzawa, H. Ohkura, T. Yamagata, Y. Aman, N. Kobayashi

Abstract:

An important problem for the CaSO4/CaSO4・1/2H2O Chemical heat pump (CHP) is that the material is deactivated through repetitive reaction between hydration and dehydration in which the crystal phase of the material is transformed from III-CaSO4 to II-CaSO4. We investigated suppression on the phase change by adding a sulfated compound. The most effective material was MgSO4. MgSO4 doping increased the durability of CaSO4 in the actual CHP repetitive cycle of hydration/dehydration to 3.6 times that of undoped CaSO4. The MgSO4-doped CaSO4 showed a higher phase transition temperature and activation energy for crystal transformation from III-CaSO4 to II-CaSO4. MgSO4 doping decreased the crystal lattice size of CaSO4・1/2H2O and II-CaSO4 to smaller than that of undoped CaSO4. Modification of the crystal structure is considered to be related to the durability change in CaSO4 resulting from MgSO4 doping.

Keywords: CaSO4, chemical heat pump, durability of chemical heat storage material, heat storage.

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214 The Fabrication of Scintillator Column by Hydraulic Pressure Injection Method

Authors: C. C. Chen, C. M. Chu, C. J. Wang, C. Y. Chen, K. J. Huang

Abstract:

Cesiumiodide with Na doping (CsI(Na)) solution or melt is easily forming three- dimension dendrites on the free surface. The defects or bobbles form inside the CsI(Na) during the solution or melt solidification. The defects or bobbles can further effect the x-ray path in the CsI(Na) crystal and decrease the scintillation characteristics of CsI(Na). In order to enhance the CsI(Na) scintillated property we made single crystal of CsI(Na) column in the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template by hydraulic pressure injection method. It is interesting that when CsI(Na) melt is confined in the small AAO channels, the column grow as stable single column without any dendrites. The high aspect ratio (100~10000) of AAO and nano to sub-micron channel structure which is a suitable template for single of crystal CsI(Na) formation. In this work, a new low-cost approach to fabricate scintillator crystals using anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) rather than Si is reported, which can produce scintillator crystals with a wide range of controllable size to optimize their performance in X-ray detection.

Keywords: Cesiumiodide, AAO, scintillator, crystal, X-ray.

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213 Fabrication of Cesium Iodide Columns by Rapid Heating Method

Authors: Chien-Wan Hun, Shao-Fu Chang, Chien-Chon Chen, Ker-Jer Huang

Abstract:

This study presents how to use a high-efficiency process for producing cesium iodide (CsI) crystal columns by rapid heating method. In the past, the heating rate of the resistance wire heating furnace was relatively slow and excessive iodine and CsI vapors were therefore generated during heating. Because much iodine and CsI vapors are produced during heating process, the composition of CsI crystal columns is not correct. In order to enhance the heating rate, making CsI material in the heating process can quickly reach the melting point temperature. This study replaced the traditional type of external resistance heating furnace with halogen-type quartz heater, and then, CsI material can quickly reach the melting point. Eventually, CsI melt can solidify in the anodic aluminum template forming CsI crystal columns.

Keywords: Cesium iodide, high efficiency, vapor, rapid heating, crystal column.

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212 Experimental Study of Tunable Layout Printed Fresnel Lens Structure Based on Dye Doped Liquid Crystal

Authors: M. Javadzadeh, H. Khoshsima

Abstract:

In this article, we present a layout printing way for producing Fresnel zone on 1294-1b doped liquid crystal with Methyl-Red azo dye. We made a Fresnel zone mask with 25 zones and radius of 5 mm using lithography technique. With layout printing way, we recorded mask’s pattern on cell with λ=532 nm solid-state diode pump laser. By recording Fresnel zone pattern on cell and making Fresnel pattern on the surface of cell, odd and even zones, will form. The printed pattern, because of Azo dye’s photoisomerization, was permanent. Experimentally, we saw focal length tunability from 32 cm to 43 cm.

Keywords: Liquid crystal, lens, Fresnel zone, diffraction, Fresnel lens.

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211 Increasing Directional Intensity of Output Light Beam from Photonic Crystal Slab Outlet Including Micro Cavity Resonators

Authors: A. Mobini, K. Saghafi, V. Ahmadi

Abstract:

in this paper we modified a simple two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguide by creating micro cavity resonators in order to increase the output light emission which can be applicable to photonic integrated circuits. The micro cavity resonators are constructed by removing two tubes close to the waveguide output. Coupling emitted light from waveguide with those micro cavities, results increasing intensity of waveguide output light. Inserting a tube in last row of waveguide, we have improved directionality of output light beam.

Keywords: photonic crystal, waveguide, micro cavity resonators, directional emission

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210 Adsorption of Crystal Violet onto BTEA- and CTMA-bentonite from Aqueous Solutions

Authors: Ren Jian-min, Wu Si-wei, Jin Wei

Abstract:

CTMA-bentonite and BTEA-Bentonite prepared by Na-bentonite cation exchanged with cetyltrimethylammonium(CTMA) and benzyltriethylammonium (BTEA). Products were characterized by XRD and IR techniques.The d001 spacing value of CTMA-bentonite and BTEA-bentonite are 7.54Å and 3.50Å larger than that of Na-bentonite at 100% cation exchange capacity, respectively. The IR spectrum showed that the intensities of OH stretching and bending vibrations of the two organoclays decreased greatly comparing to untreated Na-bentonite. Batch experiments were carried out at 303 K, 318 K and 333 K to obtain the sorption isotherms of Crystal violet onto the two organoclays. The results show that the sorption isothermal data could be well described by Freundlich model. The dynamical data for the two organoclays fit well with pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The adsorption capacity of CTMA-bentonite was found higher than that of BTEA-Bentonite. Thermodynamic parameters such as changes in the free energy (ΔG°), the enthalpy (ΔH°) and the entropy (ΔS°) were also evaluated. The overall adsorption process of Crystal violet onto the two organoclays were spontaneous, endothermic physisorption. The CTMA-bentonite and BTEA-Bentonite could be employed as low-cost alternatives to activated carbon in wastewater treatment for the removal of color which comes from textile dyes.

Keywords: Characterization, Adsorption, Crystal violet, Bentonite, BTEA, CTMA

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209 A High-Resolution Refractive Index Sensor Based on a Magnetic Photonic Crystal

Authors: Ti-An Tsai, Chun-Chih Wang, Hung-Wen Wang, I-Ling Chang, Lien-Wen Chen

Abstract:

In this study, we demonstrate a high-resolution refractive index sensor based on a Magnetic Photonic Crystal (MPC) composed of a triangular lattice array of air holes embedded in Si matrix. A microcavity is created by changing the radius of an air hole in the middle of the photonic crystal. The cavity filled with gyrotropic materials can serve as a refractive index sensor. The shift of the resonant frequency of the sensor is obtained numerically using finite difference time domain method under different ambient conditions having refractive index from n = 1.0 to n = 1.1. The numerical results show that a tiny change in refractive index of  Δn = 0.0001 is distinguishable. In addition, the spectral response of the MPC sensor is studied while an external magnetic field is present. The results show that the MPC sensor exhibits a dramatic improvement in resolution.

Keywords: Magnetic photonic crystal, refractive index sensor, sensitivity, high-resolution.

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208 Differences in IT Effectiveness among Firms: An Empirical Investigation

Authors: Crystal X. Jiang, Tess Han, George J. Titus, Matthew J. Liberatore

Abstract:

Information is a critical asset and an important source for gaining competitive advantage in firms. The effective maintenance of IT becomes an important task. In order to better understand the determinants of IT effectiveness, this study employs the Industrial Organization (I/O) and Resource Based View (RBV) theories and investigates the industry effect and several major firmspecific factors in relation to their impact on firms- IT effectiveness. The data consist of a panel data of ten-year observations of firms whose IT excellence had been recognized by the CIO Magazine. The non-profit organizations were deliberately excluded, as explained later. The results showed that the effectiveness of IT management varied significantly across industries. Industry also moderated the effects of firm demographic factors such as size and age on IT effectiveness. Surprisingly, R & D investment intensity had negative correlation to IT effectiveness. For managers and practitioners, this study offers some insights for evaluation criteria and expectation for IT project success. Finally, the empirical results indicate that the sustainability of IT effectiveness appears to be short in duration.

Keywords: Firm effect, industry effect, IT effectiveness, sustained IT effectiveness.

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207 Microstructure Parameters of a Super-Ionic Sample (Csag2i3)

Authors: Samir Osman M., Mohammed Hassan S.

Abstract:

Sample of CsAg2I3 was prepared by solid state reaction. Then, microstructure parameters of this sample have been determined using wide angle X-ray scattering WAXS method. As well as, Cell parameters of crystal structure have been refined using CHEKCELL program. This analysis states that the lattice intrinsic strainof the sample is so small and the crystal size is on the order of 559Å.

Keywords: WAXS, Microstructure parameters, super-ionic conductor.

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206 Synthesis of Dispersion-Compensating Triangular Lattice Index-Guiding Photonic Crystal Fibers Using the Directed Tabu Search Method

Authors: F. Karim

Abstract:

In this paper, triangular lattice index-guiding photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) are synthesized to compensate the chromatic dispersion of a single mode fiber (SMF-28) for an 80 km optical link operating at 1.55 µm, by using the directed tabu search algorithm. Hole-to-hole distance, circular air-hole diameter, solid-core diameter, ring number and PCF length parameters are optimized for this purpose. Three Synthesized PCFs with different physical parameters are compared in terms of their objective functions values, residual dispersions and compensation ratios.

Keywords: Triangular lattice index-guiding photonic crystal fiber, dispersion compensation, directed tabu search, synthesis.

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205 Computation of the Filtering Properties of Photonic Crystal Waveguide Discontinuities Using the Mode Matching Method

Authors: Athanasios Theoharidis, Thomas Kamalakis, Ioannis Neokosmidis, Thomas Sphicopoulos

Abstract:

In this paper, the application of the Mode Matching (MM) method in the case of photonic crystal waveguide discontinuities is presented. The structure under consideration is divided into a number of cells, which supports a number of guided and evanescent modes. These modes can be calculated numerically by an alternative formulation of the plane wave expansion method for each frequency. A matrix equation is then formed relating the modal amplitudes at the beginning and at the end of the structure. The theory is highly efficient and accurate and can be applied to study the transmission sensitivity of photonic crystal devices due to fabrication tolerances. The accuracy of the MM method is compared to the Finite Difference Frequency Domain (FDFD) and the Adjoint Variable Method (AVM) and good agreement is observed.

Keywords: Optical Communications, Integrated Optics, Photonic Crystals, Optical Waveguide Discontinuities.

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204 Fabrication of Single Crystal of Mg Alloys Containing Rare Earth Elements

Authors: Joon Ho Kim, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

Single crystals of Magnesium alloys such as Mg-1Al, Mg-1Zn-0.5Y, Mg-3Li, and AZ31 alloys were successfully fabricated in this study by employing the modified Bridgman method. Single crystals of pure Mg were also made in this study. To determine the exact orientation of crystals, Laue back-reflection method and pole figure measurement were carried out on each single crystal. Dimensions of single crystals were 10 mm in diameter and 120 mm in length. Hardness and compression tests were conducted and the results revealed that hardness and the strength strongly depended on the orientation. The closer to basal one the orientation was, the higher hardness and compressive strength were. The effect of alloying was not higher than that of orientation. After compressive deformation of single crystals, the orientation of the crystals was found to rotate and to be parallel to the basal orientation.

Keywords: Compressive strength, Hardness, Mg alloys, Modified Bridgman method, Orientation, Pole figure, Single crystal.

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203 Growth and Characterization of L-Asparagine (LAS) Crystal Admixture of Paranitrophenol (PNP): A NLO Material

Authors: Grace Sahaya Sheba, P. Omegala Priyakumari, M. Gunasekaran

Abstract:

L-asparagine admixture Paranitrophenol (LAPNP) single crystals were grown successfully by solution method with slow evaporation technique at room temperature. Crystals of size 12mm×5 mm×3mm have been obtained in 15 days. The grown crystals were Brown color and transparent. The solubility of the grown samples has been found out at various temperatures. The lattice parameters of the grown crystals were determined by X-ray diffraction technique. The reflection planes of the sample were confirmed by the powder X-ray diffraction study and diffraction peaks were indexed. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) studies were used to confirm the presence of various functional groups in the crystals. UV–visible absorption spectrum was recorded to study the optical transparency of grown crystal. The nonlinear optical (NLO) property of the grown crystal was confirmed by Kurtz–Perry powder technique and a study of its second harmonic generation efficiency in comparison with potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) has been made. The mechanical strength of the crystal was estimated by Vickers hardness test. The grown crystals were subjected to thermo gravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA). The dielectric behavior of the sample was also studied

Keywords: Characterization, Microhardnes, Non-linear optical materials, Solution growth, Spectroscopy, XRD.

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