Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Search results for: Coagulant aid

13 Effectiveness of Moringa oleifera Coagulant Protein as Natural Coagulant aid in Removal of Turbidity and Bacteria from Turbid Waters

Authors: B. Bina, M.H. Mehdinejad, Gunnel Dalhammer, Guna RajaraoM. Nikaeen, H. Movahedian Attar

Abstract:

Coagulation of water involves the use of coagulating agents to bring the suspended matter in the raw water together for settling and the filtration stage. Present study is aimed to examine the effects of aluminum sulfate as coagulant in conjunction with Moringa Oleifera Coagulant Protein as coagulant aid on turbidity, hardness, and bacteria in turbid water. A conventional jar test apparatus was employed for the tests. The best removal was observed at a pH of 7 to 7.5 for all turbidities. Turbidity removal efficiency was resulted between % 80 to % 99 by Moringa Oleifera Coagulant Protein as coagulant aid. Dosage of coagulant and coagulant aid decreased with increasing turbidity. In addition, Moringa Oleifera Coagulant Protein significantly has reduced the required dosage of primary coagulant. Residual Al+3 in treated water were less than 0.2 mg/l and meets the environmental protection agency guidelines. The results showed that turbidity reduction of % 85.9- % 98 paralleled by a primary Escherichia coli reduction of 1-3 log units (99.2 – 99.97%) was obtained within the first 1 to 2 h of treatment. In conclusions, Moringa Oleifera Coagulant Protein as coagulant aid can be used for drinking water treatment without the risk of organic or nutrient release. We demonstrated that optimal design method is an efficient approach for optimization of coagulation-flocculation process and appropriate for raw water treatment.

Keywords: MOCP, Coagulant aid, turbidity removal, E.coliremoval, water, treatment

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12 The Removal of As(V) from Drinking Waters by Coagulation Process using Iron Salts

Authors: M. Donmez, F. Akbal

Abstract:

In this study arsenate [As(V)] removal from drinking water by coagulation process was investigated. Ferric chloride (FeCl3.6H2O) and ferrous sulfate (FeSO4.7H2O) were used as coagulant. The effects of major operating variables such as coagulant dose (1–30 mg/L) and pH (5.5–9.5) were investigated. Ferric chloride and ferrous sulfate were found as effective and reliable coagulant due to required dose, residual arsenate and coagulant concentration. Optimum pH values for maximum arsenate removal for ferrous sulfate and ferric chloride were found as 8 and 7.5. The arsenate removal efficiency decreased at neutral and acidic pH values for Fe(II) and at the high acidic and high alkaline pH for Fe(III). It was found that the increase of coagulant dose caused a substantial increase in the arsenate removal. But above a certain ferric chloride and ferrous sulfate dosage, the increase in arsenate removal was not significant. Ferric chloride and ferrous sulfate dose above 8 mg/L slightly increased arsenate removal.

Keywords: Arsenic removal, coagulation, ıron salts, drinking water.

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11 Treatment of Paper and Pulp Mill Effluent by Coagulation

Authors: Pradeep Kumar, Tjoon Tow Teng, Shri Chand, Kailas L. Wasewar

Abstract:

The pulp and paper mill effluent is one of the high polluting effluent amongst the effluents obtained from polluting industries. All the available methods for treatment of pulp and paper mill effluent have certain drawbacks. The coagulation is one of the cheapest process for treatment of various organic effluents. Thus, the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and colour of paper mill effluent is studied using coagulation process. The batch coagulation process was performed using various coagulants like: aluminium chloride, poly aluminium chloride and copper sulphate. The initial pH of the effluent (Coagulation pH) has tremendous effect on COD and colour removal. Poly aluminium chloride (PAC) as coagulant reduced COD to 84 % and 92 % of colour was removed at an optimum pH 5 and coagulant dose of 8 ml l-1. With aluminium chloride at an optimum pH = 4 and coagulant dose of 5 g l-1, 74 % COD and 86 % colour removal were observed. The results using copper sulphate as coagulant (a less commercial coagulant) were encouraging. At an optimum pH 6 and mass loading of 5 g l-1, 76 % COD reduction and 78 % colour reduction were obtained. It was also observed that after addition of coagulant, the pH of the effluent decreases. The decrease in pH was highest for AlCl3, which was followed by PAC and CuSO4. Significant amount of COD reductions was obtained by coagulation process. Since the coagulation process is the first stage for treatment of effluent and some of the coagulant cations usually remain in the treated effluents. Thus, cation like copper may be one of the good catalyst for second stage of treatment process like wet oxidation. The copper has been found to be good oxidation catalyst then iron and aluminum.

Keywords: Aluminium based coagulants, Coagulation, Copper, PAC, Pulp and paper mill effluent, Wastewater treatment

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10 Comparison of Chemical Coagulation and Electrocoagulation for Boron Removal from Synthetic Wastewater Using Aluminium

Authors: Kartikaningsih Danis, Yao-Hui Huang

Abstract:

Various techniques including conventional and advanced have been employed for the boron treatment from water and wastewater. The electrocoagulation involves an electrolytic reactor for coagulation/flotation with aluminium as anode and cathode. There is aluminium as coagulant to be used for removal which may induce secondary pollution in chemical coagulation. The purpose of this study is to investigate and compare the performance between electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation on boron removal from synthetic wastewater. The effect of different parameters, such as pH reaction, coagulant dosage, and initial boron concentration were examined. The results show that the boron removal using chemical coagulation was lower. At the optimum condition (e.g. pH 8 and 0.8 mol coagulant dosage), boron removal efficiencies for chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation were 61% and 91%, respectively. In addition, the electrocoagulation needs no chemical reagents and makes the boron treatment easy for application.

Keywords: Electrocoagulation, chemical coagulation, aluminum electrode, boron removal.

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9 The Effect of Fly Ash in Dewatering of Marble Processing Wastewaters

Authors: H. A. Taner, V. Önen

Abstract:

In the thermal power plants established to meet the energy need, lignite with low calorie and high ash content is used. Burning of these coals results in wastes such as fly ash, slag and flue gas. This constitutes a significant economic and environmental problems. However, fly ash can find evaluation opportunities in various sectors. In this study, the effectiveness of fly ash on suspended solid removal from marble processing wastewater containing high concentration of suspended solids was examined. Experiments were carried out for two different suspensions, marble and travertine. In the experiments, FeCl3, Al2(SO4)3 and anionic polymer A130 were used also to compare with fly ash. Coagulant/flocculant type/dosage, mixing time/speed and pH were the experimental parameters. The performances in the experimental studies were assessed with the change in the interface height during sedimentation resultant and turbidity values of treated water. The highest sedimentation efficiency was achieved with anionic flocculant. However, it was determined that fly ash can be used instead of FeCl3 and Al2(SO4)3 in the travertine plant as a coagulant.

Keywords: Dewatering, flocculant, fly ash, marble plant waste water.

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8 Enhanced Coagulation of Disinfection By-Products Precursors in Porsuk Water Resource, Eskisehir

Authors: Zehra Yigit, Hatice Inan, Guven Seydioglu, Vedat Uyak

Abstract:

Natural organic matter (NOM) is heterogeneous mixture of organic compounds that enter the water media from animal and plant remains, domestic and industrial wastes. Researches showed that NOM is likely precursor material for disinfection by products (DBPs). Chlorine very commenly used for disinfection purposes and NOM and chlorine reacts then Trihalomethane (THM) and Haloacetic acids (HAAs) which are cancerogenics for human health are produced. The aim of the study is to search NOM removal by enhanced coagulation from drinking water source of Eskisehir which is supplied from Porsuk Dam. Recently, Porsuk dam water is getting highly polluted and therefore NOM concentration is increasing. Enhanced coagulation studies were evaluated by measurement of Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC), UV absorbance at 254 nm (UV254), and different trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) tests. Results of jar test experiments showed that NOM can be removed from water about 40-50 % of efficiency by enhanced coagulation. Optimum coagulant type and coagulant dosages were determined using FeCl3 and Alum.

Keywords: Chlorination, Disinfection by-products, DOC, Enhanced Coagulation, NOM, Porsuk, UV254.

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7 Decolorization and COD Reduction Efficiency of Magnesium over Iron based Salt for the Treatment of Textile Wastewater Containing Diazo and Anthraquinone Dyes

Authors: Akshaya Kumar Verma, Puspendu Bhunia*, Rajesh Roshan Dash

Abstract:

Magnesium chloride, though cost wise roughly same as of ferrous sulphate, is less commonly used coagulant in comparison to the ferrous sulphate for the treatment of wastewater. The present study was conducted to investigate the comparative effectiveness of ferrous sulphate (FeSO4.7H2O) as iron based salt and magnesium chloride (MgCl2) as magnesium based salt in terms of decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction efficiency of textile wastewater. The coagulants were evaluated for synthetic textile wastewater containing two diazo dyes namely Reactive Black 5 (RB5) and Congo Red (CR) and one anthraquinone dye as Disperse Blue 3 (DB3), in seven possible equi-ratio combinations. Other chemical constituents that are normally released from different textile processing units were also added to replicate a practical scenario. From this study, MgCl2/Lime was found to be a superior coagulant system as compared to FeSO4.7H2O/Lime, FeSO4.7H2O/NaOH and MgCl2/NaOH.

Keywords: Coagulation, Color removal, Magnesium chloride, Textile wastewater

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6 Conditioning Process of Fresh Activated Sludge

Authors: Salam K Al-Dawery, Mustafa S Nasser

Abstract:

The effect of polyelectrolytes; cationic and anionic charges and coagulants have been investigated for fresh activated sludge at different concentrations and pH values in a comparative fashion. The results from the experiments indicate that the cationic polyelectrolytes have a significant effluence on the sludge characteristic, degree of flocculation and water quality such as turbidity and SVI. The results show that the cationic CPAM-80 is the most effective polyelectrolyte used corresponding to turbidity and SVI despite of the variations in feed properties of the fresh activated sludge.

Keywords: Coagulant, Polyelectrolyte, Settling volume index, Turbidity.

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5 Modeling of Coagulation Process for the Removal of Carbofuran in Aqueous Solution

Authors: Roli Saini, Pradeep Kumar

Abstract:

A coagulation/flocculation process was adopted for the reduction of carbamate insecticide (carbofuran) from aqueous solution. Ferric chloride (FeCl3) was used as a coagulant to treat the carbofuran. To exploit the reduction efficiency of pesticide concentration and COD, the jar-test experiments were carried out and process was optimized through response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of two independent factors; i.e., FeCl3 dosage and pH on the reduction efficiency were estimated by using central composite design (CCD). The initial COD of the 30 mg/L concentrated solution was found to be 510 mg/L. Results exposed that the maximum reduction occurred at an optimal condition of FeCl3 = 80 mg/L, and pH = 5.0, from which the reduction of concentration and COD 75.13% and 65.34%, respectively. The present study also predicted that the obtained regression equations could be helpful as the theoretical basis for the coagulation process of pesticide wastewater.

Keywords: Carbofuran, coagulation, optimization, response surface methodology.

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4 Characterization of Catalagzi Fly Ash for Heavy Metal Adsorption

Authors: Nurcan Tugrul, Nil Baran Acarali, Seyma Kolemen, Emek Moroydor Derun, Sabriye Piskin

Abstract:

Fly ash is a significant waste that is released of thermal power plants and defined as very fine particles that are drifted upward with up taken by the flue gases due to the burning of used coal [1]. The fly-ash is capable of removing organic contaminants in consequence of high carbon content, a large surface area per unit volume and contained heavy metals. Therefore, fly ash is used as an effective coagulant and adsorbent by pelletization [2, 3]. In this study, the possibility of use of fly ash taken from Turkey like low-cost adsorbent for adsorption of zinc ions found in waste water was investigated. The fly ash taken from Turkey was pelletized with bentonite and molass to evaluate the adsorption capaticity. For this purpose; analyses such as sieve analysis, XRD, XRF, FTIR and SEM were performed. As a result, it was seen that pellets prepared from fly ash, bentonite and molass would be used for zinc adsorption.

Keywords: Fly ash, heavy metal, sieve, adsorbent.

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3 Application of Moringa oleifera Seed in Removing Colloids from Turbid Wastewater

Authors: H. Zemmouri, H. Lounic, N. Mameri

Abstract:

The present study aims to investigate the performance of Moringa oleifera seed extract as natural coagulant in clarification of secondary wastewater treatment plant (MWWTP) located in East of Algiers, Algeria. Coagulation flocculation performance of Moringa oleifera was evaluated through supernatant residual turbidity after jar test trials. Various influence parameters namely Moringa oleifera dosage and pH have been considered. Tests on Reghaia wastewater, having 129 NTU of initial turbidity, showed a removal of 69.45% of residual turbidity with only 1.5 mg/l of Moringa oleifera. This sufficient removal capability encourages the use of this bioflocculant for treatment of turbid waters. Indeed, Moringa oleifera which is a natural resource available locally (South of Algeria) coupled to the non-toxicity, biocompatibility and biodegradability, may be a very interesting alternative to the conventional coagulants used so far.

Keywords: Coagulation flocculation, colloids, Moringa oleifera, secondary wastewater.

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2 Ultrasound Assisted Method to Increase the Aluminum Dissolve Rate from Acidified Water

Authors: Wen Po Cheng, Chi Hua Fu, Ping Hung Chen, Ruey Fang Yu

Abstract:

Aluminum salt that is generally presents as a solid phase in the water purification sludge (WPS) can be dissolved, recovering a liquid phase, by adding strong acid to the sludge solution. According to the reaction kinetics, when reactant is in the form of small particles with a large specific surface area, or when the reaction temperature is high, the quantity of dissolved aluminum salt or reaction rate, respectively are high. Therefore, in this investigation, water purification sludge (WPS) solution was treated with ultrasonic waves to break down the sludge, and different acids (1 N HCl and 1 N H2SO4) were used to acidify it. Acid dosages that yielded the solution pH of less than two were used. The results thus obtained indicate that the quantity of dissolved aluminum in H2SO4-acidified solution exceeded that in HCl-acidified solution. Additionally, ultrasonic treatment increased the rate of dissolution of aluminum and the amount dissolved. The quantity of aluminum dissolved at 60℃ was 1.5 to 2.0 times higher than that at 25℃.

Keywords: Coagulant, Aluminum, Ultrasonic, Acidification, Temperature, Sludge.

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1 An Approach for Coagulant Dosage Optimization Using Soft Jar Test: A Case Study of Bangkhen Water Treatment Plant

Authors: Ninlawat Phuangchoke, Waraporn Viyanon, Setta Sasananan

Abstract:

The most important process of the water treatment plant process is coagulation, which uses alum and poly aluminum chloride (PACL). Therefore, determining the dosage of alum and PACL is the most important factor to be prescribed. This research applies an artificial neural network (ANN), which uses the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm to create a mathematical model (Soft Jar Test) for chemical dose prediction, as used for coagulation, such as alum and PACL, with input data consisting of turbidity, pH, alkalinity, conductivity, and, oxygen consumption (OC) of the Bangkhen Water Treatment Plant (BKWTP), under the authority of the Metropolitan Waterworks Authority of Thailand. The data were collected from 1 January 2019 to 31 December 2019 in order to cover the changing seasons of Thailand. The input data of ANN are divided into three groups: training set, test set, and validation set. The coefficient of determination and the mean absolute errors of the alum model are 0.73, 3.18 and the PACL model are 0.59, 3.21, respectively.

Keywords: Soft jar test, jar test, water treatment plant process, artificial neural network.

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