Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 838

Search results for: sequence image

838 On the Properties of Pseudo Noise Sequences with a Simple Proposal of Randomness Test

Authors: Abhijit Mitra

Abstract:

Maximal length sequences (m-sequences) are also known as pseudo random sequences or pseudo noise sequences for closely following Golomb-s popular randomness properties: (P1) balance, (P2) run, and (P3) ideal autocorrelation. Apart from these, there also exist certain other less known properties of such sequences all of which are discussed in this tutorial paper. Comprehensive proofs to each of these properties are provided towards better understanding of such sequences. A simple test is also proposed at the end of the paper in order to distinguish pseudo noise sequences from truly random sequences such as Bernoulli sequences.

Keywords: Maximal length sequence, pseudo noise sequence, punctured de Bruijn sequence, auto-correlation, Bernoulli sequence, randomness tests.

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837 The Pixel Value Data Approach for Rainfall Forecasting Based on GOES-9 Satellite Image Sequence Analysis

Authors: C. Yaiprasert, K. Jaroensutasinee, M. Jaroensutasinee

Abstract:

To develop a process of extracting pixel values over the using of satellite remote sensing image data in Thailand. It is a very important and effective method of forecasting rainfall. This paper presents an approach for forecasting a possible rainfall area based on pixel values from remote sensing satellite images. First, a method uses an automatic extraction process of the pixel value data from the satellite image sequence. Then, a data process is designed to enable the inference of correlations between pixel value and possible rainfall occurrences. The result, when we have a high averaged pixel value of daily water vapor data, we will also have a high amount of daily rainfall. This suggests that the amount of averaged pixel values can be used as an indicator of raining events. There are some positive associations between pixel values of daily water vapor images and the amount of daily rainfall at each rain-gauge station throughout Thailand. The proposed approach was proven to be a helpful manual for rainfall forecasting from meteorologists by which using automated analyzing and interpreting process of meteorological remote sensing data.

Keywords: Pixel values, satellite image, water vapor, rainfall, image processing.

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836 Sequence Relationships Similarity of Swine Influenza a (H1N1) Virus

Authors: Patsaraporn Somboonsak, Mud-Armeen Munlin

Abstract:

In April 2009, a new variant of Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 emerged in Mexico and spread all over the world. The influenza has three subtypes in human (H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2) Types B and C influenza tend to be associated with local or regional epidemics. Preliminary genetic characterization of the influenza viruses has identified them as swine influenza A (H1N1) viruses. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the Haemagglutinin (HA) and Neuraminidase (NA) are similar to each other and the majority of their genes of swine influenza viruses, two genes coding for the neuraminidase (NA) and matrix (M) proteins are similar to corresponding genes of swine influenza. Sequence similarity between the 2009 A (H1N1) virus and its nearest relatives indicates that its gene segments have been circulating undetected for an extended period. Nucleic acid sequence Maximum Likelihood (MCL) and DNA Empirical base frequencies, Phylogenetic relationship amongst the HA genes of H1N1 virus isolated in Genbank having high nucleotide sequence homology. In this paper we used 16 HA nucleotide sequences from NCBI for computing sequence relationships similarity of swine influenza A virus using the following method MCL the result is 28%, 36.64% for Optimal tree with the sum of branch length, 35.62% for Interior branch phylogeny Neighber – Join Tree, 1.85% for the overall transition/transversion, and 8.28% for Overall mean distance.

Keywords: Sequence DNA, Relationship of swine, Swineinfluenza, Sequence Similarity

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835 Software Evolution Based Sequence Diagrams Merging

Authors: Zine-Eddine Bouras, Abdelouaheb Talai

Abstract:

The need to merge software artifacts seems inherent to modern software development. Distribution of development over several teams and breaking tasks into smaller, more manageable pieces are an effective means to deal with the kind of complexity. In each case, the separately developed artifacts need to be assembled as efficiently as possible into a consistent whole in which the parts still function as described. In addition, earlier changes are introduced into the life cycle and easier is their management by designers. Interaction-based specifications such as UML sequence diagrams have been found effective in this regard. As a result, sequence diagrams can be used not only for capturing system behaviors but also for merging changes in order to create a new version. The objective of this paper is to suggest a new approach to deal with the problem of software merging at the level of sequence diagrams by using the concept of dependence analysis that captures, formally, all mapping, and differences between elements of sequence diagrams and serves as a key concept to create a new version of sequence diagram.

Keywords: System behaviors, sequence diagram merging, dependence analysis, sequence diagram slicing.

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834 UTMGO: A Tool for Searching a Group of Semantically Related Gene Ontology Terms and Application to Annotation of Anonymous Protein Sequence

Authors: Razib M. Othman, Safaai Deris, Rosli M. Illias

Abstract:

Gene Ontology terms have been actively used to annotate various protein sets. SWISS-PROT, TrEMBL, and InterPro are protein databases that are annotated according to the Gene Ontology terms. However, direct implementation of the Gene Ontology terms for annotation of anonymous protein sequences is not easy, especially for species not commonly represented in biological databases. UTMGO is developed as a tool that allows the user to quickly and easily search for a group of semantically related Gene Ontology terms. The applicability of the UTMGO is demonstrated by applying it to annotation of anonymous protein sequence. The extended UTMGO uses the Gene Ontology terms together with protein sequences associated with the terms to perform the annotation task. GOPET, GOtcha, GoFigure, and JAFA are used to compare the performance of the extended UTMGO.

Keywords: Anonymous protein sequence, Gene Ontology, Protein sequence annotation, Protein sequence alignment

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833 Multiple Sequence Alignment Using Optimization Algorithms

Authors: M. F. Omar, R. A. Salam, R. Abdullah, N. A. Rashid

Abstract:

Proteins or genes that have similar sequences are likely to perform the same function. One of the most widely used techniques for sequence comparison is sequence alignment. Sequence alignment allows mismatches and insertion/deletion, which represents biological mutations. Sequence alignment is usually performed only on two sequences. Multiple sequence alignment, is a natural extension of two-sequence alignment. In multiple sequence alignment, the emphasis is to find optimal alignment for a group of sequences. Several applicable techniques were observed in this research, from traditional method such as dynamic programming to the extend of widely used stochastic optimization method such as Genetic Algorithms (GAs) and Simulated Annealing. A framework with combination of Genetic Algorithm and Simulated Annealing is presented to solve Multiple Sequence Alignment problem. The Genetic Algorithm phase will try to find new region of solution while Simulated Annealing can be considered as an alignment improver for any near optimal solution produced by GAs.

Keywords: Simulated annealing, genetic algorithm, sequence alignment, multiple sequence alignment.

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832 Effect of Scene Changing on Image Sequences Compression Using Zero Tree Coding

Authors: Mbainaibeye Jérôme, Noureddine Ellouze

Abstract:

We study in this paper the effect of the scene changing on image sequences coding system using Embedded Zerotree Wavelet (EZW). The scene changing considered here is the full motion which may occurs. A special image sequence is generated where the scene changing occurs randomly. Two scenarios are considered: In the first scenario, the system must provide the reconstruction quality as best as possible by the management of the bit rate (BR) while the scene changing occurs. In the second scenario, the system must keep the bit rate as constant as possible by the management of the reconstruction quality. The first scenario may be motivated by the availability of a large band pass transmission channel where an increase of the bit rate may be possible to keep the reconstruction quality up to a given threshold. The second scenario may be concerned by the narrow band pass transmission channel where an increase of the bit rate is not possible. In this last case, applications for which the reconstruction quality is not a constraint may be considered. The simulations are performed with five scales wavelet decomposition using the 9/7-tap filter bank biorthogonal wavelet. The entropy coding is performed using a specific defined binary code book and EZW algorithm. Experimental results are presented and compared to LEAD H263 EVAL. It is shown that if the reconstruction quality is the constraint, the system increases the bit rate to obtain the required quality. In the case where the bit rate must be constant, the system is unable to provide the required quality if the scene change occurs; however, the system is able to improve the quality while the scene changing disappears.

Keywords: Image Sequence Compression, Wavelet Transform, Scene Changing, Zero Tree, Bit Rate, Quality.

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831 A PN Sequence Generator based on Residue Arithmetic for Multi-User DS-CDMA Applications

Authors: Chithra R, Pallab Maji, Sarat Kumar Patra, Girija Sankar Rath

Abstract:

The successful use of CDMA technology is based on the construction of large families of encoding sequences with good correlation properties. This paper discusses PN sequence generation based on Residue Arithmetic with an effort to improve the performance of existing interference-limited CDMA technology for mobile cellular systems. All spreading codes with residual number system proposed earlier did not consider external interferences, multipath propagation, Doppler effect etc. In literature the use of residual arithmetic in DS-CDMA was restricted to encoding of already spread sequence; where spreading of sequence is done by some existing techniques. The novelty of this paper is the use of residual number system in generation of the PN sequences which is used to spread the message signal. The significance of cross-correlation factor in alleviating multi-access interference is also discussed. The RNS based PN sequence has superior performance than most of the existing codes that are widely used in DS-CDMA applications. Simulation results suggest that the performance of the proposed system is superior to many existing systems.

Keywords: Direct-Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (DSCDMA), Multiple-Access Interference (MAI), PN Sequence, Residue Number System (RNS).

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830 Fast Database Indexing for Large Protein Sequence Collections Using Parallel N-Gram Transformation Algorithm

Authors: Jehad A. H. Hammad, Nur'Aini binti Abdul Rashid

Abstract:

With the rapid development in the field of life sciences and the flooding of genomic information, the need for faster and scalable searching methods has become urgent. One of the approaches that were investigated is indexing. The indexing methods have been categorized into three categories which are the lengthbased index algorithms, transformation-based algorithms and mixed techniques-based algorithms. In this research, we focused on the transformation based methods. We embedded the N-gram method into the transformation-based method to build an inverted index table. We then applied the parallel methods to speed up the index building time and to reduce the overall retrieval time when querying the genomic database. Our experiments show that the use of N-Gram transformation algorithm is an economical solution; it saves time and space too. The result shows that the size of the index is smaller than the size of the dataset when the size of N-Gram is 5 and 6. The parallel N-Gram transformation algorithm-s results indicate that the uses of parallel programming with large dataset are promising which can be improved further.

Keywords: Biological sequence, Database index, N-gram indexing, Parallel computing, Sequence retrieval.

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829 Real-time Tracking in Image Sequences based-on Parameters Updating with Temporal and Spatial Neighborhoods Mixture Gaussian Model

Authors: Hu Haibo, Zhao Hong

Abstract:

Gaussian mixture background model is widely used in moving target detection of the image sequences. However, traditional Gaussian mixture background model usually considers the time continuity of the pixels, and establishes background through statistical distribution of pixels without taking into account the pixels- spatial similarity, which will cause noise, imperfection and other problems. This paper proposes a new Gaussian mixture modeling approach, which combines the color and gradient of the spatial information, and integrates the spatial information of the pixel sequences to establish Gaussian mixture background. The experimental results show that the movement background can be extracted accurately and efficiently, and the algorithm is more robust, and can work in real time in tracking applications.

Keywords: Gaussian mixture model, real-time tracking, sequence image, gradient.

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828 Evaluation of the Zero Sequence Impedance of Overhead High Voltage Lines

Authors: Rabah Diabi

Abstract:

As known, the guard wires of overhead high voltage are usually grounded through the grounding systems of support and of the terminal stations. They do affect the zero sequence impedance value of the line, Z0, which is generally, calculated assuming that the wires guard are at ground potential. In this way it is not considered the effect of the resistances of earth of supports and stations. In this work is formed a formula for the calculation of Z0 which takes account of said resistances. Is also proposed a method of calculating the impedance zero sequence overhead lines in which, in various sections or spans, the guard wires are connected to the supports, or isolated from them, or are absent. Parametric analysis is given for lines 220 kV and 400 kV, which shows the extent of the errors made with traditional methods of calculation.

Keywords: Overhead line, power system, zero sequence, wire guard, grounding.

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827 Analysis of Sequence Moves in Successful Chess Openings Using Data Mining with Association Rules

Authors: R.M.Rani

Abstract:

Chess is one of the indoor games, which improves the level of human confidence, concentration, planning skills and knowledge. The main objective of this paper is to help the chess players to improve their chess openings using data mining techniques. Budding Chess Players usually do practices by analyzing various existing openings. When they analyze and correlate thousands of openings it becomes tedious and complex for them. The work done in this paper is to analyze the best lines of Blackmar- Diemer Gambit(BDG) which opens with White D4... using data mining analysis. It is carried out on the collection of winning games by applying association rules. The first step of this analysis is assigning variables to each different sequence moves. In the second step, the sequence association rules were generated to calculate support and confidence factor which help us to find the best subsequence chess moves that may lead to winning position.

Keywords: Blackmar-Diemer Gambit(BDG), Confidence, sequence Association Rules, Support.

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826 Symbolic Model Checking of Interactions in Sequence Diagrams with Combined Fragments by SMV

Authors: Yuka Kawakami, Tomoyuki Yokogawa, Hisashi Miyazaki, Sousuke Amasaki, Yoichiro Sato, Michiyoshi Hayase

Abstract:

In this paper, we proposed a method for detecting consistency violation between state machine diagrams and a sequence diagram defined in UML 2.0 using SMV. We extended a method expressing these diagrams defined in UML 1.0 with boolean formulas so that it can express a sequence diagram with combined fragments introduced in UML 2.0. This extension made it possible to represent three types of combined fragment: alternative, option and parallel. As a result of experiment, we confirmed that the proposed method could detect consistency violation correctly with SMV.

Keywords: UML, model checking, SMV, sequence diagram.

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825 Parallezation Protein Sequence Similarity Algorithms using Remote Method Interface

Authors: Mubarak Saif Mohsen, Zurinahni Zainol, Rosalina Abdul Salam, Wahidah Husain

Abstract:

One of the major problems in genomic field is to perform sequence comparison on DNA and protein sequences. Executing sequence comparison on the DNA and protein data is a computationally intensive task. Sequence comparison is the basic step for all algorithms in protein sequences similarity. Parallel computing is an attractive solution to provide the computational power needed to speedup the lengthy process of the sequence comparison. Our main research is to enhance the protein sequence algorithm using dynamic programming method. In our approach, we parallelize the dynamic programming algorithm using multithreaded program to perform the sequence comparison and also developed a distributed protein database among many PCs using Remote Method Interface (RMI). As a result, we showed how different sizes of protein sequences data and computation of scoring matrix of these protein sequence on different number of processors affected the processing time and speed, as oppose to sequential processing.

Keywords: Protein sequence algorithm, dynamic programming algorithm, multithread

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824 Multiple Sequence Alignment Using Three- Dimensional Fragments

Authors: Layal Al Ait, Eduardo Corel, Kifah Tout, Burkhard Morgenstern

Abstract:

Background: Dialign is a DNA/Protein alignment tool for performing pairwise and multiple pairwise alignments through the comparison of gap-free segments (fragments) between sequence pairs. An alignment of two sequences is a chain of fragments, i.e local gap-free pairwise alignments, with the highest total score. METHOD: A new approach is defined in this article which relies on the concept of using three-dimensional fragments – i.e. local threeway alignments -- in the alignment process instead of twodimensional ones. These three-dimensional fragments are gap-free alignments constituting of equal-length segments belonging to three distinct sequences. RESULTS: The obtained results showed good improvments over the performance of DIALIGN.

Keywords: DIALIGN, Multiple sequence alignment, Threedimensional fragments.

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823 Definition, Structure and Core Functions of the State Image

Authors: Rosa Nurtazina, Yerkebulan Zhumashov, Maral Tomanova

Abstract:

Humanity is entering an era when "virtual reality" as the image of the world created by the media with the help of the Internet does not match the reality in many respects, when new communication technologies create a fundamentally different and previously unknown "global space". According to these technologies, the state begins to change the basic technology of political communication of the state and society, the state and the state. Nowadays image of the state becomes the most important tool and technology.

Image is a purposefully created image granting political object (person, organization, country, etc.) certain social and political values and promoting more emotional perception.

Political image of the state plays an important role in international relations. The success of the country's foreign policy, development of trade and economic relations with other countries depends on whether it is positive or negative. Foreign policy image has an impact on political processes taking place in the state: the negative image of the country's can be used by opposition forces as one of the arguments to criticize the government and its policies.

Keywords: Image of the country, country's image classification, function of the country image, country's image components.

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822 An Improved Fast Search Method Using Histogram Features for DNA Sequence Database

Authors: Qiu Chen, Feifei Lee, Koji Kotani, Tadahiro Ohmi

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose an efficient hierarchical DNA sequence search method to improve the search speed while the accuracy is being kept constant. For a given query DNA sequence, firstly, a fast local search method using histogram features is used as a filtering mechanism before scanning the sequences in the database. An overlapping processing is newly added to improve the robustness of the algorithm. A large number of DNA sequences with low similarity will be excluded for latter searching. The Smith-Waterman algorithm is then applied to each remainder sequences. Experimental results using GenBank sequence data show the proposed method combining histogram information and Smith-Waterman algorithm is more efficient for DNA sequence search.

Keywords: Fast search, DNA sequence, Histogram feature, Smith-Waterman algorithm, Local search

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821 The Economic Lot Scheduling Problem in Flow Lines with Sequence-Dependent Setups

Authors: M. Heydari, S. A. Torabi

Abstract:

The problem of lot sizing, sequencing and scheduling multiple products in flow line production systems has been studied by several authors. Almost all of the researches in this area assumed that setup times and costs are sequence –independent even though sequence dependent setups are common in practice. In this paper we present a new mixed integer non linear program (MINLP) and a heuristic method to solve the problem in sequence dependent case. Furthermore, a genetic algorithm has been developed which applies this constructive heuristic to generate initial population. These two proposed solution methods are compared on randomly generated problems. Computational results show a clear superiority of our proposed GA for majority of the test problems.

Keywords: Economic lot scheduling problem, finite horizon, genetic algorithm, mixed zero-one nonlinear programming, sequence-dependent.

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820 Extended Low Power Bus Binding Combined with Data Sequence Reordering

Authors: Jihyung Kim, Taejin Kim, Sungho Park, Jun-Dong Cho

Abstract:

In this paper, we address the problem of reducing the switching activity (SA) in on-chip buses through the use of a bus binding technique in high-level synthesis. While many binding techniques to reduce the SA exist, we present yet another technique for further reducing the switching activity. Our proposed method combines bus binding and data sequence reordering to explore a wider solution space. The problem is formulated as a multiple traveling salesman problem and solved using simulated annealing technique. The experimental results revealed that a binding solution obtained with the proposed method reduces 5.6-27.2% (18.0% on average) and 2.6-12.7% (6.8% on average) of the switching activity when compared with conventional binding-only and hybrid binding-encoding methods, respectively.

Keywords: low power, bus binding, switching activity, multiple traveling salesman problem, data sequence reordering

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819 Computational Method for Annotation of Protein Sequence According to Gene Ontology Terms

Authors: Razib M. Othman, Safaai Deris, Rosli M. Illias

Abstract:

Annotation of a protein sequence is pivotal for the understanding of its function. Accuracy of manual annotation provided by curators is still questionable by having lesser evidence strength and yet a hard task and time consuming. A number of computational methods including tools have been developed to tackle this challenging task. However, they require high-cost hardware, are difficult to be setup by the bioscientists, or depend on time intensive and blind sequence similarity search like Basic Local Alignment Search Tool. This paper introduces a new method of assigning highly correlated Gene Ontology terms of annotated protein sequences to partially annotated or newly discovered protein sequences. This method is fully based on Gene Ontology data and annotations. Two problems had been identified to achieve this method. The first problem relates to splitting the single monolithic Gene Ontology RDF/XML file into a set of smaller files that can be easy to assess and process. Thus, these files can be enriched with protein sequences and Inferred from Electronic Annotation evidence associations. The second problem involves searching for a set of semantically similar Gene Ontology terms to a given query. The details of macro and micro problems involved and their solutions including objective of this study are described. This paper also describes the protein sequence annotation and the Gene Ontology. The methodology of this study and Gene Ontology based protein sequence annotation tool namely extended UTMGO is presented. Furthermore, its basic version which is a Gene Ontology browser that is based on semantic similarity search is also introduced.

Keywords: automatic clustering, bioinformatics tool, gene ontology, protein sequence annotation, semantic similarity search

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818 Using the PGAS Programming Paradigm for Biological Sequence Alignment on a Chip Multi-Threading Architecture

Authors: M. Bakhouya, S. A. Bahra, T. El-Ghazawi

Abstract:

The Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) programming paradigm offers ease-of-use in expressing parallelism through a global shared address space while emphasizing performance by providing locality awareness through the partitioning of this address space. Therefore, the interest in PGAS programming languages is growing and many new languages have emerged and are becoming ubiquitously available on nearly all modern parallel architectures. Recently, new parallel machines with multiple cores are designed for targeting high performance applications. Most of the efforts have gone into benchmarking but there are a few examples of real high performance applications running on multicore machines. In this paper, we present and evaluate a parallelization technique for implementing a local DNA sequence alignment algorithm using a PGAS based language, UPC (Unified Parallel C) on a chip multithreading architecture, the UltraSPARC T1.

Keywords: Partitioned Global Address Space, Unified Parallel C, Multicore machines, Multi-threading Architecture, Sequence alignment.

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817 Adaptive and Personalizing Learning Sequence Using Modified Roulette Wheel Selection Algorithm

Authors: Melvin A. Ballera

Abstract:

Prior literature in the field of adaptive and personalized learning sequence in e-learning have proposed and implemented various mechanisms to improve the learning process such as individualization and personalization, but complex to implement due to expensive algorithmic programming and need of extensive and prior data. The main objective of personalizing learning sequence is to maximize learning by dynamically selecting the closest teaching operation in order to achieve the learning competency of learner. In this paper, a revolutionary technique has been proposed and tested to perform individualization and personalization using modified reversed roulette wheel selection algorithm that runs at O(n). The technique is simpler to implement and is algorithmically less expensive compared to other revolutionary algorithms since it collects the dynamic real time performance matrix such as examinations, reviews, and study to form the RWSA single numerical fitness value. Results show that the implemented system is capable of recommending new learning sequences that lessens time of study based on student's prior knowledge and real performance matrix.

Keywords: E-learning, fitness value, personalized learning sequence, reversed roulette wheel selection algorithms.

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816 Mammogram Image Size Reduction Using 16-8 bit Conversion Technique

Authors: Ayman A. AbuBaker, Rami S.Qahwaji, Musbah J. Aqel, Mohmmad H. Saleh

Abstract:

Two algorithms are proposed to reduce the storage requirements for mammogram images. The input image goes through a shrinking process that converts the 16-bit images to 8-bits by using pixel-depth conversion algorithm followed by enhancement process. The performance of the algorithms is evaluated objectively and subjectively. A 50% reduction in size is obtained with no loss of significant data at the breast region.

Keywords: Breast cancer, Image processing, Image reduction, Mammograms, Image enhancement

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815 High Resolution Sequence Stratigraphy and Depositional Environment of Pabdeh Formation in Dashte – Arjan Area (Shiraz, Fars, Zagros, Iran)

Authors: Mirzaee Mahmoodabadi Reza, Afghah Massih, Saeedi Somaye

Abstract:

Pabdeh shaly formation (Paleocene-Oligomiocene) has been expanded in Fars, Khozestan and Lorestan. The lower lithostratigraphic limit of this formation in Shiraz area is distinguished from Gurpi formation by purple shale. Its upper limit is gradational and conformable with Asmari formation. In order to study sequence stratigraphy and microfacies of Pabdeh formation in Shiraz area, one stratigraphic section have been chosen (Zanjiran section). Petrographic studies resulted in the identification of 9 pelagic and calciturbidite microfacies. The calciturbidite microfacies have been formed when the sea level was high, the rate of carbonate deposition was high and it slumped into the deep marine. Sequence stratigraphy studies show that Pabdeh formation in the studied zone consists of two depositional sequences (DS) that the lower contact is erosional (purple shale - type one, SBI or type two, SB2) and the upper contact is correlative conformity (type two, SB2).

Keywords: Pabdeh formation, Shiraz, Microfacies, Purple Shale, Zanjiran Section, Sequence Stratigraphy

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814 Optimization of Supersonic Ejector via Sequence-Adapted Micro-Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Kolar Jan, Dvorak Vaclav

Abstract:

In this study, an optimization of supersonic air-to-air ejector is carried out by a recently developed single-objective genetic algorithm based on adaption of sequence of individuals. Adaptation of sequence is based on Shape-based distance of individuals and embedded micro-genetic algorithm. The optimal sequence found defines the succession of CFD-aimed objective calculation within each generation of regular micro-genetic algorithm. A spring-based deformation mutates the computational grid starting the initial individualvia adapted population in the optimized sequence. Selection of a generation initial individual is knowledge-based. A direct comparison of the newly defined and standard micro-genetic algorithm is carried out for supersonic air-to-air ejector. The only objective is to minimize the loose of total stagnation pressure in the ejector. The result is that sequence-adopted micro-genetic algorithm can provide comparative results to standard algorithm but in significantly lower number of overall CFD iteration steps.

Keywords: Grid deformation, Micro-genetic algorithm, shapebased sequence, supersonic ejector.

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813 A Real-Time Image Change Detection System

Authors: Madina Hamiane, Amina Khunji

Abstract:

Detecting changes in multiple images of the same scene has recently seen increased interest due to the many contemporary applications including smart security systems, smart homes, remote sensing, surveillance, medical diagnosis, weather forecasting, speed and distance measurement, post-disaster forensics and much more. These applications differ in the scale, nature, and speed of change. This paper presents an application of image processing techniques to implement a real-time change detection system. Change is identified by comparing the RGB representation of two consecutive frames captured in real-time. The detection threshold can be controlled to account for various luminance levels. The comparison result is passed through a filter before decision making to reduce false positives, especially at lower luminance conditions. The system is implemented with a MATLAB Graphical User interface with several controls to manage its operation and performance.

Keywords: Image change detection, Image processing, image filtering, thresholding, B/W quantization.

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812 The Image as an Initial Element of the Cognitive Understanding of Words

Authors: S. Pesina, T. Solonchak

Abstract:

An analysis of word semantics focusing on the invariance of advanced imagery in several pressing problems. Interest in the language of imagery is caused by the introduction, in the linguistics sphere, of a new paradigm, the center of which is the personality of the speaker (the subject of the language). Particularly noteworthy is the question of the place of the image when discussing the lexical, phraseological values ​​and the relationship of imagery and metaphors. In part, the formation of a metaphor, as an interaction between two intellective entities, occurs at a cognitive level, and it is the category of the image, having cognitive roots, which aides in the correct interpretation of the results of this process on the lexical-semantic level.

Keywords: Image, metaphor, concept, creation of a metaphor, cognitive linguistics, erased image, vivid image.

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811 Tests and Measurements of Image Acquisition Characteristics for Image Sensors

Authors: Seongsoo Lee, Jong-Bae Lee, Wookkang Lee, Duyen Hai Pham

Abstract:

In the image sensors, the acquired image often differs from the real image in luminance or chrominance due to fabrication defects or nonlinear characteristics, which often lead to pixel defects or sensor failure. Therefore, the image acquisition characteristics of image sensors should be measured and tested before they are mounted on the target product. In this paper, the standardized test and measurement methods of image sensors are introduced. It applies standard light source to the image sensor under test, and the characteristics of the acquired image is compared with ideal values.

Keywords: Image Sensor, Image Acquisition Characteristics, Defect, Failure, Standard, Test, Measurement.

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810 Use of Fuzzy Edge Image in Block Truncation Coding for Image Compression

Authors: Amarunnishad T.M., Govindan V.K., Abraham T. Mathew

Abstract:

An image compression method has been developed using fuzzy edge image utilizing the basic Block Truncation Coding (BTC) algorithm. The fuzzy edge image has been validated with classical edge detectors on the basis of the results of the well-known Canny edge detector prior to applying to the proposed method. The bit plane generated by the conventional BTC method is replaced with the fuzzy bit plane generated by the logical OR operation between the fuzzy edge image and the corresponding conventional BTC bit plane. The input image is encoded with the block mean and standard deviation and the fuzzy bit plane. The proposed method has been tested with test images of 8 bits/pixel and size 512×512 and found to be superior with better Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) when compared to the conventional BTC, and adaptive bit plane selection BTC (ABTC) methods. The raggedness and jagged appearance, and the ringing artifacts at sharp edges are greatly reduced in reconstructed images by the proposed method with the fuzzy bit plane.

Keywords: Image compression, Edge detection, Ground truth image, Peak signal to noise ratio

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809 Genetic Algorithm Application in a Dynamic PCB Assembly with Carryover Sequence- Dependent Setups

Authors: M. T. Yazdani Sabouni, Rasaratnam Logendran

Abstract:

We consider a typical problem in the assembly of printed circuit boards (PCBs) in a two-machine flow shop system to simultaneously minimize the weighted sum of weighted tardiness and weighted flow time. The investigated problem is a group scheduling problem in which PCBs are assembled in groups and the interest is to find the best sequence of groups as well as the boards within each group to minimize the objective function value. The type of setup operation between any two board groups is characterized as carryover sequence-dependent setup time, which exactly matches with the real application of this problem. As a technical constraint, all of the boards must be kitted before the assembly operation starts (kitting operation) and by kitting staff. The main idea developed in this paper is to completely eliminate the role of kitting staff by assigning the task of kitting to the machine operator during the time he is idle which is referred to as integration of internal (machine) and external (kitting) setup times. Performing the kitting operation, which is a preparation process of the next set of boards while the other boards are currently being assembled, results in the boards to continuously enter the system or have dynamic arrival times. Consequently, a dynamic PCB assembly system is introduced for the first time in the assembly of PCBs, which also has characteristics similar to that of just-in-time manufacturing. The problem investigated is computationally very complex, meaning that finding the optimal solutions especially when the problem size gets larger is impossible. Thus, a heuristic based on Genetic Algorithm (GA) is employed. An example problem on the application of the GA developed is demonstrated and also numerical results of applying the GA on solving several instances are provided.

Keywords: Genetic algorithm, Dynamic PCB assembly, Carryover sequence-dependent setup times, Multi-objective.

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