Search results for: sand
221 Comparing the Durability of Saudi Silica Sands for Use in Foundry Processing
Authors: Mahdi Alsagour, Sam Ramrattan
This paper was developed to investigate two types of sands from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) for potential use in the global metal casting industry. Four types of sands were selected for study, two of the sand systems investigated are natural sands from the KSA. The third sand sample is a heat processed synthetic sand and the last sample is commercially available US silica sand that is used as a control in the study. The purpose of this study is to define the durability of the four sand systems selected for foundry usage. Additionally, chemical analysis of the sand systems is presented before and after elevated temperature exposure. Results show that Saudi silica sands are durable and can be used in foundry processing.
Keywords: Alternative molding media, foundry sand, reclamation, silica sand, specialty sand.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 493
220 Velocity Distribution in Open Channels with Sand: An Experimental Study
Authors: E. Keramaris
In this study, laboratory experiments in open channel flows over a sand bed were conducted. A porous bed (sand bed) with porosity of ε=0.70 and porous thickness of s΄=3 cm was tested. Vertical distributions of velocity were evaluated by using a two-dimensional (2D) Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Velocity profiles are measured above the impermeable bed and above the sand bed for the same different total water heights (h= 6, 8, 10 and 12 cm) and for the same slope S=1.5. Measurements of mean velocity indicate the effects of the bed material used (sand bed) on the flow characteristics (Velocity distribution and Reynolds number) in comparison with those above the impermeable bed.
Keywords: Particle image velocimetry, sand bed, velocity distribution, Reynolds number.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1581
219 Strength Characteristics of Shallow Gassy Sand in the Hangzhou Bay
Authors: Wang Yong, Kong Ling-Wei, Guo Ai-Guo
Abstract:In view of geological origin, formation of the shallow gas reservoir of the Hangzhou Bay, northern Zhejiang Province, eastern China, and original occurrence characteristics of the gassy sand are analyzed. Generally, gassy sand in scale gas reservoirs is in the state of residual moisture content and the approximate scope of initial matric suction of sand ranges about from 0kPa to100kPa. Results based on GDS triaxial tests show that the classical shear strength formulas of unsaturated soil can not effectively describe basic strength characteristics of gassy sand; the relationship between apparent cohesion and matric suction of gassy sand agrees well with the power function, which can reasonably be used to describe the strength of gassy sand. In the stress path of gas release, shear strength of gassy sand will increase and experimental results show the formula proposed in this paper can effectively predict the strength increment. When saturated strength indexes of the sand are used in engineering design, moderate reduction should be considered.
Keywords: Gassy sand, Gas release, Occurrence characteristics, strengthProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1478
218 A Previously Underappreciated Impact on Global Warming caused by the Geometrical and Physical Properties of desert sand
Authors: Y. F. Yang, B. T. Wang, J. J. Fan, J. Yin
Abstract:The previous researches focused on the influence of anthropogenic greenhouse gases exerting global warming, but not consider whether desert sand may warm the planet, this could be improved by accounting for sand's physical and geometric properties. Here we show, sand particles (because of their geometry) at the desert surface form an extended surface of up to 1 + π/4 times the planar area of the desert that can contact sunlight, and at shallow depths of the desert form another extended surface of at least 1 + π times the planar area that can contact air. Based on this feature, an enhanced heat exchange system between sunlight, desert sand, and air in the spaces between sand particles could be built up automatically, which can increase capture of solar energy, leading to rapid heating of the sand particles, and then the heating of sand particles will dramatically heat the air between sand particles. The thermodynamics of deserts may thus have contributed to global warming, especially significant to future global warming if the current desertification continues to expand.
Keywords: global warming, desert sand, extended surface, heat exchange, thermodynamicsProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1389
217 Characterising the Effects of Sand Blasting on Formed Steel Samples
Authors: Esther T. Akinlabi, Enoch Ogunmuyiwa, Stephen A. Akinlabi
The present research study focuses on the investigation of the influence of sand blasting on formed mild steel samples. The investigation involved the examinations on the parent material and a sand blasted material. The results were compared to the mechanically formed materials (sand and non-sand blasted) as well as a laser formed material (sand and non-sand blasted). Each material was characterized for the grain sizes and hardness. The percentage change in the grain sizes was quantified and correlation to the microhardness values was established. The Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS) of the materials was also quantified using the obtained hardness values. The investigations revealed that the sand blasting causes an increase in the Vickers microhardness values of all the materials which also led to an increase in the UTS. After the forming operation, the microstructure revealed elongated grains as compared to almost equiaxed obtained from the parent non-sand blasted materials.
Keywords: Grain size, hardness, metal forming, sand blasting, ultimate tensile strength.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 5490
216 Effect of Sand Wall Stabilized with Different Percentages of Lime on Bearing Capacity of Foundation
Authors: Ahmed S. Abdulrasool
Abstract:Recently sand wall started to gain more attention as the sand is easy to compact by using vibroflotation technique. An advantage of sand wall is the availability of different additives that can be mixed with sand to increase the stiffness of the sand wall and hence to increase its performance. In this paper, the bearing capacity of circular foundation surrounded by sand wall stabilized with lime is evaluated through laboratory testing. The studied parameters include different sand-lime walls depth (H/D) ratio (wall depth to foundation diameter) ranged between (0.0-3.0). Effect of lime percentages on the bearing capacity of skirted foundation models is investigated too. From the results, significant change is occurred in the behavior of shallow foundations due to confinement of the soil. It has been found that (H/D) ratio of 2 gives substantial improvement in bearing capacity, and beyond (H/D) ratio of 2, there is no significant improvement in bearing capacity. The results show that the optimum lime content is 11%, and the maximum increase in bearing capacity reaches approximately 52% at (H/D) ratio of 2.
Keywords: Lime-sand wall, bearing capacity, circular foundation, clay soil.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 936
215 Enhancing Landfill Gas Production by Methanogenic Sand Layer
Authors: N. Sapari, S. Mustapha, H. Jusoh
Abstract:Landfill gas, particularly methane is one of the greenhouse gases which contributes to global warming. This paper presents the findings of a study on methane gas production from simulated landfill reactor under saturated conditions. A reactor was constructed to represent a landfill cell of 2.5 m thickness on sandy soil. The reactor was 0.2 m in diameter and 4 m in height. One meter of sand and pebble layer was packed at the bottom of the reactor followed by 2.5 m of solid waste layer and 0.4 m of sand layer as the cover soil. Degradation of waste in the solid waste layer was at acidification stage as indicated by the leachate quality with COD as high as 55,511 mg/L and pH as low as 5.1. However, methanogenic environment was established at the bottom sand layer after one year of operation indicated by pH of 7.2 and methane gas generation. Leachate degradation took place as the leachate moved through the sand layer at an infiltration of rate 0.7 cm/day. This resulted in landfill gas production of 77 mL/day/kg containing 55 to 65% methane. The application of sand layer contributed to the gas production from landfill by an in-situ degradation of leachate in the sand at the bottom of the landfill.
Keywords: Gas production, methane, methanogenic sand layer, municipal solid waste, saturated landfillProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1484
214 Comparative Characterization Study of Malaysian Sand as Proppant
Authors: Dahlila Kamat, Ismail Mohd Saaid, Iskandar Dzulkarnain
Abstract:This paper presents a review on published literature and experimental works on local sands for possible use as proppant, specifically those from Terengganu coastal area. This includes examination on characteristics of sand samples and selection of experiments for proppant testing. Sand samples from identified areas were tested according to particle size distribution, density, roundness and sphericity, turbidity and mineralogy. Results from sand samples were compared against proppant specifications set by API RP 56 and selected commercial proppants. The present study found that the size distribution, sphericity, turbidity and bulk density of Terengganu sands are at par with some of commercial proppants. Nevertheless, Terengganu sand samples do not completely surpass the required roundness for use as proppant.
Keywords: Hydraulic fracturing, Malaysia sand, proppant, wellstimulation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2977
213 Run-off Storage in Sand Reservoirs as an Alternative Source of Water Supply for Rura land Semi-arid areas of South Africa
Authors: Olufisayo A. Olufayo, Fred A. O. Otieno, George M. Ochieng
Abstract:Abstraction of water from the dry river sand-beds is well-known as an alternative source of water during dry seasons. Internally, because of the form of sand particles, voids are created which can store water in the riverbeds. Large rivers are rare in South Africa. Many rivers are sand river types and without water during the prolonged dry periods. South Africa has not taken full advantage of water storage in sand as a solution to the growing water scarcity both in urban and rural areas. The paper reviews the benefits of run-off storage in sand reservoirs gained from other arid areas and need for adoption in rural areas of South Africa as an alternative water supply where it is probable.
Keywords: Groundwater, Perennial river, Run-off storage, Sandreservoir.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1616
212 Monitoring Sand Transport Characteristics in Multiphase Flow in Horizontal Pipelines Using Acoustic Emission Technology
Authors: M. El-Alej, D. Mba, T. Yan, M. Elforgani
This paper presents an experimental investigation using Acoustic Emission (AE) technology to monitor sand transportation in multiphase flow. The investigations were undertaken on three-phase (air-water-sand) flow in a horizontal pipe where the superficial gas velocity (VSG) had a range of between 0.2msˉ¹ to 2.0msˉ¹ and superficial liquid velocity (VSL) had a range of between 0.2msˉ¹ to 1.0msˉ¹. The experimental findings clearly show a correlation exists between AE energy levels, sand concentration, superficial gas velocity (VSG), and superficial liquid velocity (VSL).
Keywords: Acoustic Emission (AE), multiphase flow, sand monitoring, sand minimum transport condition (MTC), condition monitoring.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3323
211 The Influence of Biofuels on the Permeability of Sand-Bentonite Liners
Authors: Mousa Bani Baker, Maria Elektorowicz, Adel Hanna, Altayeb Qasem
Abstract:Liners are made to protect the groundwater table from the infiltration of leachate which normally carries different kinds of toxic materials from landfills. Although these liners are engineered to last for long period of time; unfortunately these liners fail; therefore, toxic materials pass to groundwater. This paper focuses on the changes of the hydraulic conductivity of a sand-bentonite liner due to the infiltration of biofuel and ethanol fuel. Series of laboratory tests were conducted in 20-cm-high PVC columns. Several compositions of sand-bentonite liners were tested: 95% sand: 5% bentonite; 90% sand: 10% bentonite; and 100% sand (passed mesh #40). The columns were subjected to extreme pressures of 40 kPa, and 100 kPa to evaluate the transport of alternative fuels (biofuel and ethanol fuel). For comparative studies, similar tests were carried out using water. Results showed that hydraulic conductivity increased due to the infiltration of alternative fuels through the liners. Accordingly, the increase in the hydraulic conductivity showed significant dependency on the type of liner mixture and the characteristics of the liquid. The hydraulic conductivity of a liner (subjected to biofuel infiltration) consisting of 5% bentonite: 95% sand under pressure of 40 kPa and 100 kPa had increased by one fold. In addition, the hydraulic conductivity of a liner consisting of 10% bentonite: 90% sand under pressure of 40 kPa and 100 kPa and infiltrated by biofuel had increased by three folds. On the other hand, the results obtained by water infiltration under 40 kPa showed lower hydraulic conductivities of 1.50×10-5 and 1.37×10-9 cm/s for 5% bentonite: 95% sand, and 10% bentonite: 90% sand, respectively. Similarly, under 100 kPa, the hydraulic conductivities were 2.30×10-5 and 1.90×10-9 cm/s for 5% bentonite: 95% sand, and 10% bentonite: 90% sand, respectively.
Keywords: Biofuel, Ethanol; Hydraulic conductivity Landfill, Leakage, Liner failure, Liner performance Fine-grained soils, Particle size, Sand-bentonite.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1829
210 An Experimental Investigation in Effect of Confining Stress and Matric Suction on the Mechanical Behavior of Sand with Different Fine Content
Authors: S. Asreazad
This paper presents the results that the soil volumetric strain and shear strength are closely related to the confining stress and initial matric suction under constant water content testing on the specimens of unsaturated sand with clay and silt fines contents. The silty sand specimens reached their peak strength after a very small axial strain followed by a post-peak softening towards an ultimate value. The post-peak drop in stress increased by an increment of the suction, while there is no peak strength for clayey sand specimens. The clayey sand shows compressibility and possesses ductile stress-strain behaviour. Shear strength increased nonlinearly with respect to matric suction for both soil types. When suction exceeds a certain range, the effect of suction on shear strength increment weakens gradually. Under the same confining stress, the dilatant tendencies in the silty sand increased under lower values of suction and decreased for higher suction values under the same confining stress. However, the amount of contraction increased with increasing initial suction for clayey sand specimens.
Keywords: Unsaturated soils, silty sand, clayey sand, triaxial test, constant water content.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 848
209 Properties of Bricks Produced With Recycled Fine Aggregate
Abstract:The main aim of this research is to study the possible use of recycled fine aggregate made from waste rubble wall to substitute partially for the natural sand used in the production of cement and sand bricks. The bricks specimens were prepared by using 100% natural sand; they were then replaced by recycled fine aggregate at 25, 50, 75, and 100% by weight of natural sand. A series of tests was carried out to study the effect of using recycled aggregate on the physical and mechanical properties of bricks, such as density, drying shrinkage, water absorption characteristic, compressive and flexural strength. Test results indicate that it is possible to manufacture bricks containing recycled fine aggregate with good characteristics that are similar in physical and mechanical properties to those of bricks with natural aggregate, provided that the percentage of recycled fine aggregates is limited up to 50-75%.
Keywords: Bricks, cement, recycled aggregate, sandProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3401
208 Backward Erosion Piping through Vertically Layered Sands
Authors: K. Vandenboer, L. Dolphen, A. Bezuijen
Abstract:Backward erosion piping is an important failure mechanism for water-retaining structures, a phenomenon that results in the formation of shallow pipes at the interface of a sandy or silty foundation and a cohesive cover layer. This paper studies the effect of two soil types on backward erosion piping; both in case of a homogeneous sand layer, and in a vertically layered sand sample, where the pipe is forced to subsequently grow through the different layers. Two configurations with vertical sand layers are tested; they both result in wider pipes and higher critical gradients, thereby making this an interesting topic in research on measures to prevent backward erosion piping failures.
Keywords: Backward erosion piping, embankments, physical modelling, sand.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 846
207 Shear Modulus Degradation of a Liquefiable Sand Deposit by Shaking Table Tests
Authors: Henry Munoz, Muhammad Mohsan, Takashi Kiyota
Strength and deformability characteristics of a liquefiable sand deposit including the development of earthquake-induced shear stress and shear strain as well as soil softening via the progressive degradation of shear modulus were studied via shaking table experiments. To do so, a model of a liquefiable sand deposit was constructed and densely instrumented where accelerations, pressures, and displacements at different locations were continuously monitored. Furthermore, the confinement effects on the strength and deformation characteristics of the liquefiable sand deposit due to an external surcharge by placing a heavy concrete slab (i.e. the model of an actual structural rigid pavement) on the ground surface were examined. The results indicate that as the number of seismic-loading cycles increases, the sand deposit softens progressively as large shear strains take place in different sand elements. Liquefaction state is reached after the combined effects of the progressive degradation of the initial shear modulus associated with the continuous decrease in the mean principal stress, and the buildup of the excess of pore pressure takes place in the sand deposit. Finally, the confinement effects given by a concrete slab placed on the surface of the sand deposit resulted in a favorable increasing in the initial shear modulus, an increase in the mean principal stress and a decrease in the softening rate (i.e. the decreasing rate in shear modulus) of the sand, thus making the onset of liquefaction to take place at a later stage. This is, only after the sand deposit having a concrete slab experienced a higher number of seismic loading cycles liquefaction took place, in contrast to an ordinary sand deposit having no concrete slab.
Keywords: Liquefaction, shaking table, shear modulus degradation, earthquake.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 974
206 Analyzing the Performance Properties of Stress Absorbing Membrane Interlayer Modified with Recycled Crumb Rubber
Authors: Seyed Mohammad Asgharzadeh, Moein Biglari
Abstract:Asphalt overlay is the most commonly used technique of pavement rehabilitation. However, the reflective cracks which occur on the overlay surface after a short period of time are the most important distresses threatening the durability of new overlays. Stress Absorbing Membrane Interlayers (SAMIs) are used to postpone the reflective cracking in the overlays. Sand asphalt mixtures, in unmodified or crumb rubber modified (CRM) conditions, can be used as an SAMI material. In this research, the performance properties of different SAMI applications were evaluated in the laboratory using an Indirect Tensile (IDT) fracture energy. The IDT fracture energy of sand asphalt samples was also evaluated and then compared to that of the regular dense graded asphalt used as an overlay. Texas boiling water and modified Lottman tests were also conducted to evaluate the moisture susceptibility of sand asphalt mixtures. The test results showed that sand asphalt mixtures can stand higher levels of energy before cracking, and this is even more pronounced for the CRM sand mix. Sand asphalt mixture using CRM binder was also shown to be more resistance to moisture induced distresses.
Keywords: SAMI, sand asphalt, crumb rubber, Lottman Modified Test.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 976
205 Characterization of the Microbial Induced Carbonate Precipitation Technique as a Biological Cementing Agent for Sand Deposits
Authors: Sameh Abu El-Soud, Zahra Zayed, Safwan Khedr, Adel M. Belal
The population increase in Egypt is urging for horizontal land development which became a demand to allow the benefit of different natural resources and expand from the narrow Nile valley. However, this development is facing challenges preventing land development and agriculture development. Desertification and moving sand dunes in the west sector of Egypt are considered the major obstacle that is blocking the ideal land use and development. In the proposed research, the sandy soil is treated biologically using Bacillus pasteurii bacteria as these bacteria have the ability to bond the sand partials to change its state of loose sand to cemented sand, which reduces the moving ability of the sand dunes. The procedure of implementing the Microbial Induced Carbonate Precipitation Technique (MICP) technique is examined, and the different factors affecting on this process such as the medium of bacteria sample preparation, the optical density (OD600), the reactant concentration, injection rates and intervals are highlighted. Based on the findings of the MICP treatment for sandy soil, conclusions and future recommendations are reached.
Keywords: Soil stabilization, biological treatment, MICP, sand cementation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 858
204 Determination of Small Shear Modulus of Clayey Sand Using Bender Element Test
Authors: R. Sadeghzadegan, S. A. Naeini, A. Mirzaii
In this article, the results of a series of carefully conducted laboratory test program were represented to determine the small strain shear modulus of sand mixed with a range of kaolinite including zero to 30%. This was experimentally achieved using a triaxial cell equipped with bender element. Results indicate that small shear modulus tends to increase, while clay content decreases and effective confining pressure increases. The exponent of stress in the power model regression analysis was not sensitive to the amount of clay content for all sand clay mixtures, while coefficient A was directly affected by change in clay content.
Keywords: Small shear modulus, bender element test, plastic fines, sand.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 936
203 Effect of Three Sand Types on Potato Vegetative Growth and Yield
Authors: Shatha A. Yousif, Qasim M. Zamil, Hasan Y. Al Muhi, Jamal A. Al Shammari
Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is one of the major vegetable crops that are grown world –wide because of its economic importance. This experiment investigated the effect of local sands (River Base, Al-Ekader and Karbala) on number and total weight of minitubers. Statistical analysis revealed that there were no significant differences among sand cultures in number of stem/plant, chlorophyll index and tubers dry weight. River Base sand had the highest plant height (74.9 cm), leaf number/plant number (39.3), leaf area (84.4 dcm2⁄plant), dry weight/plant (26.31), tubers number/plant (8.5), tubers weight/plant (635.53 gm) and potato tuber yields/trove (28.60 kg), whereas the Karbala sand had lower performance. All the characters had positive and significant correlation with yields except the traits number of stem and tuber dry weight.
Keywords: Correlation, Potato, Sand Culture, Yield.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2380
202 Effect of Fines on Liquefaction Susceptibility of Sandy Soil
Authors: Ayad Salih Sabbar, Amin Chegenizadeh, Hamid Nikraz
Investigation of liquefaction susceptibility of materials that have been used in embankments, slopes, dams, and foundations is very essential. Many catastrophic geo-hazards such as flow slides, declination of foundations, and damage to earth structure are associated with static liquefaction that may occur during abrupt shearing of these materials. Many artificial backfill materials are mixtures of sand with fines and other composition. In order to provide some clarifications and evaluations on the role of fines in static liquefaction behaviour of sand sandy soils, the effect of fines on the liquefaction susceptibility of sand was experimentally examined in the present work over a range of fines content, relative density, and initial confining pressure. The results of an experimental study on various sand-fines mixtures are presented. Undrained static triaxial compression tests were conducted on saturated Perth sand containing 5% bentonite at three different relative densities (10, 50, and 90%), and saturated Perth sand containing both 5% bentonite and slag (2%, 4%, and 6%) at single relative density 10%. Undrained static triaxial tests were performed at three different initial confining pressures (100, 150, and 200 kPa). The brittleness index was used to quantify the liquefaction potential of sand-bentonite-slag mixtures. The results demonstrated that the liquefaction susceptibility of sand-5% bentonite mixture was more than liquefaction susceptibility of clean sandy soil. However, liquefaction potential decreased when both of two fines (bentonite and slag) were used. Liquefaction susceptibility of all mixtures decreased with increasing relative density and initial confining pressure.
Keywords: Bentonite, brittleness index, liquefaction, slag.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 834
201 Effect of Density on the Shear Modulus and Damping Ratio of Saturated Sand in Small Strain
Authors: M. Kakavand, S. A. Naeini
Dynamic properties of soil in small strains, especially for geotechnical engineers, are important for describing the behavior of soil and estimation of the earth structure deformations and structures, especially significant structures. This paper presents the effect of density on the shear modulus and damping ratio of saturated clean sand at various isotropic confining pressures. For this purpose, the specimens were compared with two different relative densities, loose Dr = 30% and dense Dr = 70%. Dynamic parameters were attained from a series of consolidated undrained fixed – free type torsional resonant column tests in small strain. Sand No. 161 is selected for this paper. The experiments show that by increasing sand density and confining pressure, the shear modulus increases and the damping ratio decreases.
Keywords: Dynamic properties, shear modulus, damping ratio, clean sand, density, confining pressure, resonant column/torsional simple shear.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 711
200 Some Factors Affecting the Compressive Behaviour of Structural Masonry at Small Scales
Authors: A. Mohammed, T. G. Hughes
Abstract:This paper presents part of a research into the small scale modelling of masonry. Small scale testing of masonry has been carried out by many authors, but few have attempted a systematic determination of the parameters that affect masonry at a small scale. The effect of increasing mortar strength and different sand gradings under compression were investigated. The results show masonry strength at small scale is influenced by increasing mortar strength and different sand gradings.
Keywords: Compression, masonry, models, mortar, sand gradingsProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2408
199 Numerical Modeling of Benzene Transport in Andosol and Sand: Adequacy of Diffusion and Equilibrium Adsorption Equations
Authors: Ping Du, Masaki Sagehashi, Akihiko Terada, Masaaki Hosomi
Prediction of benzene transport in soil and volatilization from soil to the atmosphere is important for the preservation of human health and management of contaminated soils. The adequacy of a simple numerical model, assuming two-phase diffusion and equilibrium of liquid/solid adsorption, was investigated by experimental data of benzene concentration in a flux chamber (with headspace) where Andosol and sand were filled. Adsorption experiment for liquid phase was performed to determine an adsorption coefficient. Furthermore, adequacy of vapor phase adsorption was also studied through two runs of experiment using sand with different water content. The results show that the model adequately predicted benzene transport and volatilization from Andosol and sand with water content of 14.0%. In addition, the experiment additionally revealed that vapor phase adsorption should be considered in diffusion model for sand with very low water content.
Keywords: Benzene; Transport Model, Adsorption, Soil Contaminant.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1860
198 Investigation of the Effect of Fine-Grained and Its Plastic Properties on Liquefaction Resistance of Sand
Authors: S. A. Naeini, M. Mortezaee
Abstract:The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of fine grain content in soil and its plastic properties on soil liquefaction potential. For this purpose, the conditions for considering the fine grains effect and percentage of plastic fine on the liquefaction resistance of saturated sand presented by researchers has been investigated. Then, some comprehensive results of all the issues raised by some researchers are stated. From these investigations it was observed that by increasing the percentage of cohesive fine grains in the sandy soil (up to 20%), the maximum shear strength decreases and by adding more fine- grained percentage, the maximum shear strength of the resulting soil increases but never reaches the amount of clean sand.
Keywords: Fine-grained, liquefaction, plasticity, shear strength, sand.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 299
197 Displacement Fields in Footing-Sand Interactions under Cyclic Loading
Authors: S. Joseph Antony, Z. K. Jahanger
Soils are subjected to cyclic loading in situ in situations such as during earthquakes and in the compaction of pavements. Investigations on the local scale measurement of the displacements of the grain and failure patterns within the soil bed under the cyclic loading conditions are rather limited. In this paper, using the digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV), local scale displacement fields of a dense sand medium interacting with a rigid footing are measured under the plane-strain condition for two commonly used types of cyclic loading, and the quasi-static loading condition for the purposes of comparison. From the displacement measurements of the grains, the failure envelopes of the sand media are also presented. The results show that, the ultimate cyclic bearing capacity (qultcyc) occurred corresponding to a relatively higher settlement value when compared with that of under the quasi-static loading. For the sand media under the cyclic loading conditions considered here, the displacement fields in the soil media occurred more widely in the horizontal direction and less deeper along the vertical direction when compared with that of under the quasi-static loading. The 'dead zone' in the sand grains beneath the footing is identified for all types of the loading conditions studied here. These grain-scale characteristics have implications on the resulting bulk bearing capacity of the sand media in footing-sand interaction problems.
Keywords: Cyclic loading, DPIV, settlement, soil-structure interactions, strip footing.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 663
196 Review of Scouring on Integral Bridge and its Possible Protection
Authors: Shatirah Akib, Teuku K. Syamsura, S.M. Shirazi, Moatasem M. Fayyadh, Budhi Primasari
Abstract:The purpose of this paper is to summarize the following protection of scouring countermeasures by using Bentonite-Enhanced Sand (BES) mixtures. The concept of underground improvement is being used in this study to reduce the void of the sand. The sand bentonite mixture was used to bond the ground soil conditions surrounding the pile of integral bridge. The right composition of sand bentonite mixture was proposed based on previous findings. The swelling effect of bentonite also was investigated to ensure there is no adverse impact to the structure of the integral bridge. ScourScour, another name for severe erosion, occurs when the erosive capacity of water resulting from natural and manmade events exceeds the ability of earth materials to resist its effects. According to AASHTO LRFD Specifications (Section C3.7.5), scour is the most common reason for the collapse of highway bridges in the United States
Keywords: bentonite, integral bridge, possible protection, scouringProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1669
195 Effects of Humidity and Silica Sand Particles on Vibration Generation by Friction Materials of Automotive Brake System
Authors: Mostafa M. Makrahy, Nouby M. Ghazaly, G. T. Abd el-Jaber
This paper presents the experimental study of vibration generated by friction materials of an automotive disc brake system using brake test rig. Effects of silica sand particles which are available on the road surface as an environmental condition with a size varied from 150 μm to 600 μm are evaluated. Also, the vibration of the brake disc is examined against the friction material in humidity environment conditions under variable rotational speed. The experimental results showed that the silica sand particles have significant contribution on the value of vibration amplitude which enhances with increasing the size of silica sand particles at different speed conditions. Also, it is noticed that the friction material is sensitive to humidity and the vibration magnitude increases under wet testing conditions. Moreover, it can be reported that with increasing the applied pressure and rotational speed of the braking system, the vibration amplitudes decrease for all cases.
Keywords: Friction material, silica sand particles, humidity environment, vibration of brake.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 633
194 Valorization of the Algerian Plaster and Dune Sand in the Building Sector
Authors: S. Dorbani, F. Kharchi, F. Salem, K. Arroudj, N. Chioukh
The need for thermal comfort of buildings, with the aim of saving energy, has always generated a big interest during the development of methods, to improve the mode of construction. In the present paper, which is concerned by the valorization of locally abundant materials, mixtures of plaster and dune sand have been studied. To point out the thermal performances of these mixtures, a comparative study has been established between this product and the two materials most commonly used in construction, the concrete and hollow brick. The results showed that optimal mixture is made with 1/3 plaster and 2/3 dune sand. This mortar achieved significant increases in the mechanical strengths, which allow it to be used as a carrier element for buildings, of up to two levels. The element obtained offers an acceptable thermal insulation, with a decrease the outer-wall construction thickness.
Keywords: Local materials, mortar, plaster, dune sand, compaction, mechanical performance, thermal performance.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 587
193 Assessing the Suitability of South African Waste Foundry Sand as an Additive in Clay Masonry Products
Authors: Nthabiseng Portia Mahumapelo, Andre van Niekerk, Ndabenhle Sosibo, Nirdesh Singh
The foundry industry generates large quantities of solid waste in the form of waste foundry sand. The ever-increasing quantities of this type of industrial waste put pressure on land-filling space and its proper management has become a global concern. The South African foundry industry is not different when it comes to this solid waste generation. Utilizing the foundry waste sand in other applications has become an attractive avenue to deal with this waste stream. In the present paper, an evaluation was done on the suitability of foundry waste sand as an additive in clay masonry products. Purchased clay was added to the foundry waste sand sample in a 50/50 ratio. The mixture was named FC sample. The FC sample was mixed with water in a pan mixer until the mixture was consistent and suitable for extrusion. The FC sample was extruded and cut into briquettes. Water absorption, shrinkage and modulus of rupture tests were conducted on the resultant briquettes. Foundry waste sand and FC samples were respectively characterized mineralogically using X-Ray Diffraction, and the major and trace elements were determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy. Adding purchased clay to the foundry waste sand positively influenced the workability of the test sample. Another positive characteristic was the low linear shrinkage, which indicated that products manufactured from the FC sample would not be susceptible to cracking. The water absorption values were acceptable and the unfired and fired strength values of the briquette’s samples were acceptable. In conclusion, tests showed that foundry waste sand can be used as an additive in masonry clay bricks, provided it is blended with good quality clay.
Keywords: Foundry waste sand, masonry clay bricks, modulus of rupture, shrinkage.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 452
192 NaCl Erosion-Corrosion of Mild Steel under Submerged Impingement Jet
Authors: M. Sadique, S. Ainane, Y. F. Yap, P. Rostron, E. Al Hajri
The presence of sand in production lines in the oil and gas industries causes material degradation due to erosion-corrosion. The material degradation caused by erosion-corrosion in pipelines can result in a high cost of monitoring and maintenance and in major accidents. The process of erosion-corrosion consists of erosion, corrosion, and their interactions. Investigating and understanding how the erosion-corrosion process affects the degradation process in certain materials will allow for a reduction in economic loss and help prevent accidents. In this study, material loss due to erosion-corrosion of mild steel under impingement of sand-laden water at 90˚ impingement angle is investigated using a submerged impingement jet (SIJ) test. In particular, effects of jet velocity and sand loading on TWL due to erosion-corrosion, weight loss due to pure erosion and erosion-corrosion interactions, at a temperature of 29-33 °C in sea water environment (3.5% NaCl), are analyzed. The results show that the velocity and sand loading have a great influence on the removal of materials, and erosion is more dominant under all conditions studied. Changes in the surface characteristics of the specimen after impingement test are also discussed.
Keywords: Erosion-corrosion, flow velocity, jet impingement, sand loading.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1183