%0 Journal Article
	%A Soon Fook Fong and  Aldalalah and  M. Osamah
	%D 2010
	%J International Journal of Educational and Pedagogical Sciences
	%B World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology
	%I Open Science Index 43, 2010
	%T Modality and Redundancy Effects on Music Theory Learning Among Pupils of Different Anxiety Levels
	%U https://publications.waset.org/pdf/1622
	%V 43
	%X The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of
modality and redundancy principles on music theory learning among
pupils of different anxiety levels. The lesson of music theory was
developed in three different modes, audio and image (AI), text with
image (TI) and audio with image and text (AIT). The independent
variables were the three modes of courseware. The moderator
variable was the anxiety level, while the dependent variable was the
post test score. The study sample consisted of 405 third-grade pupils.
Descriptive and inferential statistics were conducted to analyze the
collected data. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) and Post hoc
were carried out to examine the main effects as well as the
interaction effects of the independent variables on the dependent
variable. The findings of this study showed that medium anxiety
pupils performed significantly better than low and high anxiety
pupils in all the three treatment modes. The AI mode was found to
help pupils with high anxiety significantly more than the TI and AIT
	%P 1622 - 1630