Search results for: initial value problems
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3369

Search results for: initial value problems

3369 On a New Inverse Polynomial Numerical Scheme for the Solution of Initial Value Problems in Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: R. B. Ogunrinde

Abstract:

This paper presents the development, analysis and implementation of an inverse polynomial numerical method which is well suitable for solving initial value problems in first order ordinary differential equations with applications to sample problems. We also present some basic concepts and fundamental theories which are vital to the analysis of the scheme. We analyzed the consistency, convergence, and stability properties of the scheme. Numerical experiments were carried out and the results compared with the theoretical or exact solution and the algorithm was later coded using MATLAB programming language.

Keywords: Differential equations, Numerical, Initial value problem, Polynomials.

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3368 Haar wavelet Method for Solving Initial and Boundary Value Problems of Bratu-type

Authors: S.G.Venkatesh, S.K.Ayyaswamy, G.Hariharan

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a framework to determine Haar solutions of Bratu-type equations that are widely applicable in fuel ignition of the combustion theory and heat transfer. The method is proposed by applying Haar series for the highest derivatives and integrate the series. Several examples are given to confirm the efficiency and the accuracy of the proposed algorithm. The results show that the proposed way is quite reasonable when compared to exact solution.

Keywords: Haar wavelet method, Bratu's problem, boundary value problems, initial value problems, adomain decomposition method.

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3367 The RK1GL2X3 Method for Initial Value Problems in Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: J.S.C. Prentice

Abstract:

The RK1GL2X3 method is a numerical method for solving initial value problems in ordinary differential equations, and is based on the RK1GL2 method which, in turn, is a particular case of the general RKrGLm method. The RK1GL2X3 method is a fourth-order method, even though its underlying Runge-Kutta method RK1 is the first-order Euler method, and hence, RK1GL2X3 is considerably more efficient than RK1. This enhancement is achieved through an implementation involving triple-nested two-point Gauss- Legendre quadrature.

Keywords: RK1GL2X3, RK1GL2, RKrGLm, Runge-Kutta, Gauss-Legendre, initial value problem, local error, global error.

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3366 Chemical Reaction Algorithm for Expectation Maximization Clustering

Authors: Li Ni, Pen ManMan, Li KenLi

Abstract:

Clustering is an intensive research for some years because of its multifaceted applications, such as biology, information retrieval, medicine, business and so on. The expectation maximization (EM) is a kind of algorithm framework in clustering methods, one of the ten algorithms of machine learning. Traditionally, optimization of objective function has been the standard approach in EM. Hence, research has investigated the utility of evolutionary computing and related techniques in the regard. Chemical Reaction Optimization (CRO) is a recently established method. So the property embedded in CRO is used to solve optimization problems. This paper presents an algorithm framework (EM-CRO) with modified CRO operators based on EM cluster problems. The hybrid algorithm is mainly to solve the problem of initial value sensitivity of the objective function optimization clustering algorithm. Our experiments mainly take the EM classic algorithm:k-means and fuzzy k-means as an example, through the CRO algorithm to optimize its initial value, get K-means-CRO and FKM-CRO algorithm. The experimental results of them show that there is improved efficiency for solving objective function optimization clustering problems.

Keywords: Chemical reaction optimization, expectation maximization, initial, objective function clustering.

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3365 Evolutionary Computing Approach for the Solution of Initial value Problems in Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: A. Junaid, M. A. Z. Raja, I. M. Qureshi

Abstract:

An evolutionary computing technique for solving initial value problems in Ordinary Differential Equations is proposed in this paper. Neural network is used as a universal approximator while the adaptive parameters of neural networks are optimized by genetic algorithm. The solution is achieved on the continuous grid of time instead of discrete as in other numerical techniques. The comparison is carried out with classical numerical techniques and the solution is found with a uniform accuracy of MSE ≈ 10-9 .

Keywords: Neural networks, Unsupervised learning, Evolutionary computing, Numerical methods, Fitness evaluation function.

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3364 Genetic Algorithm Approach for Solving the Falkner–Skan Equation

Authors: Indu Saini, Phool Singh, Vikas Malik

Abstract:

A novel method based on Genetic Algorithm to solve the boundary value problems (BVPs) of the Falkner–Skan equation over a semi-infinite interval has been presented. In our approach, we use the free boundary formulation to truncate the semi-infinite interval into a finite one. Then we use the shooting method based on Genetic Algorithm to transform the BVP into initial value problems (IVPs). Genetic Algorithm is used to calculate shooting angle. The initial value problems arisen during shooting are computed by Runge-Kutta Fehlberg method. The numerical solutions obtained by the present method are in agreement with those obtained by previous authors.

Keywords: Boundary Layer Flow, Falkner–Skan equation, Genetic Algorithm, Shooting method.

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3363 Solution of Two-Point Nonlinear Boundary Problems Using Taylor Series Approximation and the Ying Buzu Shu Algorithm

Authors: U. C. Amadi, N. A. Udoh

Abstract:

One of the major challenges faced in solving initial and boundary problems is how to find approximate solutions with minimal deviation from the exact solution without so much rigor and complications. The Taylor series method provides a simple way of obtaining an infinite series which converges to the exact solution for initial value problems and this method of solution is somewhat limited for a two point boundary problem since the infinite series has to be truncated to include the boundary conditions. In this paper, the Ying Buzu Shu algorithm is used to solve a two point boundary nonlinear diffusion problem for the fourth and sixth order solution and compare their relative error and rate of convergence to the exact solution.

Keywords: Ying Buzu Shu, nonlinear boundary problem, Taylor series algorithm, infinite series.

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3362 Numerical Treatment of Block Method for the Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: A. M. Sagir

Abstract:

Discrete linear multistep block method of uniform order for the solution of first order initial value problems (IVP­s­) in ordinary differential equations (ODE­s­) is presented in this paper. The approach of interpolation and collocation approximation are adopted in the derivation of the method which is then applied to first order ordinary differential equations with associated initial conditions. The continuous hybrid formulations enable us to differentiate and evaluate at some grids and off – grid points to obtain four discrete schemes, which were used in block form for parallel or sequential solutions of the problems. Furthermore, a stability analysis and efficiency of the block method are tested on ordinary differential equations, and the results obtained compared favorably with the exact solution.

Keywords: Block Method, First Order Ordinary Differential Equations, Hybrid, Self starting.

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3361 A Parameter-Tuning Framework for Metaheuristics Based on Design of Experiments and Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Felix Dobslaw

Abstract:

In this paper, a framework for the simplification and standardization of metaheuristic related parameter-tuning by applying a four phase methodology, utilizing Design of Experiments and Artificial Neural Networks, is presented. Metaheuristics are multipurpose problem solvers that are utilized on computational optimization problems for which no efficient problem specific algorithm exist. Their successful application to concrete problems requires the finding of a good initial parameter setting, which is a tedious and time consuming task. Recent research reveals the lack of approach when it comes to this so called parameter-tuning process. In the majority of publications, researchers do have a weak motivation for their respective choices, if any. Because initial parameter settings have a significant impact on the solutions quality, this course of action could lead to suboptimal experimental results, and thereby a fraudulent basis for the drawing of conclusions.

Keywords: Parameter-Tuning, Metaheuristics, Design of Experiments, Artificial Neural Networks.

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3360 Uncontrollable Inaccuracy in Inverse Problems

Authors: Yu. Menshikov

Abstract:

In this paper the influence of errors of function derivatives in initial time which have been obtained by experiment (uncontrollable inaccuracy) to the results of inverse problem solution was investigated. It was shown that these errors distort the inverse problem solution as a rule near the beginning of interval where the solutions are analyzed. Several methods for removing the influence of uncontrollable inaccuracy have been suggested. 

Keywords: Inverse problems, uncontrollable inaccuracy, filtration.

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3359 An Adequate Choice of Initial Sample Size for Selection Approach

Authors: Mohammad H. Almomani, Rosmanjawati Abdul Rahman

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider the effect of the initial sample size on the performance of a sequential approach that used in selecting a good enough simulated system, when the number of alternatives is very large. We implement a sequential approach on M=M=1 queuing system under some parameter settings, with a different choice of the initial sample sizes to explore the impacts on the performance of this approach. The results show that the choice of the initial sample size does affect the performance of our selection approach.

Keywords: Ranking and Selection, Ordinal Optimization, Optimal Computing Budget Allocation, Subset Selection, Indifference-Zone, Initial Sample Size.

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3358 On a Way for Constructing Numerical Methods on the Joint of Multistep and Hybrid Methods

Authors: G.Mehdiyeva, M.Imanova, V.Ibrahimov

Abstract:

Taking into account that many problems of natural sciences and engineering are reduced to solving initial-value problem for ordinary differential equations, beginning from Newton, the scientists investigate approximate solution of ordinary differential equations. There are papers of different authors devoted to the solution of initial value problem for ODE. The Euler-s known method that was developed under the guidance of the famous scientists Adams, Runge and Kutta is the most popular one among these methods. Recently the scientists began to construct the methods preserving some properties of Adams and Runge-Kutta methods and called them hybrid methods. The constructions of such methods are investigated from the middle of the XX century. Here we investigate one generalization of multistep and hybrid methods and on their base we construct specific methods of accuracy order p = 5 and p = 6 for k = 1 ( k is the order of the difference method).

Keywords: Multistep and hybrid methods, initial value problem, degree and stability of hybrid methods

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3357 Selection Initial modes for Belief K-modes Method

Authors: Sarra Ben Hariz, Zied Elouedi, Khaled Mellouli

Abstract:

The belief K-modes method (BKM) approach is a new clustering technique handling uncertainty in the attribute values of objects in both the cluster construction task and the classification one. Like the standard version of this method, the BKM results depend on the chosen initial modes. So, one selection method of initial modes is developed, in this paper, aiming at improving the performances of the BKM approach. Experiments with several sets of real data show that by considered the developed selection initial modes method, the clustering algorithm produces more accurate results.

Keywords: Clustering, Uncertainty, Belief function theory, Belief K-modes Method, Initial modes selection.

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3356 Embedded Singly Diagonally Implicit Runge-Kutta –Nystrom Method Order 5(4) for the Integration of Special Second Order ODEs

Authors: Fudziah Ismail

Abstract:

In this paper a new embedded Singly Diagonally Implicit Runge-Kutta Nystrom fourth order in fifth order method for solving special second order initial value problems is derived. A standard set of test problems are tested upon and comparisons on the numerical results are made when the same set of test problems are reduced to first order systems and solved using the existing embedded diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta method. The results suggests the superiority of the new method.

Keywords: Runge-Kutta Nystrom, Special second orderproblems.

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3355 Error Propagation in the RK5GL3 Method

Authors: J.S.C. Prentice

Abstract:

The RK5GL3 method is a numerical method for solving initial value problems in ordinary differential equations, and is based on a combination of a fifth-order Runge-Kutta method and 3-point Gauss-Legendre quadrature. In this paper we describe the propagation of local errors in this method, and show that the global order of RK5GL3 is expected to be six, one better than the underlying Runge- Kutta method.

Keywords: RK5GL3, RKrGLm, Runge-Kutta, Gauss-Legendre, initial value problem, order, local error, global error.

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3354 Laplace Technique to Find General Solution of Differential Equations without Initial Conditions

Authors: Adil Al-Rammahi

Abstract:

Laplace transformations have wide applications in engineering and sciences. All previous studies of modified Laplace transformations depend on differential equation with initial conditions. The purpose of our paper is to solve the linear differential equations (not initial value problem) and then find the general solution (not particular) via the Laplace transformations without needed any initial condition. The study involves both types of differential equations, ordinary and partial.

Keywords: Differential Equations, Laplace Transformations.

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3353 Positive Solutions of Initial Value Problem for the Systems of Second Order Integro-Differential Equations in Banach Space

Authors: Lv Yuhua

Abstract:

In this paper, by establishing a new comparison result, we investigate the existence of positive solutions for initial value problems of nonlinear systems of second order integro-differential equations in Banach space.We improve and generalize some results  (see[5,6]), and the results is new even in finite dimensional spaces.

Keywords: Systems of integro-differential equations, monotone iterative method, comparison result, cone.

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3352 Destination Port Detection for Vessels: An Analytic Tool for Optimizing Port Authorities Resources

Authors: Lubna Eljabu, Mohammad Etemad, Stan Matwin

Abstract:

Port authorities have many challenges in congested ports to allocate their resources to provide a safe and secure loading/unloading procedure for cargo vessels. Selecting a destination port is the decision of a vessel master based on many factors such as weather, wavelength and changes of priorities. Having access to a tool which leverages Automatic Identification System (AIS) messages to monitor vessel’s movements and accurately predict their next destination port promotes an effective resource allocation process for port authorities. In this research, we propose a method, namely, Reference Route of Trajectory (RRoT) to assist port authorities in predicting inflow and outflow traffic in their local environment by monitoring AIS messages. Our RRo method creates a reference route based on historical AIS messages. It utilizes some of the best trajectory similarity measures to identify the destination of a vessel using their recent movement. We evaluated five different similarity measures such as Discrete Frechet Distance (DFD), Dynamic Time ´ Warping (DTW), Partial Curve Mapping (PCM), Area between two curves (Area) and Curve length (CL). Our experiments show that our method identifies the destination port with an accuracy of 98.97% and an f-measure of 99.08% using Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) similarity measure.

Keywords: Spatial temporal data mining, trajectory mining, trajectory similarity, resource optimization.

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3351 New Laguerre-s Type Method for Solving of a Polynomial Equations Systems

Authors: Oleksandr Poliakov, Yevgen Pashkov, Marina Kolesova, Olena Chepenyuk, Mykhaylo Kalinin, Vadym Kramar

Abstract:

In this paper we present a substantiation of a new Laguerre-s type iterative method for solving of a nonlinear polynomial equations systems with real coefficients. The problems of its implementation, including relating to the structural choice of initial approximations, were considered. Test examples demonstrate the effectiveness of the method at the solving of many practical problems solving.

Keywords: Iterative method, Laguerre's method, Newton's method, polynomial equation, system of equations

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3350 Scholar Index for Research Performance Evaluation Using Multiple Criteria Decision Making Analysis

Authors: C. Ardil

Abstract:

This paper aims to present an objective quantitative methodology on how to evaluate individual’s scholarly research output using multiple criteria decision analysis. A multiple criteria decision making analysis (MCDMA) methodological process is adopted to build a multiple criteria evaluation model. With the introduction of the scholar index, which gives significant information about a researcher's productivity and the scholarly impact of his or her publications in a single number (s is the number of publications with at least s citations); cumulative research citation index; the scholar index is included in the citation databases to cover the multidimensional complexity of scholarly research performance and to undertake objective evaluations with scholar index. The scholar index, one of publication activity indexes, is analyzed by considering it to be the most appropriate sciencemetric indicator which allows to smooth over many drawbacks of scholarly output assessment by mere calculation of the number of publications (quantity) and citations (quality). Hence, this study includes a set of indicators-based scholar index to be used for evaluating scholarly researchers. Google Scholar open science database was used to assess and discuss scholarly productivity and impact of researchers. Based on the experiment of computing the scholar index, and its derivative indexes for a set of researchers on open research database platform, quantitative methods of assessing scholarly research output were successfully considered to rank researchers. The proposed methodology considers the ranking, and the selection of data on which a scholarly research performance evaluation was based, the analysis of the data, and the presentation of the multiple criteria analysis results.

Keywords: Multiple Criteria Decision Making Analysis, MCDMA, Research Performance Evaluation, Scholar Index, h index, Science Citation Index, Science Efficiency, Cumulative Citation Index, Sciencemetrics

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3349 A Critical Study of Media Profiling on Society-s Social Problems from a British Perspective

Authors: Cj Gletus Matthews Cn Jacobs, Kogilah Narayanasamy

Abstract:

This article explores the sociological perspectives on social problems and the role of the media which has a delicate role to tread in balancing its duty to the public and the victim Whilst social problems have objective conditions, it is the subjective definition of such problems that ensure which social problem comes to the fore and which doesn-t. Further it explores the roles and functions of policymakers when addressing social problems and the impact of the inception of media profiling as well as the advantages and disadvantages of media profiling towards social problems. It focuses on the inception of media profiling due to its length and a follow up article will explore how current media profiling towards social problems have evolved since its inception.

Keywords: Media Profiling, Policy Response, Social Problems

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3348 Military Fighter Aircraft Selection Using Multiplicative Multiple Criteria Decision Making Analysis Method

Authors: C. Ardil

Abstract:

Multiplicative multiple criteria decision making analysis (MCDMA) method is a systematic decision support system to aid decision makers reach appropriate decisions. The application of multiplicative MCDMA in the military aircraft selection problem is significant for proper decision making process, which is the decisive factor in minimizing expenditures and increasing defense capability and capacity. Nine military fighter aircraft alternatives were evaluated by ten decision criteria to solve the decision making problem. In this study, multiplicative MCDMA model aims to evaluate and select an appropriate military fighter aircraft for the Air Force fleet planning. The ranking results of multiplicative MCDMA model were compared with the ranking results of additive MCDMA, logarithmic MCDMA, and regrettive MCDMA models under the L2 norm data normalization technique to substantiate the robustness of the proposed method. The final ranking results indicate the military fighter aircraft Su-57 as the best available solution.

Keywords: Aircraft Selection, Military Fighter Aircraft Selection, Air Force Fleet Planning, Multiplicative MCDMA, Additive MCDMA, Logarithmic MCDMA, Regrettive MCDMA, Mean Weight, Multiple Criteria Decision Making Analysis, Sensitivity Analysis

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3347 IPO Price Performance and Signaling

Authors: Chih-Hsiang Chang, I-Fan Ho

Abstract:

This study examines the credibility of the signaling as explanation for IPO initial underpricing. Findings reveal the initial underpricing and the long-term underperformance of IPOs in Taiwan. However, we only find weak support for signaling as explanation of IPO underpricing.

Keywords: Signaling, IPO initial underpricing, IPO long-term underperformance, Taiwan’s stock market.

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3346 Local Error Control in the RK5GL3 Method

Authors: J.S.C. Prentice

Abstract:

The RK5GL3 method is a numerical method for solving initial value problems in ordinary differential equations, and is based on a combination of a fifth-order Runge-Kutta method and 3-point Gauss-Legendre quadrature. In this paper we describe an effective local error control algorithm for RK5GL3, which uses local extrapolation with an eighth-order Runge-Kutta method in tandem with RK5GL3, and a Hermite interpolating polynomial for solution estimation at the Gauss-Legendre quadrature nodes.

Keywords: RK5GL3, RKrGLm, Runge-Kutta, Gauss-Legendre, Hermite interpolating polynomial, initial value problem, local error.

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3345 Restarted Generalized Second-Order Krylov Subspace Methods for Solving Quadratic Eigenvalue Problems

Authors: Liping Zhou, Liang Bao, Yiqin Lin, Yimin Wei, Qinghua Wu

Abstract:

This article is devoted to the numerical solution of large-scale quadratic eigenvalue problems. Such problems arise in a wide variety of applications, such as the dynamic analysis of structural mechanical systems, acoustic systems, fluid mechanics, and signal processing. We first introduce a generalized second-order Krylov subspace based on a pair of square matrices and two initial vectors and present a generalized second-order Arnoldi process for constructing an orthonormal basis of the generalized second-order Krylov subspace. Then, by using the projection technique and the refined projection technique, we propose a restarted generalized second-order Arnoldi method and a restarted refined generalized second-order Arnoldi method for computing some eigenpairs of largescale quadratic eigenvalue problems. Some theoretical results are also presented. Some numerical examples are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

Keywords: Quadratic eigenvalue problem, Generalized secondorder Krylov subspace, Generalized second-order Arnoldi process, Projection technique, Refined technique, Restarting.

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3344 Experimental and Numerical Study of The Shock-Accelerated Elliptic Heavy Gas Cylinders

Authors: Jing S. Bai, Li Y. Zou, Tao Wang, Kun Liu, Wen B. Huang, Jin H. Liu, Ping Li, Duo W. Tan, CangL. Liu

Abstract:

We studied the evolution of elliptic heavy SF6 gas cylinder surrounded by air when accelerated by a planar Mach 1.25 shock. A multiple dynamics imaging technology has been used to obtain one image of the experimental initial conditions and five images of the time evolution of elliptic cylinder. We compared the width and height of the circular and two kinds of elliptic gas cylinders, and analyzed the vortex strength of the elliptic ones. Simulations are in very good agreement with the experiments, but due to the different initial gas cylinder shapes, a certain difference of the initial density peak and distribution exists between the circular and elliptic gas cylinders, and the latter initial state is more sensitive and more inenarrable.

Keywords: About four key words or phrases in alphabeticalorder, separated by commas.

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3343 Particle Swarm Optimization with Reduction for Global Optimization Problems

Authors: Michiharu Maeda, Shinya Tsuda

Abstract:

This paper presents an algorithm of particle swarm optimization with reduction for global optimization problems. Particle swarm optimization is an algorithm which refers to the collective motion such as birds or fishes, and a multi-point search algorithm which finds a best solution using multiple particles. Particle swarm optimization is so flexible that it can adapt to a number of optimization problems. When an objective function has a lot of local minimums complicatedly, the particle may fall into a local minimum. For avoiding the local minimum, a number of particles are initially prepared and their positions are updated by particle swarm optimization. Particles sequentially reduce to reach a predetermined number of them grounded in evaluation value and particle swarm optimization continues until the termination condition is met. In order to show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, we examine the minimum by using test functions compared to existing algorithms. Furthermore the influence of best value on the initial number of particles for our algorithm is discussed.

Keywords: Particle swarm optimization, Global optimization, Metaheuristics, Reduction.

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3342 Influence of Initial Surface Roughness on Severe Wear Volume for SUS304 Austenitic Stainless Steels

Authors: A. Kawamura, K. Ishida, K. Okada, T. Sato

Abstract:

Simultaneous measurements of the curves for wear versus distance, wear rate versus distance, and coefficient of friction versus distance were performed in situ to distinguish the transition from severe running-in wear to mild wear. The effects of the initial surface roughness on the severe running-in wear volume were investigated. Disk-on-plate friction and wear tests were carried out with SUS304 austenitic stainless steel in contact with itself under repeated dry sliding conditions at room temperature. The wear volume was dependent on the initial surface roughness. The wear volume when the initial surfaces on the plate and disk had dissimilar roughness was lower than that when these surfaces had similar roughness. For the dissimilar roughness, the wear volume decreased with decreasing initial surface roughness and reached a minimum; it stayed nearly constant as the roughness was less than the mean size of the oxide particles.

Keywords: Austenitic stainless steel, initial surface roughness, running-in, severe wear.

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3341 Modeling and Simulating Human Arm Movement Using a 2 Dimensional 3 Segments Coupled Pendulum System

Authors: Loay A. Al-Zu'be, Asma A. Al-Tamimi, Thakir D. Al-Momani, Ayat J. Alkarala, Maryam A. Alzawahreh

Abstract:

A two dimensional three segments coupled pendulum system that mathematically models human arm configuration was developed along with constructing and solving the equations of motions for this model using the energy (work) based approach of Lagrange. The equations of motion of the model were solved iteratively both as an initial value problem and as a two point boundary value problem. In the initial value problem solutions, both the initial system configuration (segment angles) and initial system velocity (segment angular velocities) were used as inputs, whereas, in the two point boundary value problem solutions initial and final configurations and time were used as inputs to solve for the trajectory of motion. The results suggest that the model solutions are sensitive to small changes in the dynamic forces applied to the system as well as to the initial and boundary conditions used. To overcome the system sensitivity a new approach is suggested.

Keywords: Body Configurations, Equations of Motion, Mathematical Modeling, Movement Trajectories.

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3340 A Fast Block-based Evolutional Algorithm for Combinatorial Problems

Authors: Huang, Wei-Hsiu Chang, Pei-Chann, Wang, Lien-Chun

Abstract:

The problems with high complexity had been the challenge in combinatorial problems. Due to the none-determined and polynomial characteristics, these problems usually face to unreasonable searching budget. Hence combinatorial optimizations attracted numerous researchers to develop better algorithms. In recent academic researches, most focus on developing to enhance the conventional evolutional algorithms and facilitate the local heuristics, such as VNS, 2-opt and 3-opt. Despite the performances of the introduction of the local strategies are significant, however, these improvement cannot improve the performance for solving the different problems. Therefore, this research proposes a meta-heuristic evolutional algorithm which can be applied to solve several types of problems. The performance validates BBEA has the ability to solve the problems even without the design of local strategies.

Keywords: Combinatorial problems, Artificial Chromosomes, Blocks Mining, Block Recombination

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