Search results for: Food desert
627 Food Deserts and the Sociology of Space: Distance to Food Retailers and Food Insecurity in an Urban American Neighborhood
Authors: Brian J. Thomas
Recent changes in food retailing structure have led to the development of large supercenters in suburban areas of the United States. These changes have led some authors to suggest that there are food deserts in some urban areas, where food is difficult to access, especially for disadvantaged consumers. This study tests the food desert hypothesis by comparing the distance from food retailers to food secure and food insecure households in one urban, Midwest neighborhood. This study utilizes GIS to compare household survey respondent locations against the location of various types of area food retailers. Results of this study indicate no apparent difference between food secure and insecure households in the reported importance of distance on the decision to shop at various retailers. However, there were differences in the spatial relationship between households and retailers. Food insecure households tended to be located slightly farther from large food retailers and slightly closer to convenience stores. Furthermore, food insecure households reported traveling slightly farther to their primary food retailer. The differences between the two groups was, however, relatively small.
Keywords: Food desert, food retailer, food security, sociology.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 5637
626 Geo-Spatial Methods to Better Understand Urban Food Deserts
Authors: Brian Ceh, Alison Jackson-Holland
Abstract:Food deserts are a reality in some cities. These deserts can be described as a shortage of healthy food options within close proximity of consumers. The shortage in this case is typically facilitated by a lack of stores in an urban area that provide adequate fruit and vegetable choices. This study explores new avenues to better understand food deserts by examining modes of transportation that are available to shoppers or consumers, e.g. walking, automobile, or public transit. Further, this study is unique in that it not only explores the location of large grocery stores, but small grocery and convenience stores too. In this study, the relationship between some socio-economic indicators, such as personal income, are also explored to determine any possible association with food deserts. In addition, to help facilitate our understanding of food deserts, complex network spatial models that are built on adequate algorithms are used to investigate the possibility of food deserts in the city of Hamilton, Canada. It is found that Hamilton, Canada is adequate serviced by retailers who provide healthy food choices and that the food desert phenomena is almost absent.
Keywords: Canada, desert, food, Hamilton, stores.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 953
625 A Previously Underappreciated Impact on Global Warming caused by the Geometrical and Physical Properties of desert sand
Authors: Y. F. Yang, B. T. Wang, J. J. Fan, J. Yin
Abstract:The previous researches focused on the influence of anthropogenic greenhouse gases exerting global warming, but not consider whether desert sand may warm the planet, this could be improved by accounting for sand's physical and geometric properties. Here we show, sand particles (because of their geometry) at the desert surface form an extended surface of up to 1 + π/4 times the planar area of the desert that can contact sunlight, and at shallow depths of the desert form another extended surface of at least 1 + π times the planar area that can contact air. Based on this feature, an enhanced heat exchange system between sunlight, desert sand, and air in the spaces between sand particles could be built up automatically, which can increase capture of solar energy, leading to rapid heating of the sand particles, and then the heating of sand particles will dramatically heat the air between sand particles. The thermodynamics of deserts may thus have contributed to global warming, especially significant to future global warming if the current desertification continues to expand.
Keywords: global warming, desert sand, extended surface, heat exchange, thermodynamicsProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1389
624 Phytopathology Prediction in Dry Soil Using Artificial Neural Networks Modeling
Authors: F. Allag, S. Bouharati, M. Belmahdi, R. Zegadi
The rapid expansion of deserts in recent decades as a result of human actions combined with climatic changes has highlighted the necessity to understand biological processes in arid environments. Whereas physical processes and the biology of flora and fauna have been relatively well studied in marginally used arid areas, knowledge of desert soil micro-organisms remains fragmentary. The objective of this study is to conduct a diversity analysis of bacterial communities in unvegetated arid soils. Several biological phenomena in hot deserts related to microbial populations and the potential use of micro-organisms for restoring hot desert environments. Dry land ecosystems have a highly heterogeneous distribution of resources, with greater nutrient concentrations and microbial densities occurring in vegetated than in bare soils. In this work, we found it useful to use techniques of artificial intelligence in their treatment especially artificial neural networks (ANN). The use of the ANN model, demonstrate his capability for addressing the complex problems of uncertainty data.
Keywords: Desert soil, Climatic changes, Bacteria, Vegetation, Artificial neural networks.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1780
623 Productivity and Energy Management in Desert Urban
Authors: Masoud Nasri, Rahele Hekmatpanah
Abstract:Growing world population has fundamental impacts and often catastrophic on natural habitat. The immethodical consumption of energy, destruction of the forests and extinction of plant and animal species are the consequence of this experience. Urban sustainability and sustainable urban development, that is so spoken these days, should be considered as a strategy, goal and policy, beyond just considering environmental issues and protection. The desert-s climate has made a bunch of problems for its residents. Very hot and dry climate in summers of the Iranian desert areas, when there was no access to modern energy source and mechanical cooling systems in the past, made Iranian architects to design a natural ventilation system in their buildings. The structure, like a tower going upward the roof, besides its ornamental application and giving a beautiful view to the building, was used as a spontaneous ventilation system. In this paper, it has been tried to name the problems of the area and it-s inconvenience, then some answers has pointed out in order to solve the problems and as an alternative solution BADGIR (wind-catcher) has been introduced as a solution knowing that it has been playing a major role in dealing with the problems.
Keywords: Productivity, Sustainable development, hot aridzones, climate design, BADGIR (wind-catcher)Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1512
622 Activation of Prophenoloxidase during Bacterial Injection into the Desert Locust, Schistocerca Gregaria
Authors: Shaiemaa, A. Momen, Dalia, A.M. Salem, Emad, M.S. Barakat, Mohamed, S. Salama
Abstract:The present study has been conducted to characterize the prophenoloxidase (PPO) system of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria following injection of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki (Bt). The bulk of PPO system was associated with haemocytes and a little amount was found in plasma. This system was activated by different activators such as laminarin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and trypsin suggesting that the stimulatory mechanism may involve an enzyme cascade of one or more associated molecules. These activators did not activate all the molecules of the cascade. Presence of phenoloxidase activity (PO) coincides with the appearance of protein band with molecular weight (MW) 70.154 KD (Kilo Dalton).
Keywords: Schistocerca gregaria, haemolymph, proteins, prophenoloxidase system, phenoloxidaseProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1616
621 Food Safety Culture Paramount Than Traditional Food Safety System and Food Safety Culture in South African Food Industries
Authors: Oluwatosin A. Ijabadeniyi
Abstract:The fact that traditional food safety system in the absence of food safety culture is inadequate has recently become a cause of concern for food safety professionals and other stakeholders. Focusing on implementation of traditional food safety system i.e HACCP prerequisite program and HACCP without the presence of food safety culture in the food industry has led to the processing, marketing and distribution of contaminated foods. The results of this are regular out breaks of food borne illnesses and recalls of foods from retail outlets with serious consequences to the consumers and manufacturers alike. This article will consider the importance of food safety culture, the cases of outbreaks and recalls that occurred when companies did not make food safety culture a priority. Most importantly, the food safety cultures of some food industries in South Africa were assessed from responses to questionnaires from food safety/food industry professionals in Durban South Africa. The article was concluded by recommending that both food industry employees and employers alike take food safety culture seriously.
Keywords: Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs), food borne illnesses, food safety culture, food safety system, HACCP.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2983
620 The Impact of Hospital Intensive Care Unit Window Design on Daylighting and Energy Performance in Desert Climate
Authors: A. Sherif, H. Sabry, A. Elzafarany, M. Gadelhak, R. Arafa, M. Aly
Abstract:This paper addresses the design of hospital Intensive Care Unit windows for the achievement of visual comfort and energy savings. The aim was to identify the window size and shading system configurations that could fulfill daylighting adequacy, avoid glare and reduce energy consumption. The study focused on addressing the effect of utilizing different shading systems in association with a range of Window-to-Wall Ratios (WWR) in different orientations under the desert clear-sky of Cairo, Egypt. The results of this study demonstrated that solar penetration is a critical concern affecting the design of ICU windows in desert locations, as in Cairo, Egypt. Use of shading systems was found to be essential in providing acceptable daylight performance and energy saving. Careful positioning of the ICU window towards a proper orientation can dramatically improve performance. It was observed that ICU windows facing the north direction enjoyed the widest range of successful window configuration possibilities at different WWRs. ICU windows facing south enjoyed a reasonable number of configuration options as well. By contrast, the ICU windows facing the east orientation had a very limited number of options that provide acceptable performance. These require additional local shading measures at certain times due to glare incidence. Moreover, use of horizontal sun breakers and solar screens to protect the ICU windows proved to be more successful than the other alternatives in a wide range of Window to Wall Ratios. By contrast, the use of light shelves and vertical shading devices seemed questionable.
Keywords: Daylighting, Desert, Energy Efficiency, Shading.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2120
619 An Assessment of Food Control System and Development Perspective: The Case of Myanmar
Authors: Wai Yee Lin, Masahiro Yamao
Food control measures are critical in fostering food safety management of a nation. However, no academic study has been undertaken to assess the food control system of Myanmar up to now. The objective of this research paper was to assess the food control system with in depth examination of five key components using desktop analysis and short survey from related food safety program organizations including regulators and inspectors. Study showed that the existing food control system is conventional, mainly focusing on primary health care approach while relying on reactive measures. The achievements of food control work have been limited to a certain extent due to insufficienttechnical capacity that is needed to upgrade staffs, laboratory equipment and technical assistance etc. associated with various sectors. Assessing food control measures is the first step in the integration of food safety management, this paper could assist policy makers in providing information for enhancing the safety and quality of food produced and consumed in Myanmar.
Keywords: Food Control, Food Policy, Legislation, ManagementProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3829
618 Food Security in Nigeria: An Examination of Food Availability and Accessibility in Nigeria
Authors: Chimaobi Valentine Okolo, Chizoba Obidigbo
Abstract:As a basic physiology need, threat to sufficient food production is threat to human survival. Food security has been an issue that has gained global concern. This paper looks at the food security in Nigeria by assessing the availability of food and accessibility of the available food. The paper employed multiple linear regression technique and graphic trends of growth rates of relevant variables to show the situation of food security in Nigeria. Results of the tests revealed that population growth rate was higher than the growth rate of food availability in Nigeria for the earlier period of the study. Commercial bank credit to agricultural sector, foreign exchange utilization for food and the Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund (ACGSF) contributed significantly to food availability in Nigeria. Food prices grew at a faster rate than the average income level, making it difficult to access sufficient food. It implies that prior to the year 2012; there was insufficient food to feed the Nigerian populace. However, continued credit to the food and agricultural sector will ensure sustained and sufficient production of food in Nigeria. Microfinance banks should make sufficient credit available to smallholder farmer. Government should further control and subsidize the rising price of food to make it more accessible by the people.
Keywords: Food security, food availability and food accessibility.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 5878
617 The Effect of Fast Food Globalisation on Students’ Food Choice
Authors: Ijeoma Chinyere Ukonu
Abstract:This research seeks to investigate how the globalisation of fast food has affected students’ food choice. A mixed method approach was used in this research; basically involving quantitative and qualitative methods. The quantitative method uses a self-completion questionnaire to randomly sample one hundred and four students; while the qualitative method uses a semi structured interview technique to survey four students on their knowledge and choice to consume fast food. A cross tabulation of variables and the Kruskal Wallis nonparametric test were used to analyse the quantitative data; while the qualitative data was analysed through deduction of themes, and trends from the interview transcribe. The findings revealed that globalisation has amplified the evolution of fast food, popularising it among students. Its global presence has affected students’ food choice and preference. Price, convenience, taste, and peer influence are some of the major factors affecting students’ choice of fast food. Though, students are familiar with the health effect of fast food and the significance of using food information labels for healthy choice making, their preference of fast food is more than homemade food.
Keywords: Fast food, food choice, globalisation, students.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 8386
616 IT System in the Food Supply Chain Safety: Application in SMEs Sector
Authors: Mohsen Shirani, Micaela Demichela
Abstract:Food supply chain is one of the most complex supply chain networks due to its perishable nature and customer oriented products, and food safety is the major concern for this industry. IT system could help to minimize the production and consumption of unsafe food by controlling and monitoring the entire system. However, there have been many issues in adoption of IT system in this industry specifically within SMEs sector. With this regard, this study presents a novel approach to use IT and tractability systems in the food supply chain, using application of RFID and central database.
Keywords: Food Supply Chain, IT System, Food Safety, SME.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2070
615 Integration of FMEA and Human Factor in the Food Chain Risk Assessment
Authors: Mohsen Shirani, Micaela Demichela
Abstract:During the last decades, a number of food crises such as Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), Mad-Cow disease, Dioxin in chicken food, Food-and-Mouth Disease (FMD), have certainly inflected the reliability of the food industry. Consequently, the trend in applying different scientific methods of risk assessment in food safety has obtained more attentions in the academic and practice. However, lack of practical approach considering entire food supply chain is tangible in the academic literature. In this regard, this paper aims to apply risk assessment tool (FMEA) with integration of Human Factor along the entire supply chain of food production and test the method in a case study of Diary production, and analyze its results.
Keywords: Food Risk Assessment, FMEA, Human Factor.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2715
614 Food Package Design to Preserve Food Temperature
Authors: Sugiono, W. Ardiatna, H. Firdaus, N. Kusnandar, B. Utomo, J. A. Kadar
It is desirable that most human food is warm when eaten, including when food is obtained by taking it away from the point of sale in disposable food packaging. However, such packaging does not retain heat for a long time, which is necessary to ensure the food remains warm when eaten. The study looked for single-use food packaging that could retain the heat of the food for a long time. The methodology for obtaining such packaging is either by modifying available packages on the market or by making new ones with materials that are easily obtained locally, then testing by loading the local food and measuring its temperature and the length of time until it reaches the lowest acceptable temperature for hot food (56°C). Packages made of plastic boxes lined with thin aluminum foil on the inside are the best way to keep food warm for up to 44 minutes from the time it is put in the package to the time the required temperature is reached. Moreover, packaging made of local common food paper, where the food was put in a transparent plastic bag inside the package, was found to be the simplest package that could retain heat for 82.31% as long as the best packaging could, in this study. Plastic boxes with thin aluminum foil inside were the best single-use food packaging in this study that served to keep hot food warm and fit for consumption.
Keywords: Aluminum foil, hot food, local food, packaging.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 549
613 Nutrition and Food Safety as Strategic Assets
Authors: Daniel C. S. Lim, W. Y. Tan
The world is facing a growing food crisis. The concerns of food nutritional value, food safety and food security are becoming increasingly real. There is also a direct relationship to the risk of diseases, particularly chronic diseases, to the food we consume. So, there are increasing concerns about the modern day food ecosystem creating foods that can provide the nutritional components for organ function sustenance, as well as, taking a serious view on diet-related diseases. This paper addresses some of the above concerns and gives an overview of the current global situation relating to food nutrition and safety. The paper reviews nutritional aspects of food today compared to those of the last century, compares whole foods found in supermarkets versus those organically grown, as well as population behaviour towards food choices. It provides scientific insights into the effects of some of the global trends such as climate change and other changes environmental changes, and presents what individuals and corporations are doing to use the latest nutritional technologies as strategic assets. Finally, it briefly highlights some of the innovative solutions that are being applied to address several of the above concerns.
Keywords: Food crisis, food safety, nutritional aspects of food today compared to those of the last century, global trends.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1412
612 Survey of Impact of Production and Adoption of Nanocrops on Food Security
Authors: Sahar Dehyouri, Seyed Jamal Farajollah Hosseini
Abstract:Perspective of food security in 21 century showed shortage of food that production is faced to vital problem. Food security strategy is applied longtime method to assess required food. Meanwhile, nanotechnology revolution changes the world face. Nanotechnology is adequate method utilize of its characteristics to decrease environmental problems and possible further access to food for small farmers. This article will show impact of production and adoption of nanocrops on food security. Population is researchers of agricultural research center of Esfahan province. The results of study show that there was a relationship between uses, conversion, distribution, and production of nanocrops, operative human resources, operative circumstance, and constrains of usage of nanocrops and food security. Multivariate regression analysis by enter model shows that operative circumstance, use, production and constrains of usage of nanocrops had positive impact on food security and they determine in four steps 20 percent of it.
Keywords: adoption, food safety, food security, nanocropsProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1593
611 Energy Efficient Shading Strategies for Windows of Hospital ICUs in the Desert
Authors: A. Sherif, A. El Zafarany, R. Arafa
Hospitals, everywhere, are considered heavy energy consumers. Hospital Intensive Care Unit spaces pose a special challenge, where design guidelines requires the provision of external windows for daylighting and external view. Window protection strategies could be employed to reduce energy loads without detriment effect on comfort or health care. This paper addresses the effectiveness of using various window strategies on the annual cooling, heating and lighting energy use of a typical Hospital Intensive Unit space. Series of experiments were performed using the EnergyPlus simulation software for a typical Intensive Care Unit (ICU) space in Cairo, located in the Egyptian desert. This study concluded that the use of shading systems is more effective in conserving energy in comparison with glazing of different types, in the Cairo ICUs. The highest energy savings in the West and South orientations were accomplished by external perforated solar screens, followed by overhangs positioned at a protection angle of 45°.
Keywords: Energy, Hospital, Intensive Care Units, Shading.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2376
610 Development of a Real-Time Energy Models for Photovoltaic Water Pumping System
Authors: Ammar Mahjoubi, Ridha Fethi Mechlouch, Belgacem Mahdhaoui, Ammar Ben Brahim
Abstract:This purpose of this paper is to develop and validate a model to accurately predict the cell temperature of a PV module that adapts to various mounting configurations, mounting locations, and climates while only requiring readily available data from the module manufacturer. Results from this model are also compared to results from published cell temperature models. The models were used to predict real-time performance from a PV water pumping systems in the desert of Medenine, south of Tunisia using 60-min intervals of measured performance data during one complete year. Statistical analysis of the predicted results and measured data highlight possible sources of errors and the limitations and/or adequacy of existing models, to describe the temperature and efficiency of PV-cells and consequently, the accuracy of performance of PV water pumping systems prediction models.
Keywords: Temperature of a photovoltaic module, Predicted models, PV water pumping systems efficiency, Simulation, Desert of southern Tunisia.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1727
609 Functional Food Knowledge and Perceptions among Young Consumers in Malaysia
Authors: G. Rezai, P.K.Teng, Z. Mohamed, M.N Shamsudin
Abstract:Changing in consumers lifestyles and food consumption patterns provide a great opportunity in developing the functional food sector in Malaysia. There is only a little knowledge about whether Malaysian consumers are aware of functional food and if so what image consumers have of this product. The objective of this research is to determine the extent to which selected socioeconomic characteristics and attitudes influence consumers- awareness of functional food. A survey was conducted in the Klang Valley, Malaysia where 439 respondents were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The result shows that most respondents have a positive attitude towards functional food. For the binary logistic estimation, the results indicate that age, income and other factors such as concern about food safety, subscribing to cooking or health magazines, being a vegetarian and consumers who have been involved in a food production company significantly influence Malaysian consumers- awareness towards functional food.
Keywords: Binary logistic model, functional foods, knowledge and awareness, perceptionProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 5406
608 Rethinking Research for Genetically Modified (GM) Food
Abstract:This paper suggests a rethinking of the existing research about Genetically Modified (GM) food. Since the first batch of GM food was commercialised in the UK market, GM food rapidly received and lost media attention in the UK. Disagreement on GM food policy between the US and the EU has also drawn scholarly attention to this issue. Much research has been carried out intending to understand people-s views about GM food and the shaping of these views. This paper was based on the data collected in twenty-nine semi-structured interviews, which were examined through Erving Goffman-s idea of self-presentation in interactions to suggest that the existing studies investigating “consumer attitudes" towards GM food have only considered the “front stage" in the dramaturgic metaphor. This paper suggests that the ways in which people choose to present themselves when participating these studies should be taken into account during the data analysis.
Keywords: Boundary work, demarcation of science, GM food, self-presentationProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1304
607 User Survey on Food and Drinks in Japanese Public Libraries
Authors: Marika Kawamoto, Keita Tsuji
Several decades ago, food and drinks were disallowed in most Japanese libraries. However, as discussions of “Library as a Place” have increased in recent years, the number of public and university libraries that have relaxed their policies to allow food and drinks have been increasing. This study focused on the opinions of library users on allowing food and drinks in public libraries and conducted a questionnaire survey among users of nine Japanese libraries. The results indicated that many users favored allowing food and drinks in libraries. Furthermore, it was found that users tend to frequently visit and stay longer in libraries where food and drinks are allowed.
Keywords: Food and drinks, Japanese libraries, opinions of users, public libraries.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 901
606 The Effect of Oil Price Uncertainty on Food Price in South Africa
Authors: Goodness C. Aye
This paper examines the effect of the volatility of oil prices on food price in South Africa using monthly data covering the period 2002:01 to 2014:09. Food price is measured by the South African consumer price index for food while oil price is proxied by the Brent crude oil. The study employs the GARCH-in-mean VAR model, which allows the investigation of the effect of a negative and positive shock in oil price volatility on food price. The model also allows the oil price uncertainty to be measured as the conditional standard deviation of a one-step-ahead forecast error of the change in oil price. The results show that oil price uncertainty has a positive and significant effect on food price in South Africa. The responses of food price to a positive and negative oil price shocks is asymmetric.
Keywords: Oil price volatility, Food price, Bivariate GARCH-in- mean VAR, Asymmetric.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2586
605 PCR based Detection of Food Borne Pathogens
Authors: Archana Panchapakesan Iyer, Taha Abdullah Kumosani
Abstract:Many high-risk pathogens that cause disease in humans are transmitted through various food items. Food-borne disease constitutes a major public health problem. Assessment of the quality and safety of foods is important in human health. Rapid and easy detection of pathogenic organisms will facilitate precautionary measures to maintain healthy food. The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a handy tool for rapid detection of low numbers of bacteria. We have designed gene specific primers for most common food borne pathogens such as Staphylococci, Salmonella and E.coli. Bacteria were isolated from food samples of various food outlets and identified using gene specific PCRs. We identified Staphylococci, Salmonella and E.coli O157 using gene specific primers by rapid and direct PCR technique in various food samples. This study helps us in getting a complete picture of the various pathogens that threaten to cause and spread food borne diseases and it would also enable establishment of a routine procedure and methodology for rapid identification of food borne bacteria using the rapid technique of direct PCR. This study will also enable us to judge the efficiency of present food safety steps taken by food manufacturers and exporters.
Keywords: food borne pathogens, PCR, food safety, rapiddetection.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2653
604 Effect of Cement-kiln Dust Pollution on The Vegetation in The Western Mediterranean Desert of Egypt
Authors: Amal, M. Fakhry, M. M. Migahid
Abstract:This study investigated the ecological effects of particulate pollution from a cement factory on the vegetation in the western Mediterranean coastal desert of Egypt. Variations in vegetation, soil chemical characters, and some responses of Atriplex halimus, as a dominant species in the study area, were investigated in some sites located in different directions from the cement factory between Burg El-Arab in the east and El-Hammam in the west. The results showed an obvious decrease in vegetation diversity, in response to cement-kiln dust pollution, that accompanied by a high dominance attributed to the high contribution of Atriplex halimus. Annual species were found to be more sensitive to cement dust pollution as they all failed to persist in highly disturbed sites. It is remarkable that cover and phytomass of Atriplex halimus were increased greatly in response to cement dust pollution, and this was accompanied by a reduction in the mature seeds and leaf-area of the plant. The few seeds of the affected individuals seemed to be more fertile and attained higher germination percentages and exhibited hardening against drought stress.
Keywords: Atriplex halimus, Alpha diversity, Cement dustpollution.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2727
603 Analyzing Irbid’s Food Waste as Feedstock for Anaerobic Digestion
Authors: Assal E. Haddad
Food waste samples from Irbid were collected from 5 different sources for 12 weeks to characterize their composition in terms of four food categories; rice, meat, fruits and vegetables, and bread. Average food type compositions were 39% rice, 6% meat, 34% fruits and vegetables, and 23% bread. Methane yield was also measured for all food types and was found to be 362, 499, 352, and 375 mL/g VS for rice, meat, fruits and vegetables, and bread, respectively. A representative food waste sample was created to test the actual methane yield and compare it to calculated one. Actual methane yield (414 mL/g VS) was greater than the calculated value (377 mL/g VS) based on food type proportions and their specific methane yield. This study emphasizes the effect of the types of food and their proportions in food waste on the final biogas production. Findings in this study provide representative methane emission factors for Irbid’s food waste, which represent as high as 68% of total Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in Irbid, and also indicate the energy and economic value within the solid waste stream in Irbid.
Keywords: Food waste, solid waste management, anaerobic digestion, methane yield.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 652
602 Different in Factors of the Distributor Selection for Food and Non-Food OTOP Entrepreneur in Thailand
Authors: Phutthiwat Waiyawuththanapoom
This study has only one objective which is to identify the different in factors of choosing the distributor for food and non-food OTOP entrepreneur in Thailand. In this research, the types of OTOP product will be divided into two groups which are food and non-food. The sample for the food type OTOP product was the processed fruit and vegetable from Nakorn Pathom province and the sample for the non-food type OTOP product was the court doll from Ang Thong province. The research was divided into 3 parts which were a study of the distribution pattern and how to choose the distributor of the food type OTOP product, a study of the distribution pattern and how to choose the distributor of the non-food type OTOP product and a comparison between 2 types of products to find the differentiation in the factor of choosing distributor. The data and information was collected by using the interview. The populations in the research were 5 producers of the processed fruit and vegetable from Nakorn Pathom province and 5 producers of the court doll from Ang Thong province. The significant factor in choosing the distributor of the food type OTOP product is the material handling efficiency and on-time delivery but for the non-food type OTOP product is focused on the channel of distribution and cost of the distributor.
Keywords: Distributor, OTOP, Food and Non-Food, Selection.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1518
601 Analysis of Food Security Situation among Nigerian Rural Farmers
Authors: Victoria A. Okwoche, Benjamin C. Asogwa
Abstract:This paper analysed the food security situation among Nigerian rural farmers. Data collected on 202 rural farmers from Benue State were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The study revealed that majority of the respondents (60.83%) had medium dietary diversity. Furthermore, household daily calorie requirement for the food secure households was 10,723 and the household daily calorie consumption was 12,598, with a surplus index of 0.04. The food security index was 1.16. The Household daily per capita calorie consumption was 3,221.2. For the food insecure households, the household daily calorie requirement was 20,213 and the household daily calorie consumption was 17,393. The shortfall index was 0.14. The food security index was 0.88. The Household daily per capita calorie consumption was 2,432.8. The most commonly used coping strategies during food stress included intercropping (99.2%), reliance on less preferred food (98.1%), limiting portion size at meal times (85.8%) and crop diversification (70.8%).
Keywords: Analysis, food security, rural areas, farmers, Nigeria.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2757
600 Measuring Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points Implementation in Riyadh Hospitals
Authors: A. Alrasheed, I. Connerton
Daily provision of high quality food and hygiene to patients is a challenging goal of the healthcare. In Saudi Arabia, matters related to food safety and hygiene are regulated by the Ministry of Health (MOH) and the Saudi Food and Drugs Authority (SFDA). The purpose of this research is to discuss the food safety management inconsistencies and flaws, in particular the ones related to Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) in Riyadh’s MOH hospitals. As required by law, written HACCP regulations must be implemented, and food handlers need to receive the training accordingly. However, in Saudi hospitals, this is not a requirement, and the food handlers do not need to hold training certificates in food safety or HACCP. Nowadays, the matter of food safety and hygiene have become increasingly important since the decision makers want to align these regulations with the majority of the world and to implement HACCP fully and for this purpose, the SFDA was established.
Keywords: Food safety, patients, hospitals, HACCP, Saudi Arabia.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1035
599 Consumer Choice Determinants in Context of Functional Food
Authors: E. Grochowska-Niedworok, K. Brukało, M. Kardas
Abstract:The aim of this study was to analyze and evaluate the consumption of functional food by consumers by: age, sex, formal education level, place of residence and diagnosed diseases. The study employed an ad hoc questionnaire in a group of 300 inhabitants of Upper Silesia voivodship. Knowledge of functional food among the group covered in the study was far from satisfactory. The choice of functional food was of intuitive character. In addition, the group covered was more likely to choose pharmacotherapy instead of diet-related prevention then, which can be associated with presumption of too distant effects and a long period of treatment.
Keywords: Consumer choice, consumer knowledge, functional food, healthy lifestyle.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 909
598 Food and Beverage Safety and Satisfaction: A Gender Effect
Authors: Sakul Jariyachamsit, Kevin Wongleedee
Abstract:There has been considerable growth in the issue of food & beverage safety in Thailand. This is important because the level of satisfaction in food & beverage safety has impacts on travel decision made by foreign tourists. Therefore, this paper was aimed to test if there is any significant gender effect in the level of satisfaction of food & beverage safety made by foreign tourists in Thailand. In addition, this paper utilized the Chi Square test of independent to test if there was an association between gender and sickness because of food and if there was an association between gender and the perception of food safety standard. During January to June, 2012, a total of 400 foreign tourist respondents, 200 male as well as 200 female foreign tourists, were interviewed at the departure lounge at Suvarnabhumi airport, Thailand. The findings revealed the astonishing result that there was no significant effect of gender. Also, there was no significant difference in the association between gender and being sick because of food as well as the association between gender and the perception on the standard of food safety during their trip in Thailand.
Keywords: Food & Beverage, Gender Effect, Safety Standard, Satisfaction.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2163