Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 141

Search results for: SIP Express Router

141 Implementation of the SIP Express Router with Mediaproxy Method on VoIP

Authors: Heru Nurwarsito, R. Arief Setyawan, Rakhmadhany Primananda

Abstract:

Voice Over IP (VoIP) is a technology that could pass the voice traffic and data packet form over an IP network. Network can be used for intranet or Internet. Phone calls using VoIP has advantages in terms of cheaper cost of PSTN phone to more than half, because the cost is calculated by the cost of the global nature of the Internet. Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is a signaling protocol at the application layer which serves to establish, modify, and terminate a multimedia session involving one or more users. This SIP signaling has SIP message in text form that is used for session management by the SIP components, such as User Agent, Registrar, Redirect Server, and Proxy Server. To build a SIP communication is required SIP Express Router (SER) to be able to receive SIP messages, for handling the basic functions of SIP messages. Problems occur when the NAT through which affects the voice communication will be blocked starting from the sound that is not sent or one side of the sound are sent (half duplex). How that could be used to penetrate NAT is to use a given mediaproxy random RTP port to penetrate NAT.

Keywords: VoIP, SIP, SIP Express Router, NAT, Mediaproxy.

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140 Security Engine Management of Router based on Security Policy

Authors: Su Hyung Jo, Ki Young Kim, Sang Ho Lee

Abstract:

Security management has changed from the management of security equipments and useful interface to manager. It analyzes the whole security conditions of network and preserves the network services from attacks. Secure router technology has security functions, such as intrusion detection, IPsec(IP Security) and access control, are applied to legacy router for secure networking. It controls an unauthorized router access and detects an illegal network intrusion. This paper relates to a security engine management of router based on a security policy, which is the definition of security function against a network intrusion. This paper explains the security policy and designs the structure of security engine management framework.

Keywords: Policy server, security engine, security management, security policy

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139 A Subjectively Influenced Router for Vehicles in a Four-Junction Traffic System

Authors: Anilkumar Kothalil Gopalakrishnan

Abstract:

A subjectively influenced router for vehicles in a fourjunction traffic system is presented. The router is based on a 3-layer Backpropagation Neural Network (BPNN) and a greedy routing procedure. The BPNN detects priorities of vehicles based on the subjective criteria. The subjective criteria and the routing procedure depend on the routing plan towards vehicles depending on the user. The routing procedure selects vehicles from their junctions based on their priorities and route them concurrently to the traffic system. That is, when the router is provided with a desired vehicles selection criteria and routing procedure, it routes vehicles with a reasonable junction clearing time. The cost evaluation of the router determines its efficiency. In the case of a routing conflict, the router will route the vehicles in a consecutive order and quarantine faulty vehicles. The simulations presented indicate that the presented approach is an effective strategy of structuring a subjective vehicle router.

Keywords: Backpropagation Neural Network, Backpropagationalgorithm, Greedy routing procedure, Subjective criteria, Vehiclepriority, Cost evaluation, Route generation

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138 Implementing High Performance VPN Router using Cavium-s CN2560 Security Processor

Authors: Sang Su Lee, Sang Woo Lee, Yong Sung Jeon, Ki Young Kim

Abstract:

IPsec protocol[1] is a set of security extensions developed by the IETF and it provides privacy and authentication services at the IP layer by using modern cryptography. In this paper, we describe both of H/W and S/W architectures of our router system, SRS-10. The system is designed to support high performance routing and IPsec VPN. Especially, we used Cavium-s CN2560 processor to implement IPsec processing in inline-mode.

Keywords: IP, router, VPN, IPsec.

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137 Using of Latin Router for Routing Wavelength with Configuration Algorithm

Authors: A. Habiboghli, R. Mostafaei, M. R.Meybodi

Abstract:

Optical network uses a tool for routing which is called Latin router. These routers use particular algorithms for routing. In this paper, we present algorithm for configuration of optical network that is optimized regarding previous algorithm. We show that by decreasing the number of hops for source-destination in lightpath number of satisfied request is less. Also we had shown that more than single-hop lightpath relating single-hop lightpath is better.

Keywords: Latin Router, Constraint Satisfied, Wavelength, Optical Network

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136 Pipelined Control-Path Effects on Area and Performance of a Wormhole-Switched Network-on-Chip

Authors: Faizal A. Samman, Thomas Hollstein, Manfred Glesner

Abstract:

This paper presents design trade-off and performance impacts of the amount of pipeline phase of control path signals in a wormhole-switched network-on-chip (NoC). The numbers of the pipeline phase of the control path vary between two- and one-cycle pipeline phase. The control paths consist of the routing request paths for output selection and the arbitration paths for input selection. Data communications between on-chip routers are implemented synchronously and for quality of service, the inter-router data transports are controlled by using a link-level congestion control to avoid lose of data because of an overflow. The trade-off between the area (logic cell area) and the performance (bandwidth gain) of two proposed NoC router microarchitectures are presented in this paper. The performance evaluation is made by using a traffic scenario with different number of workloads under 2D mesh NoC topology using a static routing algorithm. By using a 130-nm CMOS standard-cell technology, our NoC routers can be clocked at 1 GHz, resulting in a high speed network link and high router bandwidth capacity of about 320 Gbit/s. Based on our experiments, the amount of control path pipeline stages gives more significant impact on the NoC performance than the impact on the logic area of the NoC router.

Keywords: Network-on-Chip, Synchronous Parallel Pipeline, Router Architecture, Wormhole Switching

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135 Analysing of Indoor Radio Wave Propagation on Ad-hoc Network by Using TP-LINK Router

Authors: Khine Phyu, Aung Myint Aye

Abstract:

This paper presents results of measurements campaign carried out at a carrier frequency of 24GHz with the help of TPLINK router in indoor line-of-sight (LOS) scenarios. Firstly, the radio wave propagation strategies are analyzed in some rooms with router of point to point Ad hoc network. Then floor attenuation is defined for 3 floors in experimental region. The free space model and dual slope models are modified by considering the influence of corridor conditions on each floor. Using these models, indoor signal attenuation can be estimated in modeling of indoor radio wave propagation. These results and modified models can also be used in planning the networks of future personal communications services.

Keywords: radio wave signal analyzing, LOS radio wavepropagation, indoor radio wave propagation, free space model, tworay model and indoor attenuation.

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134 Synthesis and Simulation of Enhanced Buffer Router vs. Virtual Channel Router in NOC ON Cadence

Authors: Bhavana Prakash Shrivastava, Kavita Khare

Abstract:

This paper presents a synthesis and simulation of proposed enhanced buffer. The design provides advantages of both buffer and bufferless network for that two cross bar switches are used. The concept of virtual channel (VC) is eliminated from the previous design by using an efficient flow-control scheme that uses the storage already present in pipelined channels in place of explicit input VCBs. This can be addressed by providing enhanced buffers on the bufferless link and creating two virtual networks. With this approach, VCBs act as distributed FIFO buffers. Without VCBs or VCs, deadlock prevention is achieved by duplicating physical channels. An enhanced buffer provides a function of hand shaking by providing a ready valid handshake signal and two bit storage. Through this design the power is reduced to 15.65% and delay is reduced to 97.88% with respect to virtual channel router.

Keywords: Enhanced buffer, Gate delay, NOC, VCs, VCB.

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133 Completion Latin Square for Wavelength Routing

Authors: Ali Habiboghli, Rouhollah Mostafaei, Vasif Nabiyev

Abstract:

Optical network uses a tool for routing called Latin router. These routers use particular algorithms for routing. For example, we can refer to LDF algorithm that uses backtracking (one of CSP methods) for problem solving. In this paper, we proposed new approached for completion routing table (DRA&CRA algorithm) and compare with pervious proposed ways and showed numbers of backtracking, blocking and run time for DRA algorithm less than LDF and CRA algorithm.

Keywords: Latin Router, Constraint Satisfaction Problem, Wavelength Routing.

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132 A Generic and Extensible Spidergon NoC

Authors: Abdelkrim Zitouni, Mounir Zid, Sami Badrouchi, Rached Tourki

Abstract:

The Globally Asynchronous Locally Synchronous Network on Chip (GALS NoC) is the most efficient solution that provides low latency transfers and power efficient System on Chip (SoC) interconnect. This study presents a GALS and generic NoC architecture based on a configurable router. This router integrates a sophisticated dynamic arbiter, the wormhole routing technique and can be configured in a manner that allows it to be used in many possible NoC topologies such as Mesh 2-D, Tree and Polygon architectures. This makes it possible to improve the quality of service (QoS) required by the proposed NoC. A comparative performances study of the proposed NoC architecture, Tore architecture and of the most used Mesh 2D architecture is performed. This study shows that Spidergon architecture is characterised by the lower latency and the later saturation. It is also shown that no matter what the number of used links is raised; the Links×Diameter product permitted by the Spidergon architecture remains always the lower. The only limitation of this architecture comes from it-s over cost in term of silicon area.

Keywords: Dynamic arbiter, Generic router, Spidergon NoC, SoC.

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131 Performance Analysis of Round Trip Delay Time in Practical Wireless Network for Telemanagement

Authors: El Miloud Ar Reyouchi, Kamal Ghoumid, Koutaiba Ameziane, Otman El Mrabet, Slimane Mekaoui

Abstract:

In this paper we focus on the Round Trip Delay (RTD) time measurement technique which is an easy way to obtain the operating condition information in wireless network (WN). RTD measurement is affected by various parameters of wireless network. We illustrate how these RTD parameters vary (in a telemanagement application) versus distance, baud rates, number of hops, between nodes, using radio modem & router unit as a means of transmission and wireless routing.

Keywords: Wireless Network, Round Trip Delay, Radio modem, Router.

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130 Enhancing the Connectedness in Ad–hoc Mesh Networks using the Terranet Technology

Authors: Obeidat I., Bsoul M., Khasawneh A., Kilani Y.

Abstract:

This paper simulates the ad-hoc mesh network in rural areas, where such networks receive great attention due to their cost, since installing the infrastructure for regular networks in these areas is not possible due to the high cost. The distance between the communicating nodes is the most obstacles that the ad-hoc mesh network will face. For example, in Terranet technology, two nodes can communicate if they are only one kilometer far from each other. However, if the distance between them is more than one kilometer, then each node in the ad-hoc mesh networks has to act as a router that forwards the data it receives to other nodes. In this paper, we try to find the critical number of nodes which makes the network fully connected in a particular area, and then propose a method to enhance the intermediate node to accept to be a router to forward the data from the sender to the receiver. Much work was done on technological changes on peer to peer networks, but the focus of this paper will be on another feature which is to find the minimum number of nodes needed for a particular area to be fully connected and then to enhance the users to switch on their phones and accept to work as a router for other nodes. Our method raises the successful calls to 81.5% out of 100% attempt calls.

Keywords: Adjacency matrix, Ad-hoc mesh network, Connectedness, Terranet technology

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129 FPGA Hardware Implementation and Evaluation of a Micro-Network Architecture for Multi-Core Systems

Authors: Yahia Salah, Med Lassaad Kaddachi, Rached Tourki

Abstract:

This paper presents the design, implementation and evaluation of a micro-network, or Network-on-Chip (NoC), based on a generic pipeline router architecture. The router is designed to efficiently support traffic generated by multimedia applications on embedded multi-core systems. It employs a simplest routing mechanism and implements the round-robin scheduling strategy to resolve output port contentions and minimize latency. A virtual channel flow control is applied to avoid the head-of-line blocking problem and enhance performance in the NoC. The hardware design of the router architecture has been implemented at the register transfer level; its functionality is evaluated in the case of the two dimensional Mesh/Torus topology, and performance results are derived from ModelSim simulator and Xilinx ISE 9.2i synthesis tool. An example of a multi-core image processing system utilizing the NoC structure has been implemented and validated to demonstrate the capability of the proposed micro-network architecture. To reduce complexity of the image compression and decompression architecture, the system use image processing algorithm based on classical discrete cosine transform with an efficient zonal processing approach. The experimental results have confirmed that both the proposed image compression scheme and NoC architecture can achieve a reasonable image quality with lower processing time.

Keywords: Generic Pipeline Network-on-Chip Router Architecture, JPEG Image Compression, FPGA Hardware Implementation, Performance Evaluation.

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128 New Mitigating Technique to Overcome DDOS Attack

Authors: V. Praveena, N. Kiruthika

Abstract:

In this paper, we explore a new scheme for filtering spoofed packets (DDOS attack) which is a combination of path fingerprint and client puzzle concepts. In this each IP packet has a unique fingerprint is embedded that represents, the route a packet has traversed. The server maintains a mapping table which contains the client IP address and its corresponding fingerprint. In ingress router, client puzzle is placed. For each request, the puzzle issuer provides a puzzle which the source has to solve. Our design has the following advantages over prior approaches, 1) Reduce the network traffic, as we place a client puzzle at the ingress router. 2) Mapping table at the server is lightweight and moderate.

Keywords: Client puzzle, DDOS attack, Egress, Ingress, IP Spoofing, Spoofed Packet.

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127 Optimization of Multicast Transmissions in NC-HMIPv6 Environment

Authors: Souleymane Oumtanaga, Kadjo Tanon Lambert, Koné Tiémoman, Tety Pierre, Kimou KouadioProsper

Abstract:

Multicast transmissions allow an host (the source) to send only one flow bound for a group of hosts (the receivers). Any equipment eager to belong to the group may explicitly register itself to that group via its multicast router. This router will be given the responsibility to convey all information relating to the group to all registered hosts. However in an environment in which the final receiver or the source frequently moves, the multicast flows need particular treatment. This constitutes one of the multicast transmissions problems around which several proposals were made in the Mobile IPv6 case in general. In this article, we describe the problems involved in this IPv6 multicast mobility and the existing proposals for their resolution. Then architecture will be proposed aiming to satisfy and optimize these transmissions in the specific case of a mobile multicast receiver in NC-HMIPv6 environment.

Keywords: Mobile IP, NC-HMIPv6, Multicast, MLD, PIM, SSM, Rendezvous Point.

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126 Selective Forwarding Attack and Its Detection Algorithms: A Review

Authors: Sushil Sarwa, Rajeev Kumar

Abstract:

The wireless mesh networks (WMNs) are emerging technology in wireless networking as they can serve large scale high speed internet access. Due to its wireless multi-hop feature, wireless mesh network is prone to suffer from many attacks, such as denial of service attack (DoS). We consider a special case of DoS attack which is selective forwarding attack (a.k.a. gray hole attack). In such attack, a misbehaving mesh router selectively drops the packets it receives rom its predecessor mesh router. It is very hard to detect that packet loss is due to medium access collision, bad channel quality or because of selective forwarding attack. In this paper, we present a review of detection algorithms of selective forwarding attack and discuss their advantage & disadvantage. Finally we conclude this paper with open research issues and challenges.

Keywords: CAD algorithm, CHEMAS, selective forwarding attack, watchdog & pathrater, wireless mesh network.

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125 Data Mining on the Router Logs for Statistical Application Classification

Authors: M. Rahmati, S.M. Mirzababaei

Abstract:

With the advance of information technology in the new era the applications of Internet to access data resources has steadily increased and huge amount of data have become accessible in various forms. Obviously, the network providers and agencies, look after to prevent electronic attacks that may be harmful or may be related to terrorist applications. Thus, these have facilitated the authorities to under take a variety of methods to protect the special regions from harmful data. One of the most important approaches is to use firewall in the network facilities. The main objectives of firewalls are to stop the transfer of suspicious packets in several ways. However because of its blind packet stopping, high process power requirements and expensive prices some of the providers are reluctant to use the firewall. In this paper we proposed a method to find a discriminate function to distinguish between usual packets and harmful ones by the statistical processing on the network router logs. By discriminating these data, an administrator may take an approach action against the user. This method is very fast and can be used simply in adjacent with the Internet routers.

Keywords: Data Mining, Firewall, Optimization, Packetclassification, Statistical Pattern Recognition.

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124 Curbing Cybercrime by Application of Internet Users’ Identification System (IUIS) in Nigeria

Authors: K. Alese Boniface, K. Adu Michael

Abstract:

Cybercrime is now becoming a big challenge in Nigeria apart from the traditional crime. Inability to identify perpetrators is one of the reasons for the growing menace. This paper proposes a design for monitoring internet users’ activities in order to curbing cybercrime. It requires redefining the operations of Internet Service Providers (ISPs) which will now mandate users to be authenticated before accessing the internet. In implementing this work which can be adapted to a larger scale, a virtual router application is developed and configured to mimic a real router device. A sign-up portal is developed to allow users to register with the ISP. The portal asks for identification information which will include bio-data and government issued identification data like National Identity Card number, et cetera. A unique username and password are chosen by the user to enable access to the internet which will be used to reference him to an Internet Protocol Address (IP Address) of any system he uses on the internet and thereby associating him to any criminal act related to that IP address at that particular time. Questions such as “What happen when another user knows the password and uses it to commit crime?” and other pertinent issues are addressed.

Keywords: Cybercrime, Sign-up Portal, Internet Service Provider (ISP), Internet Protocol Address (IP address).

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123 Comparison of Router Intelligent and Cooperative Host Intelligent Algorithms in a Continuous Model of Fixed Telecommunication Networks

Authors: Dávid Csercsik, Sándor Imre

Abstract:

The performance of state of the art worldwide telecommunication networks strongly depends on the efficiency of the applied routing mechanism. Game theoretical approaches to this problem offer new solutions. In this paper a new continuous network routing model is defined to describe data transfer in fixed telecommunication networks of multiple hosts. The nodes of the network correspond to routers whose latency is assumed to be traffic dependent. We propose that the whole traffic of the network can be decomposed to a finite number of tasks, which belong to various hosts. To describe the different latency-sensitivity, utility functions are defined for each task. The model is used to compare router and host intelligent types of routing methods, corresponding to various data transfer protocols. We analyze host intelligent routing as a transferable utility cooperative game with externalities. The main aim of the paper is to provide a framework in which the efficiency of various routing algorithms can be compared and the transferable utility game arising in the cooperative case can be analyzed.

Keywords: Routing, Telecommunication networks, Performance evaluation, Cooperative game theory, Partition function form games

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122 Packet Forwarding with Multiprotocol Label Switching

Authors: R.N.Pise, S.A.Kulkarni, R.V.Pawar

Abstract:

MultiProtocol Label Switching (MPLS) is an emerging technology that aims to address many of the existing issues associated with packet forwarding in today-s Internetworking environment. It provides a method of forwarding packets at a high rate of speed by combining the speed and performance of Layer 2 with the scalability and IP intelligence of Layer 3. In a traditional IP (Internet Protocol) routing network, a router analyzes the destination IP address contained in the packet header. The router independently determines the next hop for the packet using the destination IP address and the interior gateway protocol. This process is repeated at each hop to deliver the packet to its final destination. In contrast, in the MPLS forwarding paradigm routers on the edge of the network (label edge routers) attach labels to packets based on the forwarding Equivalence class (FEC). Packets are then forwarded through the MPLS domain, based on their associated FECs , through swapping the labels by routers in the core of the network called label switch routers. The act of simply swapping the label instead of referencing the IP header of the packet in the routing table at each hop provides a more efficient manner of forwarding packets, which in turn allows the opportunity for traffic to be forwarded at tremendous speeds and to have granular control over the path taken by a packet. This paper deals with the process of MPLS forwarding mechanism, implementation of MPLS datapath , and test results showing the performance comparison of MPLS and IP routing. The discussion will focus primarily on MPLS IP packet networks – by far the most common application of MPLS today.

Keywords: Forwarding equivalence class, incoming label map, label, next hop label forwarding entry.

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121 Performance Evaluation of 2×2 Switched Beam Antennas with Null Locating for Wireless Mesh Networks

Authors: S. Pradittara, M. Uthansakul, P. Uthansakul

Abstract:

A concept of switched beam antennas consisting of 2×2 rectangular array spaced by λ/4 accompanied with a null locating has been proposed in the previous work. In this letter, the performance evaluations of its prototype are presented. The benefits of using proposed system have been clearly measured in term of signal quality, throughput and delays. Also, the impact of position shift which mesh router is not located on the expected beam direction has also been investigated.

Keywords: Antenna array, Beamforming, Null steering, WMNs.

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120 Mechanisms of Internet Security Attacks

Authors: J. Dubois, P. Jreije

Abstract:

Internet security attack could endanger the privacy of World Wide Web users and the integrity of their data. The attack can be carried out on today's most secure systems- browsers, including Netscape Navigator and Microsoft Internet Explorer. There are too many types, methods and mechanisms of attack where new attack techniques and exploits are constantly being developed and discovered. In this paper, various types of internet security attack mechanisms are explored and it is pointed out that when different types of attacks are combined together, network security can suffer disastrous consequences.

Keywords: DoS, internet attacks, router attack, security, trojan, virus, worm, XSS.

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119 The Construction of a Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacterium Expressing Acid-Resistant Phytase Enzyme

Authors: R. Majidzadeh Heravi, M. Sankian, H. Kermanshahi, M. R. Nassiri, A. Heravi Moussavi, S. A. Lari, A. R. Varasteh

Abstract:

The use of probiotics engineered to express specific enzymes has been the subject of considerable attention in poultry industry because of increased nutrient availability and reduced cost of enzyme supplementation. Phytase enzyme is commonly added to poultry feed to improve digestibility and availability of phosphorus from plant sources. To construct a probiotic with potential of phytate degradation, phytase gene (appA) from E. coli was cloned and transformed into two probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactococcus lactis. L. salivarous showed plasmid instability, unable to express the gene. The expression of appA gene in L. lactis was analyzed by detecting specific RNA and zymography assay. Phytase enzyme was isolated from cellular extracts of recombinant L. lactis, showing a 46 kDa band upon the SDS-PAGE analysis. Zymogram also confirmed the phytase activity of the 46 kDa band corresponding to the enzyme. An enzyme activity of 4.9U/ml was obtained in cell extracts of L. lactis. The growth of native and recombinant L. lactis was similar in the presence of two concentrations of ox bile.

Keywords: Lactobacillus salivarus, Lactococcus lactis, recombinant, phytase, poultry.

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118 Survey on Energy Efficient Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: Swapnil Singh, Sanjoy Das

Abstract:

Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET) is a network without infrastructure dynamically formed by autonomous system of mobile nodes that are connected via wireless links. Mobile nodes communicate with each other on the fly. In this network each node also acts as a router. The battery power and the bandwidth are very scarce resources in this network. The network lifetime and connectivity of nodes depend on battery power. Therefore, energy is a valuable constraint which should be efficiently used. In this paper we survey various energy efficient routing protocols. The energy efficient routing protocols are classified on the basis of approaches they use to minimize the energy consumption. The purpose of this paper is to facilitate the research work and combine the existing solution and to develop a more energy efficient routing mechanism.

Keywords: Delaunay Triangulation, deployment, energy efficiency, MANET.

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117 Finding an Optimized Discriminate Function for Internet Application Recognition

Authors: E. Khorram, S.M. Mirzababaei

Abstract:

Everyday the usages of the Internet increase and simply a world of the data become accessible. Network providers do not want to let the provided services to be used in harmful or terrorist affairs, so they used a variety of methods to protect the special regions from the harmful data. One of the most important methods is supposed to be the firewall. Firewall stops the transfer of such packets through several ways, but in some cases they do not use firewall because of its blind packet stopping, high process power needed and expensive prices. Here we have proposed a method to find a discriminate function to distinguish between usual packets and harmful ones by the statistical processing on the network router logs. So an administrator can alarm to the user. This method is very fast and can be used simply in adjacent with the Internet routers.

Keywords: Data Mining, Firewall, Optimization, Packetclassification, Statistical Pattern Recognition.

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116 Network Mobility Support in Content-Centric Internet

Authors: Zhiwei Yan, Jong-Hyouk Lee, Yong-Jin Park, Xiaodong Lee

Abstract:

In this paper, we analyze NEtwork MObility (NEMO) supporting problems in Content-Centric Networking (CCN), and propose the CCN-NEMO which can well support the deployment of the content-centric paradigm in large-scale mobile Internet. The CCN-NEMO extends the signaling message of the basic CCN protocol, to support the mobility discovery and fast trigger of Interest re-issuing during the network mobility. Besides, the Mobile Router (MR) is extended to optimize the content searching and relaying in the local subnet. These features can be employed by the nested NEMO to maximize the advantages of content retrieving with CCN. Based on the analysis, we compare the performance on handover latency between the basic CCN and our proposed CCN-NEMO. The results show that our scheme can facilitate the content-retrieving in the NEMO scenario with improved performance.

Keywords: CCN, handover, NEMO, mobility management.

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115 Minimizing the Broadcast Traffic in the Jordanian Discovery Schools Network using PPPoE

Authors: Sameh H. Ghwanmeh

Abstract:

Discovery schools in Jordan are connected in one flat ATM bridge network. All Schools connected to the network will hear broadcast traffic. High percentage of unwanted traffic such as broadcast, consumes the bandwidth between schools and QRC. Routers in QRC have high CPU utilization. The number of connections on the router is very high, and may exceed recommend manufacturing specifications. One way to minimize number of connections to the routers in QRC, and minimize broadcast traffic is to use PPPoE. In this study, a PPPoE solution has been presented which shows high performance for the clients when accessing the school server resources. Despite the large number of the discovery schools at MoE, the experimental results show that the PPPoE solution is able to yield a satisfactory performance for each client at the school and noticeably reduce the traffic broadcast to the QRC.

Keywords: Education, networking, performance, e-content.

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114 Experimental Evaluation of Mobility Anchor Point Selection Scheme in Hierarchical Mobile IPv6

Authors: Zulkeflee Kusin, Mohamad Shanudin Zakaria

Abstract:

Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 (HMIPv6) was designed to support IP micro-mobility management in the Next Generation Networks (NGN) framework. The main design behind this protocol is the usage of Mobility Anchor Point (MAP) located at any level router of network to support hierarchical mobility management. However, the distance MAP selection in HMIPv6 causes MAP overloaded and increase frequent binding update as the network grows. Therefore, to address the issue in designing MAP selection scheme, we propose a dynamic load control mechanism integrates with a speed detection mechanism (DMS-DLC). From the experimental results we obtain that the proposed scheme gives better distribution in MAP load and increase handover speed.

Keywords: Dynamic load control, HMIPv6, Mobility AnchorPoint, MAP selection scheme

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113 Topology Influence on TCP Congestion Control Performance in Multi-hop Ad Hoc Wireless

Authors: Haniza N., Md Khambari, M. N, Shahrin S., Adib M.Monzer Habbal, Suhaidi Hassan

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Wireless ad hoc nodes are freely and dynamically self-organize in communicating with others. Each node can act as host or router. However it actually depends on the capability of nodes in terms of its current power level, signal strength, number of hops, routing protocol, interference and others. In this research, a study was conducted to observe the effect of hops count over different network topologies that contribute to TCP Congestion Control performance degradation. To achieve this objective, a simulation using NS-2 with different topologies have been evaluated. The comparative analysis has been discussed based on standard observation metrics: throughput, delay and packet loss ratio. As a result, there is a relationship between types of topology and hops counts towards the performance of ad hoc network. In future, the extension study will be carried out to investigate the effect of different error rate and background traffic over same topologies.

Keywords: NS-2, network topology, network performance, multi-hops

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112 Traffic Load based Performance Analysis of DSR and STAR Routing Protocol

Authors: Rani Astya, S.C. Sharma

Abstract:

The wireless adhoc network is comprised of wireless node which can move freely and are connected among themselves without central infrastructure. Due to the limited transmission range of wireless interfaces, in most cases communication has to be relayed over intermediate nodes. Thus, in such multihop network each node (also called router) is independent, self-reliant and capable to route the messages over the dynamic network topology. Various protocols are reported in this field and it is very difficult to decide the best one. A key issue in deciding which type of routing protocol is best for adhoc networks is the communication overhead incurred by the protocol. In this paper STAR a table driven and DSR on demand protocols based on IEEE 802.11 are analyzed for their performance on different performance measuring metrics versus varying traffic CBR load using QualNet 5.0.2 network simulator.

Keywords: Adhoc networks, wireless networks, CBR, routingprotocols, route discovery, simulation, performance evaluation, MAC, IEEE 802.11, STAR, DSR

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