Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6712

Search results for: High school students

6712 A Comparative Cross-sectional Study of Religious Behavior in High School and University Students

Authors: Bahram Esmaeili, Hossein Hosseini, Mohammad Sharifi Bohloli, Hamid Reza Imani Far, Sohrab Sadeghi

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the religious behavior of students in high school and universality in Lamerd , a town in the south of Iran, with respect to increase in their level of education and age. The participants were 450 high school and university students in all levels from first year of junior high school to the senior university students who were chosen through multistage cluster sampling method and their religious behavior was studied. Through the revised questionnaire by Nezar Alany from the University of Bahrain (r = 0/797), the religious behavior of the subjects were analyzed. Results showed that students in high school in religious behavior were superior to the students of university (003/0>p) and there was a decline of religious behavior in junior high school third year students to second students of the same school (042/0>p). More important is that the decrease in religious behavior was associated with increase in educational levels (017/0>p) and age (043/0>p).

Keywords: Academic achievement, education level, religion

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6711 Students Perceptions on the Relevance of High School Mathematics in University Education in South Africa

Authors: Gilbert Makanda, Roelf Sypkens

Abstract:

In this study we investigated the relevance of high school mathematics in university education. The paper particularly focused on whether the concepts taught in high school are enough for engineering courses at diploma level. The study identified particular concepts that are required in engineering courses whether they were adequately covered in high school. A questionnaire was used to investigate whether relevant topics were covered in high school. The respondents were 228 first year students at the Central University of Technology in the Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology. The study indicates that there are some topics such as integration, complex numbers and matrices that are not done at high schools and are required in engineering courses at university. It is further observed that some students did not cover the topics that are in the current syllabus. Female students enter the university less prepared than their male counterparts. More than 30% of the respondents in this study felt that high school mathematics was not useful for them to be able to do engineering courses.

Keywords: High school mathematics, university education, SPSS package, students’ perceptions.

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6710 The Effect of Contrived Success in Calculation Tasks on the Self-efficacy of Junior High School Students

Authors: Akitoshi Uchida, Kazuo Mori

Abstract:

This study examines whether contrived success on a task closely related to school subjects would promote students- self-efficacy. In our previous study, junior high school students who experienced contrived success on anagram tasks raised their sense of self-efficacy and kept it high for a year.We tried to replicate that study, substituting calculation tasks for the anagrams. One hundred eighteen junior high school students participated in this study, 18 of whom were surreptitiously given easier tasks than their classmates. Those students with easier tasks outperformed their peers and thereby raised their sense of self-efficacy. However, elevated self-efficacy did not persist, falling to the starting level after only three months.

Keywords: self-efficacy, contrived success, junior high schoolstudents, calculation tasks

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6709 Learning Based On Computer Science Unplugged in Computer Science Education: Design, Development, and Assessment

Authors: Eiko Takaoka, Yoshiyuki Fukushima, Koichiro Hirose, Tadashi Hasegawa

Abstract:

Although, all high school students in Japan are required to learn informatics, many of them do not learn this topic sufficiently. In response to this situation, we propose a support package for high school informatics classes. To examine what students learned and if they sufficiently understood the context of the lessons, a questionnaire survey was distributed to 186 students. We analyzed the results of the questionnaire and determined the weakest units, which were “basic computer configuration” and “memory and secondary storage”. We then developed a package for teaching these units. We propose that our package be applied in high school classrooms.

Keywords: Computer Science Unplugged, computer science outreach, high school curriculum, experimental evaluation.

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6708 Biculturalism and Educational Success: The Case of the Social Justice High School in Chicago, Illinois, USA

Authors: L. Tizzi

Abstract:

The aim of this contribution is to present the experience of the U.S. secondary school Social Justice High School (SoJo), part of the larger Campus of Little Village Lawndale High School (LVLHS) located in Chicago, Illinois (USA). This experience can be considered a concrete application of the principles of the educational perspective known, in the United States, as Social Justice Education, aimed at ensuring quality education and educational success for students from disadvantaged groups, particularly those characterized by “biculturalism”, i.e. students with a dual cultural and linguistic background. The contribution will retrace the historical and social events that led to the birth of the SoJo, explaining the principles and methods used by the school to achieve its objectives and giving also some statistical data.

Keywords: Biculturalism, educational success, social justice education, social justice high school.

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6707 Application of the Transtheoretical Model of Exercise Behavior Change Plan in High School Students

Authors: Frank C. Pan, Chih-Hao Chen

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to discuss the effect of the intervention of exercise behavior change plan for high school students on study subjects- social and psychological factors and exercise stages. This research uses the transtheoretical model as the research framework. One experiment group and one control group were used in a quasi-experimental design research. The experimental group accepted health-related physical fitness course and the traditional course; the control group accepted traditional physical education course. There is a significant difference before and after the intervention in the experimental group. Karl-s test shows the experimental group gained a better improvement than that in the control group. The Analysis of Covariance had shown the exercise stages (F=7.62, p<0.05), and the perceived exercise benefit (F=16.91, p<0.05) of the experimental group were obviously larger than those of the control group. There was no major effect on the perceived exercise barrier (F=0.61, p>0.05) after the intervention of exercise behavior change plan. However, the rate of high school students the practical implementation of the exercise is not high, obviously influenced by the exercise barrier. The academic and examination pressure may be the major causes of the exercise barrier in the high school.

Keywords: Transtheoretical model (TTM), High school students, exercise behavior

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6706 Efficacy of Self-Assessment in Written Production among High School Students

Authors: Yoko Suganuma Oi

Abstract:

The purpose of the present study is to find the efficacy of high school student self-assessment of written production. It aimed to explore the following two research questions: 1) How is topic development of their written production improved after student self-assessment and teacher feedback? 2) Does the consistency between student self-assessment and teacher assessment develop after student self-assessment and teacher feedback? The data came from the written production of 82 Japanese high school students aged from 16 to 18 years old, an American English teacher and one Japanese English teacher. Students were asked to write English compositions, about 150 words, for thirty minutes without using dictionaries. It was conducted twice at intervals of two months. Students were supposed to assess their own compositions by themselves. Teachers also assessed students’ compositions using the same assessment sheet. The results showed that both teachers and students assessed the second compositions higher than the first compositions. However, there was not the development of the consistency in coherence.

Keywords: Feedback, self-assessment, topic development.

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6705 e/b-Learning Activities and High School Pedagogy

Authors: Rui Antunes

Abstract:

This article presents the implementation of several different e/b-Learning collaborative activities, used to improve the students learning process in an high school Polytechnic Institution. A new learning model arises, based on a combination between face-toface and distance leaning. Learning is now becoming centered with the development of collaborative activities, and its actors (teachers and students) have to be re-socialized to a new e/b-Learning paradigm. Measuring approaches are proposed for this model and results are presented, showing prospective correlation between students learning success and the use of online collaborative activities.

Keywords: e/b-Learning, Collaborative Learning, TeachingCommunities, Web-based Courseware

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6704 Secondary School Students- Perceptions about Biological Issues in South Korea

Authors: Jung-Hyun Kim, Kew-Cheol Shim, Shin-Cheol Song, Kyoungho Kim, Nam-Il Kim, Jinho Bae, Keum-Hyun So

Abstract:

The purpose of present paper was to investigate perceptions of Korean secondary school students about social issues related to biological sciences. Twenty issues were selected based on topics of articles in the newspaper from 2005 to 2010. The issues were categorized into biotechnology, health-disease and environment domains. Subjects were 541 high school students (male 253 and female 288). On the survey, students were asked to answer on 5-point Lickert scales how they thought of the effect of biological phenomena or events related to biological issues on the individual life and the society. They perceived that the biological issues would be more effectible on the society than on the individual life. Female students had a little more perceptions than males.

Keywords: biological issue, biological sciences, perception, secondary school

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6703 What Factors Contributed to the Adaptation Gap during School Transition in Japan?

Authors: What Factors Contributed to the Adaptation Gap during School Transition in Japan?

Abstract:

The present study was aimed to examine the structure of children’s adaptation during school transition and to identify a commonality and dissimilarity at the elementary and junior high school. 1,983 students in the 6th grade and 2,051 students in the 7th grade were extracted by stratified two-stage random sampling and completed the ASSESS that evaluated the school adaptation from the view point of ‘general satisfaction’, ‘teachers’ support’, ‘friends’ support’, ‘anti-bullying relationship’, ‘prosocial skills’, and ‘academic adaptation’. The 7th graders tend to be worse adaptation than the 6th graders. A structural equation modeling showed the goodness of fit for each grades. Both models were very similar but the 7th graders’ model showed a lower coefficient at the pass from ‘teachers’ support’ to ‘friends’ support’. The role of ‘teachers’ support’ was decreased to keep a good relation in junior high school. We also discussed how we provide a continuous assistance for prevention of the 7th graders’ gap.

Keywords: School transition, social support, psychological adaptation, K-12.

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6702 The Age Difference in Social Skills Constructs for School Adaptation: A Cross-Sectional Study of Japanese Students at Elementary, Junior, and Senior High Schools

Authors: Hiroki Shinkawa, Tadaaki Tomiie

Abstract:

Many interventions for social skills acquisition aim to decrease the gap between social skills deficits in the individual and normative social skills; nevertheless little is known of typical social skills according to age difference in students. In this study, we developed new quintet of Hokkaido Social Skills Inventory (HSSI) to identify age-appropriate social skills for school adaptation. First, we selected 13 categories of social skills for school adaptation from previous studies, and created questionnaire items through discussion by 25 teachers in all three levels from elementary schools to senior high schools. Second, the factor structures of five versions of the social skills scale were investigated on 2nd grade (n = 1,864), 4th grade (n = 1,936), 6th grade (n = 2,085), 7th grade (n = 2,007), and 10th grade (n = 912) students, respectively. The exploratory factor analysis showed that a number of constructing factors of social skills increased as one’s grade in school advanced. The results in the present study can be useful to characterize the age-appropriate social skills for school adaptation. 

Keywords: Social skills, age difference, children, adolescents.

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6701 Perceptions on Accounting Career: A Study among the Secondary School Students in a Regional Kelantan State

Authors: Hezlina Mohd Hashim, Abdul Mutalib Embong, Zullina H. Shaari

Abstract:

This study analyses the perceptions of secondary school students about the accounting profession in Malaysia. Fifty five form three and form four students who are taking accounting/commerce subjects were met. Individual-s perception data were collected through questionnaires. The results at the secondary school level suggest that the stereotypical negative image of the accountant ends, with students expressing the positive view of the work of an accountant. There were also gender differences in perceiving the accounting profession. Overall, the results of the study suggest that we are now in line in projecting positive and accurate perceptions of the accounting profession to secondary school students.

Keywords: Perceptions, secondary school students, accounting profession, Malaysia.

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6700 Family Bonding and Self-Concept: An Indirect Effect Mediated by School Experiences among Students

Authors: Z. Ishak, F.P Chew

Abstract:

School experiences, family bonding and self-concept had always been a crucial factor in influencing all aspects of a student-s development. The purpose of this study is to develop and to validate a priori model of self-concept among students. The study was tested empirically using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to validate the structural model. To address these concerns, 1167 students were randomly selected and utilized the Cognitive Psycho-Social University of Malaya instrument (2009).Resulted demonstrated there is indirect effect from family bonding to self-concept through school experiences among secondary school students as a mediator. Besides school experiences, there is a direct effect from family bonding to self-concept and family bonding to school experiences among students.

Keywords: Confirmatory Factor Analysis, self-concept, family bonding, and school experience

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6699 Is School Misbehavior a Decision? Implications for School Guidance

Authors: Rachel C. F. Sun

Abstract:

This study examined the predictive effects of moral competence, prosocial norms and positive behavior recognition on school misbehavior among Chinese junior secondary school students. Results of multiple regression analysis showed that students were more likely to misbehave in school when they had lower levels of moral competence and prosocial norms, and when they perceived their positive behavior being less likely recognized. Practical implications were discussed on how to guide students to make the right choices to behave appropriately in school. Implications for future research were also discussed.

Keywords: Moral competence, positive behavior recognition, prosocial norms, school misbehavior.

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6698 High School Stem Curriculum and Example of Laboratory Work That Shows How Microcomputers Can Help in Understanding of Physical Concepts

Authors: Jelena Slugan, Ivica Ružić

Abstract:

We are witnessing the rapid development of technologies that change the world around us. However, curriculums and teaching processes are often slow to adapt to the change; it takes time, money and expertise to implement technology in the classroom. Therefore, the University of Split, Croatia, partnered with local school Marko Marulić High School and created the project "Modern competence in modern high schools" as part of which five different curriculums for STEM areas were developed. One of the curriculums involves combining information technology with physics. The main idea was to teach students how to use different circuits and microcomputers to explore nature and physical phenomena. As a result, using electrical circuits, students are able to recreate in the classroom the phenomena that they observe every day in their environment. So far, high school students had very little opportunity to perform experiments independently, and especially, those physics experiment did not involve ICT. Therefore, this project has a great importance, because the students will finally get a chance to develop themselves in accordance to modern technologies. This paper presents some new methods of teaching physics that will help students to develop experimental skills through the study of deterministic nature of physical laws. Students will learn how to formulate hypotheses, model physical problems using the electronic circuits and evaluate their results. While doing that, they will also acquire useful problem solving skills.

Keywords: ICT in physics, curriculum, laboratory activities, STEM.

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6697 Algorithmic Skills Transferred from Secondary CSI Studies into Tertiary Education

Authors: Piroska Biró, Mária Csernoch, János Máth, Kálmán Abari

Abstract:

Testing the first year students of Informatics at the University of Debrecen revealed that students start their tertiary studies in programming with a low level of programming knowledge and algorithmic skills. The possible reasons which lead the students to this very unfortunate result were examined. The results of the test were compared to the students’ results in the school leaving exams and to their self-assessment values. It was found that there is only a slight connection between the students’ results in the test and in the school leaving exams, especially at intermediate level. Beyond this, the school leaving exams do not seem to enable students to evaluate their own abilities.

Keywords: Deep and surface approaches, metacognitive abilities, programming and algorithmic skills, school leaving exams, tracking code.

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6696 Curriculum and Sex-specific Differences in Academic Stress Arising from Perceived Expectations

Authors: Glenn M. Calaguas

Abstract:

With the aim of knowing whether curriculum and sex differences exist in academic stress arising from perceived expectations, high school students were asked to respond to the Academic Expectations Stress Inventory (AESI). AESI is a nine-item inventory with two domains, namely: expectations of teachers/parents and expectations of self. Out of the 504 officially enrolled high school students in a state college, 469 responded to the inventory. Responses were analyzed using independent samples ttest. Significant differences were found between the mean scores of the respondents coming from the Science and the Vocational curriculum. The respondents from the Science curriculum consistently registered higher mean scores. Likewise, significant differences were found between the male and the female respondents. The female respondents consistently registered higher mean scores.

Keywords: academic stress, curriculum and sex differences, high school students, perceived expectations

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6695 Inner and Outer School Contextual Factors Associated with Poor Performance of Grade 12 Students: A Case Study of an Underperforming High School in Mpumalanga, South Africa

Authors: Victoria L. Nkosi, Parvaneh Farhangpour

Abstract:

Often a Grade 12 certificate is perceived as a passport to tertiary education and the minimum requirement to enter the world of work. In spite of its importance, many students do not make this milestone in South Africa. It is important to find out why so many students still fail in spite of transformation in the education system in the post-apartheid era. Given the complexity of education and its context, this study adopted a case study design to examine one historically underperforming high school in Bushbuckridge, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa in 2013. The aim was to gain a understanding of the inner and outer school contextual factors associated with the high failure rate among Grade 12 students.  Government documents and reports were consulted to identify factors in the district and the village surrounding the school and a student survey was conducted to identify school, home and student factors. The randomly-sampled half of the population of Grade 12 students (53) participated in the survey and quantitative data are analyzed using descriptive statistical methods. The findings showed that a host of factors is at play. The school is located in a village within a municipality which has been one of the poorest three municipalities in South Africa and the lowest Grade 12 pass rate in the Mpumalanga province.   Moreover, over half of the families of the students are single parents, 43% are unemployed and the majority has a low level of education. In addition, most families (83%) do not have basic study materials such as a dictionary, books, tables, and chairs. A significant number of students (70%) are over-aged (+19 years old); close to half of them (49%) are grade repeaters. The school itself lacks essential resources, namely computers, science laboratories, library, and enough furniture and textbooks. Moreover, teaching and learning are negatively affected by the teachers’ occasional absenteeism, inadequate lesson preparation, and poor communication skills. Overall, the continuous low performance of students in this school mirrors the vicious circle of multiple negative conditions present within and outside of the school. The complexity of factors associated with the underperformance of Grade 12 students in this school calls for a multi-dimensional intervention from government and stakeholders. One important intervention should be the placement of over-aged students and grade-repeaters in suitable educational institutions for the benefit of other students.

Keywords: Inner context, outer context, over-aged students, vicious circle.

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6694 A Study on the Circumstances Affecting Elementary School Students in Their Familyand School Lives and Their Consequential Emotions

Authors: Osman Samancı, Ramazan Kaya

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to determine the circumstances affecting elementary school students in their family and school lives and what kind of emotions children may feel because of these circumstances. The study was carried out according to the survey model. Four Turkish elementary schools provided 123 fourth grade students for participation in the study. The study-s data were collected by using worksheets for the activity titled “Important Days in Our Lives", which was part of the Elementary School Social Sciences Course 4th Grade Education Program. Data analysis was carried out according to the content analysis technique used in qualitative research. The study detected that circumstances of their family and school lives caused children to feel emotions such as happiness, sadness, anger, fear and jealousy. The circumstances and the emotions caused by these circumstances were analyzed according to gender and interpreted by presenting them with their frequencies.

Keywords: Elementary school students, emotional development, family and school, social development.

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6693 Awakeness, Awareness and Learning Mathematics for Arab Students: A Pilot Study

Authors: S. Rawashdi, D. Bshouty

Abstract:

This paper aimed at discussing how to urge middle and high school Arab students in Israel to be aware of the importance of and investing in learning mathematics. In the first phase of the study, three questionnaires were passed to two nine-grade classes, one on Awareness, one on Awakeness and one on Learning. One of the two classes was an outstanding class from a public school (PUBS) of 31 students, and the other a heterogeneous class from a private school (PRIS) with 31 students. The Learning questionnaire which was administrated to the Awareness and Awareness topics was passed to PRIS and the Awareness and Awareness Questionnaires were passed to the PUBS class After two months we passed the post-questionnaire to both classes to validate the long-term impact of the study. The findings of the study show that awakeness and awareness processes have an effect on the math learning process, on its context in students' daily lives and their growing interest in learning math.

Keywords: Awakeness, awareness, learning mathematics, pupils.

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6692 Juvenile Delinquency of Senior High School Students in Surabaya, Indonesia

Authors: Herdina Indrijati

Abstract:

This research aims to describe teenager delinquency behavior (Juvenile Delinquency) of senior high school students in Surabaya, Indonesia. Juvenile Delinquency is a broad range of behaviors start from socially unacceptable behavior (overreact in school), violation (escape from home) to crimes (like stealing). This research uses quantitative descriptive method using 498 students who come from 8 different schools in Surabaya as subjects. Juvenile Delinquency behavior form questionnaire has been completed by subjects and was used to measure and describe the behavior. The result of this research is presented in statistic descriptive forms. Result shows that 169 subjects skip school, 55 subjects get out of home without parent’s permission, 110 subjects engage in smoking behavior, 74 subjects damage other people properties, 32 subjects steal, 16 subjects exploit others and 7 subjects engage in drug abuse. Frequency of the top five mentioned behavior are 1-10 times. It is also found that subject’s peers are most likely to be the victim of Juvenile Delinquency. The reasons teenagers engage in Juvenile Delinquency include (1) feeling tired, bored or lazy – that contributes to their skip school behavior (2) Having a lot of problem with parents - contrives them to run away from home, (3) accidentally damage other people’s properties, (4) financial problems – force them to steal and exploit, (5) feeling like having a lot of life problems – that makes them do drugs (6) trying smoking for experience.

Keywords: Juvenile delinquency, senior high school, student.

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6691 The Role of Gender and Age on Students- Perceptions towards Online Education Case Study: Sakarya University, Vocational High School

Authors: Fahme Dabaj, Havva Başak

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to find out and analyze the role of gender and age on the perceptions of students to the distant online program offered by Vocational High School in Sakarya University. The research is based on a questionnaire as a mean of data collection method to find out the role of age and gender on the student-s perceptions toward online education, and the study progressed through finding relationships between the variables used in the data collection instrument. The findings of the analysis revealed that although the students registered to the online program by will, they preferred the traditional face-to-face education due to the difficulty of the nonverbal communication, their incompetence of using the technology required, and their belief in traditional face-toface learning more than online education. Regarding gender, the results showed that the female students have a better perception of the online education as opposed to the male students. Regarding age, the results showed that the older the students are the more is their preference towards attending face-toface classes.

Keywords: Distance education, online education, interneteducation, student perceptions.

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6690 A Study on the Factors Affecting Student Behavior Intention to Attend Robotics Courses at the Primary and Secondary School Levels

Authors: Jingwen Shan

Abstract:

In order to explore the key factors affecting the robot program learning intention of school students, this study takes the technology acceptance model as the theoretical basis and invites 167 students from Jiading District of Shanghai as the research subjects. In the robot course, the model of school students on their learning behavior is constructed. By verifying the causal path relationship between variables, it is concluded that teachers can enhance students’ perceptual usefulness to robotics courses by enhancing subjective norms, entertainment perception, and reducing technical anxiety, such as focusing on the gradual progress of programming and analyzing learner characteristics. Students can improve perceived ease of use by enhancing self-efficacy. At the same time, robot hardware designers can optimize in terms of entertainment and interactivity, which will directly or indirectly increase the learning intention of the robot course. By changing these factors, the learning behavior of primary and secondary school students can be more sustainable.

Keywords: TAM, learning behavior intentions, robot courses, primary and secondary school students.

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6689 Tolerance and Perspective towards Disability: A Mixed Methods Study

Authors: L. Koštić, P. Karaman

Abstract:

Society has a lot of diversities according to sex, age, religion, abilities or disabilities, education, etc. According to differences, everybody needs to be tolerated and equally included in society. In order to provide quality inclusion, society needs to tolerate differences. This study relates to the differences in disability. To examine tolerance towards disability and inclusion, this study was conducted with students attending regular elementary and high school. The main goal was to examine their attitudes towards their classmates and elderly people with disabilities. The study begins with the hypothesis that the environment has a highly developed tolerance towards people with disabilities, regardless of age. The sample was divided according to tasks and methodology analysis. Students attending regular elementary school were asked to make drawings of their classmates with disabilities. The drawings were analyzed using quantitative methodology according to the colors children used and the position of character on the paper. Students attending high school and members of general population were asked to complete a questionnaire designed for this study during a workshop held on the International Day for Tolerance. Responses were analyzed using qualitative methodology. The hypothesis was confirmed.

Keywords: Classmates, disability, students, tolerance.

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6688 Influence and Dissemination of Solecism among Moroccan High School and University Students

Authors: Rachid Ed-Dali, Khalid Elasri

Abstract:

Mass media seem to provide a rich content for language acquisition. Exposure to television, the Internet, the mobile phone and other technological gadgets and devices helps enrich the student’s lexicon positively as well as negatively. The difficulties encountered by students while learning and acquiring second languages in addition to their eagerness to comprehend the content of a particular program prompt them to diversify their methods so as to achieve their targets. The present study highlights the significance of certain media channels and their involvement in language acquisition with the employment of the Natural Approach to further grasp whether students, especially secondary and high school students, learn and acquire errors through watching subtitled television programs. The chief objective is investigating the deductive and inductive relevance of certain programs beside the involvement of peripheral learning while acquiring mistakes.

Keywords: Errors, mistakes, natural Approach, peripheral learning, solecism.

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6687 Principal Role and School Structure

Authors: Behnaz Mohajeran, Alireza Ghaleei

Abstract:

This main purpose of the study reported here was to investigate the extent to which the form of school governance (particularly decision-making) had an impact upon the effectiveness of the school with reference to parental involvement, planning and budgeting, professional development of teachers, school facilities and resources, and student outcomes. Particular attention was given to decision-making within the governance arrangements. The study was based on four case studies of high schools in New South Wales, Australia including one government school, one independent Christian community school, one independent Catholic school, and one Catholic systemic school. The focus of the research was principals, teachers, parents, and students of four schools with varying governance structures. To gain a greater insight into the issues, the researchers collected information by questionnaire, semi-structured interview, and review of school key documents. This study found that it was not so much structure but the centrality of the school Principal and the way that the Principal perceived his/her roles in relation to others that impacted most on school governance.

Keywords: governance structure, principal role, schooleffectiveness, stakeholder involvement

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6686 ICT Education: Digital History Learners

Authors: Lee Bih Ni, Elvis Fung

Abstract:

This article is to review and understand the new generation of students to understand their expectations and attitudes. There are a group of students on school projects, creative work, educational software and digital signal source, the use of social networking tools to communicate with friends and a part in the competition. Today's students have been described as the new millennium students. They use information and communication technology in a more creative and innovative at home than at school, because the information and communication technologies for different purposes, in the home, usually occur in school. They collaborate and communicate more effectively when they are at home. Most children enter school, they will bring about how to use information and communication technologies, some basic skills and some tips on how to use information and communication technology will provide a more advanced than most of the school's expectations. Many teachers can help students, however, still a lot of work, "tradition", without a computer, and did not see the "new social computing networks describe young people to learn and new ways of working life in the future", in the education system of the benefits of using a computer.

Keywords: ICT Education, Digital History.

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6685 The Design and Analysis of Learning Effects for a Game-based Learning System

Authors: Wernhuar Tarng, Weichian Tsai

Abstract:

The major purpose of this study is to use network and multimedia technologies to build a game-based learning system for junior high school students to apply in learning “World Geography" through the “role-playing" game approaches. This study first investigated the motivation and habits of junior high school students to use the Internet and online games, and then designed a game-based learning system according to situated and game-based learning theories. A teaching experiment was conducted to analyze the learning effectiveness of students on the game-based learning system and the major factors affecting their learning. A questionnaire survey was used to understand the students- attitudes towards game-based learning. The results showed that the game-based learning system can enhance students- learning, but the gender of students and their habits in using the Internet have no significant impact on learning. Game experience has a significant impact on students- learning, and the higher the experience value the better the effectiveness of their learning. The results of questionnaire survey also revealed that the system can increase students- motivation and interest in learning "World Geography".

Keywords: Game-based learning, situated learning, role playing, learning effectiveness, learning motivation.

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6684 “Blood Family“ Activity With Respect To Comprehensive Guidance School Program

Authors: Ali Eryılmaz

Abstract:

Children and adolescents developing in the worlds of today are facing a getting array of new and old challenges. School counselling is improving rapidly in contemporary education systems around the world. It can be said that counselling system in Turkey was newly borning. In this study, “Family of the Blood" activity is improved with respect to compherensive guidance school program. The sample included 22 adolescents who were high school students. The activity was carried out in 4 sessions, each of which lasted 45 minutes. In the first session, students- personal-social needs were determined. In the second session, in order to warm up, the students were asked three questions consisting of the constructional aspect. In the third session, the counselor and the teacher shared the results of students- responses obtained in the previous session. In the fourth session, the tables formed by students were presented in the classroom. In order to evaluate the activity, three questions were asked of the teacher and counselor. According to the results, the lesson aims of curriculum and counselling aims of curriculum were attained. In the light of literature, the results were discussed and some suggestions were made. It is taken into consideration that the activitiy was beneficial in many respects, similar studies should be carried out in the near future.

Keywords: Comprehensive guidance program, education, family

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6683 Understanding Primary School Students’ Beliefs Regarding the Adoption of Pro-Environmental Behaviors

Authors: Astrid de Leeuw, Pierre Valois

Abstract:

Environmental education is the key to enhancing or changing students’ ways of thinking and acting in order to create an environmentally robust future for all. The present study investigates the beliefs of 812 primary school students, which merit consideration when developing educational interventions. Results of multiple regression analyses reveal that educational interventions should focus on promoting students’ feelings of control over pro-environmental behaviors (PEB). For example, schools could provide recycling bins on the premises. Furthermore, it is critical to develop positive attitudes in students by stressing the various benefits of PEB for keeping our planet clean and protecting wildlife. Unfortunately, our results indicate that students believe that PEB is boring and annoying. Suggestions are offered for making PEB more interesting and relevant. Further research is needed to test the effectiveness of interventions based on the present results.

Keywords: Pro-environmental behaviors, primary school students, theory of planned behavior, beliefs, educational interventions.

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