Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31105
The Direct and Indirect Effects of the Achievement Motivation on Nurturing Intellectual Giftedness

Authors: Al-Shabatat, M. Ahmad, Abbas, M., Ismail, H. Nizam


Achievement motivation is believed to promote giftedness attracting people to invest in many programs to adopt gifted students providing them with challenging activities. Intellectual giftedness is founded on the fluid intelligence and extends to more specific abilities through the growth and inputs from the achievement motivation. Acknowledging the roles played by the motivation in the development of giftedness leads to an effective nurturing of gifted individuals. However, no study has investigated the direct and indirect effects of the achievement motivation and fluid intelligence on intellectual giftedness. Thus, this study investigated the contribution of motivation factors to giftedness development by conducting tests of fluid intelligence using Cattell Culture Fair Test (CCFT) and analytical abilities using culture reduced test items covering problem solving, pattern recognition, audio-logic, audio-matrices, and artificial language, and self report questionnaire for the motivational factors. A number of 180 highscoring students were selected using CCFT from a leading university in Malaysia. Structural equation modeling was employed using Amos V.16 to determine the direct and indirect effects of achievement motivation factors (self confidence, success, perseverance, competition, autonomy, responsibility, ambition, and locus of control) on the intellectual giftedness. The findings showed that the hypothesized model fitted the data, supporting the model postulates and showed significant and strong direct and indirect effects of the motivation and fluid intelligence on the intellectual giftedness.

Keywords: achievement motivation, fluid intelligence, structural equationmodeling, Intellectual Giftedness, Analytical Giftedness, CCFT

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1818


[1] Bloom, B. S. (1985). Developing talent in young people. New York, Ballantine.
[2] Csikzentmihalyi, M., Rathunde, K., & Whalen, S. (1993). Talented teenagers: The roots of success and failure. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
[3] Winner, E. (1996). Gifted children: Myths and realities. New York: Basic Books.
[4] Amabile, T. M. (1983). The social psychology of creativity. New York: Springer-Verlag New York Incorporated.
[5] Tannenbaum, A. J. (2003). Nature and nurture of giftedness. In N. Colangelo & G. A. Davis (Eds.), Handbook of gifted education (3rd Ed., pp. 45-59). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
[6] Renzulli, J. S. (2005). The three-ring conception of giftedness. In R. J. Sternberg & J. E. Davidson (Eds.), Conceptions of giftedness (pp. 246- 279). New York: Cambridge University Press.
[7] Heller, K. A. (1993) Scientific ability. In G. R. Bock & K. Ackrill (Eds): Ciba Foundation Symposium 178: the origins and development of high ability, Wiley.
[8] Shavinina, L. V., & Ferrari, M. (2004). Beyond knowledge: Extracognitive aspects of developing high ability. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
[9] Collins, C. J., Hanges, P. J. & Locke, E. A. (2004). The relationship of achievement motivation to entrepreneurial behaviour: A meta-analysis, Human Performance 17, pp. 95-117.
[10] Ridgell S. D., & Lounsbury, J. W. (2004). Predicting academic success: General intelligence, 'Big Five' personality traits, and work drive. College Student Journal, 38(4), 607-619.
[11] Busato, V., Prins, F., Elshout, J., & Hamaker, C., (2000). Ability, learning, style, personality, achievement motivation, and academic success of psychology students in higher education. Personality and Individual Differences, 29, 1057-1068.
[12] Elliot, A. J. (1999). Approach and avoidance motivation and achievement goals. Educational Psychologist, 34, 169- 89.
[13] Cury, F., Elliot, A. J., Da Fons├ęca, D, & Moller, A. C. (2006). The social-cognitive model of achievement motivation and the 2 x 2 achievement goal framework. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90, 666-679.
[14] Chernyshenko, O. S., Roberts, B. W., Stark S. & Goldberg L. R. (2005). The structure of conscientiousness: An empirical investigation based on seven major personality questionnaires, Personnel Psychology 58, pp. 103-139.
[15] Edwards, A. L. (1953). Edwards personal preference inventory, The Psychological Corporation, New York.
[16] Jackson, D. N. (1984). Personality research form manual (3rd ed.), Research Psychologists Press, Port Huron, MI.
[17] McClelland, D. C., Atkinson J. W., Clark R. A. & Lowell E. L. (1953). The Achievement Motive, Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York.
[18] Amabile, T. M., Hill, K. G., Hennessey, B. A. & Tighe, E. M. (1994). The work preference inventory: Assessing intrinsic and extrinsic motivational orientations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 950-967.
[19] Heggestad, E., & Kanfer, R. (1999). Individual differences in trait motivation. Development of the motivational trait questionnaire. Poster presented at the Annual meetings of the Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Atlanta, GA.
[20] Schuler H., Thornton G. C., Frintrup I. A., & Mueller-Hanson R. A. (2004). Achievement motivation inventory: Technical and user-s manual, Hogrefe & Huber, Goettingen.
[21] Robinson, N. M., & Noble, K. D. (1991). Social-emotional development and adjustment of gifted children. In M. G. Wang, M. C. Reynolds, & H. J. Walberg (Eds.), Handbook of special education: Research and practice (Vol. 4, pp. 57-76). New York: Pergamon Press.
[22] Jeltova, I., & Grigorenko, E. L. (2005). Systemic approaches to giftedness: Contributions of Russian psychology. In R. J. Sternberg & J. E. Davidson (Eds.), Conceptions of giftedness (pp. 171-186). New York: Cambridge University Press.
[23] Urdan, T. C., Kneisel, L., & Mason, V. (1999). Interpreting messages about motivation in the classroom: Examining the effects of achievement goal structures. In T. C. Urdan, M. L. Maehr, & P. R. Pintrich (Eds.), The role of context: Advances in motivation and achievement (Vol. 4, pp. 1-44). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
[24] Dai, D. Y., Moon, S. M., & Feldhusen, J. F. (1998). Achievement motivation and gifted students: A social cognitive perspective. Educational Psychologist, 33(2/3), 45-63.
[25] Zimmerman, B. J., Bandura, A., & Martinez-Pons, M. (1992). Selfmotivation for academic attainment: The role of self-efficacy beliefs and personal goal setting. American Educational Research Journal, 29, pp. 663-676.
[26] Sternberg, R. J. (1985). Beyond IQ: A triarchic theory of human intelligence. New York: Cambridge University Press.
[27] Gagne, F. (1985). Giftedness and talent: Reexamining a reexamination of the definitions. Gifted Child Quarterly, 29, 103-112.
[28] O-Donnell, T. J., Hauser, M. D. & Fitch, T.W. (2005). Using mathematical models of language experimentally. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Vol.9 No.6.
[29] McDonald, J. L. & Plauche, M. (1995). Single and correlated cues in an artificial language learning paradigm. Language and Speech, 38, 223- 236.
[30] Liberman, N., Sagristano, M. D., & Trope, Y. (2002). The effect of temporal distance on level of mental construal. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 38, 523-534.
[31] Lauter, J. L. (1983). Stimulus characteristics and relative ear advantages: A new look at old data. Journal of the Acoustal Society of America, 74, pp. 1-17.
[32] Heppner, P. P. (1988). The Problem Solving Inventory (PSI): Manual. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists.
[33] Sternberg, R. J. & Davidson, J. E. (Eds.). (1983). Conceptions of Giftedness (1sted.). New York: Cambridge University Press.
[34] George, J. (2000). Emotions and leadership: The role of emotional intelligence. Human Relations, 53, 1027-1050.
[35] Davis, G. A. & Rimm, S. B. (2004). Education of the gifted and talented (5th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
[36] Brainerd, E. L. (2002). New Imaging Techniques and the Integration of Morphology, Development and Physiology. Developmental Physiology Roundtable, Glen Rose Texas.
[37] Cattel, R. B., & Cattell, A. K. S. (1960). Handbook for the individual or group Culture Fair Intelligence Test - Scale II. Champaign, IL: Institute for Personality and Ability Testing.
[38] Nunnaly, J. C. (1967). Psychometric Theory, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.
[39] Gottfried, A. W., Gottfried, A. E., Bathurst, K., & Guerin, D. W. (1994). Gifted IQ: Early developmental aspects. New York: Plenum.
[40] Pokay, P. & Blamenfeld, P. (1990). Predicting achievement motivation of early and late in the semester: the role of motivation and use of learning strategies, Journal of Education Psychology, 82, 1, 41-50.
[41] Janda, R. D. (2001). Beyond 'pathways' and 'unidirectionality': on the discontinuity of language transmission and the counterability of grammaticalization. Language Sciences, 23:265-340.
[42] Martin, C., Dawson, P,. & Guare, R. (2007). Smarts: are we hardwired for success. New York: AMACOM.
[43] Lynn, S. K. (2002). The winding path: Understanding the career cycle of teachers. The Clearing House, 75(4), 179-182.
[44] Hair, J. F., William, C. B., Barry, B., J., Rolph, E. A., & Ronald, L. T. (2006). Multivariate Data Analysis (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J. Pearson Education Inc.
[45] Chan, Y. H. (2003). Biostatistics 101: Data Presentation. Singapore Med J, 44(6): 280-285.
[46] Carroll, J. B. (1993). Human cognitive abilities: A survey of factoranalytic studies. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
[47] Feldman, D. H. (1986). Nature's gambit: Child prodigies and the development of human potential. New York: Basic.
[48] Kline, R. B. (2005). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford.
[49] Zimmerman, B., & Ringle, J. (1981). Effects of model persistence and statement of confidence on children's self-efficacy and problem-solving. Journal of Educational Psychology, 73, 485- 93.