168 Hamiltonian Factors in Hamiltonian Graphs
Authors: Sizhong Zhou, Bingyuan Pu
Abstract:Let G be a Hamiltonian graph. A factor F of G is called a Hamiltonian factor if F contains a Hamiltonian cycle. In this paper, two sufficient conditions are given, which are two neighborhood conditions for a Hamiltonian graph G to have a Hamiltonian factor.
Keywords: graph, neighborhood, factor, Hamiltonian factor.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1065
167 Advanced Gronwall-Bellman-Type Integral Inequalities and Their Applications
Authors: Zixin Liu, Shu Lü, Shouming Zhong, Mao Ye
Abstract:In this paper, some new nonlinear generalized Gronwall-Bellman-Type integral inequalities with mixed time delays are established. These inequalities can be used as handy tools to research stability problems of delayed differential and integral dynamic systems. As applications, based on these new established inequalities, some p-stable results of a integro-differential equation are also given. Two numerical examples are presented to illustrate the validity of the main results.
Keywords: Gronwall-Bellman-Type integral inequalities, integrodifferential equation, p-exponentially stable, mixed delays.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1954
166 Quadratic Irrationals, Quadratic Ideals and Indefinite Quadratic Forms II
Authors: Ahmet Tekcan, Arzu Özkoç
Let D = 1 be a positive non-square integer and let δ = √D or 1+√D 2 be a real quadratic irrational with trace t =δ + δ and norm n = δδ. Let γ = P+δ Q be a quadratic irrational for positive integers P and Q. Given a quadratic irrational γ, there exist a quadratic ideal Iγ = [Q, δ + P] and an indeﬁnite quadratic form Fγ(x, y) = Q(x−γy)(x−γy) of discriminant Δ = t 2−4n. In the ﬁrst section, we give some preliminaries form binary quadratic forms, quadratic irrationals and quadratic ideals. In the second section, we obtain some results on γ, Iγ and Fγ for some speciﬁc values of Q and P.
Keywords: Quadratic irrationals, quadratic ideals, indefinite quadratic forms, extended modular group.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1154
165 Some Collineations Preserving Cross-Ratio in some Moufang-Klingenberg Planes
Authors: Suleyman Ciftci, Atilla Akpinar, Basri Celik
Abstract:In this paper we are interested in Moufang-Klingenberg planesM(A) defined over a local alternative ring A of dual numbers. We show that some collineations of M(A) preserve cross-ratio.
Keywords: Moufang-Klingenberg planes, local alternative ring, projective collineation, cross-ratio.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1064
164 Audio Watermarking Using Spectral Modifications
Authors: Jyotsna Singh, Parul Garg, Alok Nath De
Abstract:In this paper, we present a non-blind technique of adding the watermark to the Fourier spectral components of audio signal in a way such that the modified amplitude does not exceed the maximum amplitude spread (MAS). This MAS is due to individual Discrete fourier transform (DFT) coefficients in that particular frame, which is derived from the Energy Spreading function given by Schroeder. Using this technique one can store double the information within a given frame length i.e. overriding the watermark on the host of equal length with least perceptual distortion. The watermark is uniformly floating on the DFT components of original signal. This helps in detecting any intentional manipulations done on the watermarked audio. Also, the scheme is found robust to various signal processing attacks like presence of multiple watermarks, Additive white gaussian noise (AWGN) and mp3 compression.
Keywords: Discrete Fourier Transform, Spreading Function, Watermark, Pseudo Noise Sequence, Spectral Masking EffectProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1568
163 Improved Estimation of Evolutionary Spectrum based on Short Time Fourier Transforms and Modified Magnitude Group Delay by Signal Decomposition
Authors: H K Lakshminarayana, J S Bhat, H M Mahesh
Abstract:A new estimator for evolutionary spectrum (ES) based on short time Fourier transform (STFT) and modified group delay function (MGDF) by signal decomposition (SD) is proposed. The STFT due to its built-in averaging, suppresses the cross terms and the MGDF preserves the frequency resolution of the rectangular window with the reduction in the Gibbs ripple. The present work overcomes the magnitude distortion observed in multi-component non-stationary signals with STFT and MGDF estimation of ES using SD. The SD is achieved either through discrete cosine transform based harmonic wavelet transform (DCTHWT) or perfect reconstruction filter banks (PRFB). The MGDF also improves the signal to noise ratio by removing associated noise. The performance of the present method is illustrated for cross chirp and frequency shift keying (FSK) signals, which indicates that its performance is better than STFT-MGDF (STFT-GD) alone. Further its noise immunity is better than STFT. The SD based methods, however cannot bring out the frequency transition path from band to band clearly, as there will be gap in the contour plot at the transition. The PRFB based STFT-SD shows good performance than DCTHWT decomposition method for STFT-GD.
Keywords: Evolutionary Spectrum, Modified Group Delay, Discrete Cosine Transform, Harmonic Wavelet Transform, Perfect Reconstruction Filter Banks, Short Time Fourier Transform.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1503
162 Unit Selection Algorithm Using Bi-grams Model For Corpus-Based Speech Synthesis
Authors: Mohamed Ali KAMMOUN, Ahmed Ben HAMIDA
Abstract:In this paper, we present a novel statistical approach to corpus-based speech synthesis. Classically, phonetic information is defined and considered as acoustic reference to be respected. In this way, many studies were elaborated for acoustical unit classification. This type of classification allows separating units according to their symbolic characteristics. Indeed, target cost and concatenation cost were classically defined for unit selection. In Corpus-Based Speech Synthesis System, when using large text corpora, cost functions were limited to a juxtaposition of symbolic criteria and the acoustic information of units is not exploited in the definition of the target cost. In this manuscript, we token in our consideration the unit phonetic information corresponding to acoustic information. This would be realized by defining a probabilistic linguistic Bi-grams model basically used for unit selection. The selected units would be extracted from the English TIMIT corpora.
Keywords: Unit selection, Corpus-based Speech Synthesis, Bigram modelProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1350
161 A Double Referenced Contrast for Blind Source Separation
Authors: Atman Jbari, Abdellah Adib, Driss Aboutajdine
Abstract:This paper addresses the problem of blind source separation (BSS). To recover original signals, from linear instantaneous mixtures, we propose a new contrast function based on the use of a double referenced system. Our approach assumes statistical independence sources. The reference vectors will be incrusted in the cumulant to evaluate the independence. The estimation of the separating matrix will be performed in two steps: whitening observations and joint diagonalization of a set of referenced cumulant matrices. Computer simulations are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the suggested approach.
Keywords: Blind source separation, Referenced Cumulant, Contrast, Joint Diagonalization.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 913
160 An Optimal Unsupervised Satellite image Segmentation Approach Based on Pearson System and k-Means Clustering Algorithm Initialization
Authors: Ahmed Rekik, Mourad Zribi, Ahmed Ben Hamida, Mohamed Benjelloun
This paper presents an optimal and unsupervised satellite image segmentation approach based on Pearson system and k-Means Clustering Algorithm Initialization. Such method could be considered as original by the fact that it utilised K-Means clustering algorithm for an optimal initialisation of image class number on one hand and it exploited Pearson system for an optimal statistical distributions- affectation of each considered class on the other hand. Satellite image exploitation requires the use of different approaches, especially those founded on the unsupervised statistical segmentation principle. Such approaches necessitate definition of several parameters like image class number, class variables- estimation and generalised mixture distributions. Use of statistical images- attributes assured convincing and promoting results under the condition of having an optimal initialisation step with appropriated statistical distributions- affectation. Pearson system associated with a k-means clustering algorithm and Stochastic Expectation-Maximization 'SEM' algorithm could be adapted to such problem. For each image-s class, Pearson system attributes one distribution type according to different parameters and especially the Skewness 'β1' and the kurtosis 'β2'. The different adapted algorithms, K-Means clustering algorithm, SEM algorithm and Pearson system algorithm, are then applied to satellite image segmentation problem. Efficiency of those combined algorithms was firstly validated with the Mean Quadratic Error 'MQE' evaluation, and secondly with visual inspection along several comparisons of these unsupervised images- segmentation.
Keywords: Unsupervised classification, Pearson system, Satellite image, Segmentation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1915
159 Fixed Point Equations Related to Motion Integrals in Renormalization Hopf Algebra
Authors: Ali Shojaei-Fard
Abstract:In this paper we consider quantum motion integrals depended on the algebraic reconstruction of BPHZ method for perturbative renormalization in two different procedures. Then based on Bogoliubov character and Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff (BCH) formula, we show that how motion integral condition on components of Birkhoff factorization of a Feynman rules character on Connes- Kreimer Hopf algebra of rooted trees can determine a family of fixed point equations.
Keywords: Birkhoff Factorization, Connes-Kreimer Hopf Algebra of Rooted Trees, Integral Renormalization, Lax Pair Equation, Rota- Baxter Algebras.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1297
158 A Meta-Heuristic Algorithm for Vertex Covering Problem Based on Gravity
Authors: S. Raja Balachandar, K.Kannan
A new Meta heuristic approach called "Randomized gravitational emulation search algorithm (RGES)" for solving vertex covering problems has been designed. This algorithm is found upon introducing randomization concept along with the two of the four primary parameters -velocity- and -gravity- in physics. A new heuristic operator is introduced in the domain of RGES to maintain feasibility specifically for the vertex covering problem to yield best solutions. The performance of this algorithm has been evaluated on a large set of benchmark problems from OR-library. Computational results showed that the randomized gravitational emulation search algorithm - based heuristic is capable of producing high quality solutions. The performance of this heuristic when compared with other existing heuristic algorithms is found to be excellent in terms of solution quality.
Keywords: Vertex covering Problem, Velocity, Gravitational Force, Newton's Law, Meta Heuristic, Combinatorial optimization.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1903
157 Controllability of Efficiency of Antiviral Therapy in Hepatitis B Virus Infections
Authors: Shyam S.N. Perera
An optimal control problem for a mathematical model of efficiency of antiviral therapy in hepatitis B virus infections is considered. The aim of the study is to control the new viral production, block the new infection cells and maintain the number of uninfected cells in the given range. The optimal controls represent the efficiency of antiviral therapy in inhibiting viral production and preventing new infections. Defining the cost functional, the optimal control problem is converted into the constrained optimization problem and the first order optimality system is derived. For the numerical simulation, we propose the steepest descent algorithm based on the adjoint variable method. A computer program in MATLAB is developed for the numerical simulations.
Keywords: Virus infection model, Optimal control, Adjoint system, Steepest descentProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1155
156 On 6-Figures in Finite Klingenberg Planes of Parameters (p2k-1, p)
Authors: Atilla Akpinar, Basri Celik, Suleyman Ciftci
In this paper, we deal with finite projective Klingenberg plane M (A) coordinatized by local ring A := Zq+Zq E (where prime power q = p', e0 Z q and 62 = 0). So, we get some combinatorical results on 6-figures. For example, we show that there exist p — 1 6-figure classes in M(A).
Keywords: finite Klingenberg plane, 6-figure, ratio of 6-figure, cross-ratio.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1166
155 Further Investigations on Higher Mathematics Scores for Chinese University Students
Authors: Xun Ge
Recently, X. Ge and J. Qian investigated some relations between higher mathematics scores and calculus scores (resp. linear algebra scores, probability statistics scores) for Chinese university students. Based on rough-set theory, they established an information system S = (U,CuD,V, f). In this information system, higher mathematics score was taken as a decision attribute and calculus score, linear algebra score, probability statistics score were taken as condition attributes. They investigated importance of each condition attribute with respective to decision attribute and strength of each condition attribute supporting decision attribute. In this paper, we give further investigations for this issue. Based on the above information system S = (U, CU D, V, f), we analyze the decision rules between condition and decision granules. For each x E U, we obtain support (resp. strength, certainty factor, coverage factor) of the decision rule C —>x D, where C —>x D is the decision rule induced by x in S = (U, CU D, V, f). Results of this paper gives new analysis of on higher mathematics scores for Chinese university students, which can further lead Chinese university students to raise higher mathematics scores in Chinese graduate student entrance examination.
Keywords: Rough set, support, strength, certainty factor, coverage factor.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1257
154 A Novel Estimation Method for Integer Frequency Offset in Wireless OFDM Systems
Authors: Taeung Yoon, Youngpo Lee, Chonghan Song, Na Young Ha, Seokho Yoon
Abstract:Ren et al. presented an efficient carrier frequency offset (CFO) estimation method for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), which has an estimation range as large as the bandwidth of the OFDM signal and achieves high accuracy without any constraint on the structure of the training sequence. However, its detection probability of the integer frequency offset (IFO) rapidly varies according to the fractional frequency offset (FFO) change. In this paper, we first analyze the Ren-s method and define two criteria suitable for detection of IFO. Then, we propose a novel method for the IFO estimation based on the maximum-likelihood (ML) principle and the detection criteria defined in this paper. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the Ren-s method in terms of the IFO detection probability irrespective of a value of the FFO.
Keywords: Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, integer frequency offset, estimation, training symbolProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2327
153 Virtual Gesture Screen System Based on 3D Visual Information and Multi-Layer Perceptron
Authors: Yang-Keun Ahn, Min-Wook Kim, Young-Choong Park, Kwang-Soon Choi, Woo-Chool Park, Hae-Moon Seo, Kwang-Mo Jung
Abstract:Active research is underway on virtual touch screens that complement the physical limitations of conventional touch screens. This paper discusses a virtual touch screen that uses a multi-layer perceptron to recognize and control three-dimensional (3D) depth information from a time of flight (TOF) camera. This system extracts an object-s area from the image input and compares it with the trajectory of the object, which is learned in advance, to recognize gestures. The system enables the maneuvering of content in virtual space by utilizing human actions.
Keywords: Gesture Recognition, Depth Sensor, Virtual Touch ScreenProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1544
152 Novel Schemes of Pilot-Aided Integer Frequency Offset Estimation for OFDM-Based DVB-T Systems
Authors: Youngyoon Lee, Dahae Chong, Myungsoo Lee, Seongho Chae, Seokho Yoon
Abstract:This paper proposes two novel schemes for pilot-aided integer frequency offset (IFO) estimation in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)-based digital video broadcastingterrestrial (DVB-T) systems. The conventional scheme proposed for estimating the IFO uses only partial information of combinations that pilots can provide, which stems from a rigorous assumption that the channel responses of pilots used for estimating the IFO change very rapidly. Thus, in this paper, we propose the novel IFO estimation schemes exploiting all information of combinations that pilots can provide to improve the performance of IFO estimation. The simulation results show that the proposed schemes are highly accurate in terms of the IFO detection probability.
Keywords: OFDM, DVB-T, pilot, IFO, estimationProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1684
151 Effect of Curing Profile to Eliminate the Voids / Black Dots Formation in Underfill Epoxy for Hi-CTE Flip Chip Packaging
Authors: Zainudin Kornain, Azman Jalar, Rozaidi Rasid, Fong Chee Seng
Abstract:Void formation in underfill is considered as failure in flip chip manufacturing process. Void formation possibly caused by several factors such as poor soldering and flux residue during die attach process, void entrapment due moisture contamination, dispense pattern process and setting up the curing process. This paper presents the comparison of single step and two steps curing profile towards the void and black dots formation in underfill for Hi-CTE Flip Chip Ceramic Ball Grid Array Package (FC-CBGA). Statistic analysis was conducted to analyze how different factors such as wafer lot, sawing technique, underfill fillet height and curing profile recipe were affected the formation of voids and black dots. A C-Mode Scanning Aqoustic Microscopy (C-SAM) was used to scan the total count of voids and black dots. It was shown that the 2 steps curing profile provided solution for void elimination and black dots in underfill after curing process.
Keywords: black dots formation, curing profile, FC-CBGA, underfill, void formation,Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3945
150 The Euler Equations of Steady Flow in Terms of New Dependent and Independent Variables
Authors: Peiangpob Monnuanprang
In this paper we study the transformation of Euler equations 1 , u u u Pf t (ρ ∂) + ⋅∇ = − ∇ + ∂ G G G G ∇⋅ = u 0, G where (ux, t) G G is the velocity of a fluid, P(x, t) G is the pressure of a fluid andρ (x, t) G is density. First of all, we rewrite the Euler equations in terms of new unknown functions. Then, we introduce new independent variables and transform it to a new curvilinear coordinate system. We obtain the Euler equations in the new dependent and independent variables. The governing equations into two subsystems, one is hyperbolic and another is elliptic.
Keywords: Euler equations, transformation, hyperbolic, ellipticProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1573
149 Analysis of Feature Space for a 2d/3d Vision based Emotion Recognition Method
Authors: Robert Niese, Ayoub Al-Hamadi, Bernd Michaelis
Abstract:In modern human computer interaction systems (HCI), emotion recognition is becoming an imperative characteristic. The quest for effective and reliable emotion recognition in HCI has resulted in a need for better face detection, feature extraction and classification. In this paper we present results of feature space analysis after briefly explaining our fully automatic vision based emotion recognition method. We demonstrate the compactness of the feature space and show how the 2d/3d based method achieves superior features for the purpose of emotion classification. Also it is exposed that through feature normalization a widely person independent feature space is created. As a consequence, the classifier architecture has only a minor influence on the classification result. This is particularly elucidated with the help of confusion matrices. For this purpose advanced classification algorithms, such as Support Vector Machines and Artificial Neural Networks are employed, as well as the simple k- Nearest Neighbor classifier.
Keywords: Facial expression analysis, Feature extraction, Image processing, Pattern Recognition, Application.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1819
148 Removal of Hydrogen Sulfide in Terms of Scrubbing Techniques using Silver Nano-Particles
Authors: SeungKyu Shin, Jeong Hyub Ha, Sung Han, JiHyeon Song
Abstract:Silver nano-particles have been used for antibacterial purpose and it is also believed to have removal of odorous compounds, oxidation capacity as a metal catalyst. In this study, silver nano-particles in nano sizes (5-30 nm) were prepared on the surface of NaHCO3, the supporting material, using a sputtering method that provided high silver content and minimized conglomerating problems observed in the common AgNO3 photo-deposition method. The silver nano-particles were dispersed by dissolving Ag-NaHCO3 into water, and the dispersed silver nano-particles in the aqueous phase were applied to remove inorganic odor compounds, H2S, in a scrubbing reactor. Hydrogen sulfide in the gas phase was rapidly removed by the silver nano-particles, and the concentration of sulfate (SO4 2-) ion increased with time due to the oxidation reaction by silver as a catalyst. Consequently, the experimental results demonstrated that the silver nano-particles in the aqueous solution can be successfully applied to remove odorous compounds without adding additional energy sources and producing any harmful byproducts
Keywords: Silver nano-particles, Scrubbing, Oxidation, Hydrogen sulfide, AmmoniaProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2272
147 A Robust Method for Hand Tracking Using Mean-shift Algorithm and Kalman Filter in Stereo Color Image Sequences
Authors: Mahmoud Elmezain, Ayoub Al-Hamadi, Robert Niese, Bernd Michaelis
Abstract:Real-time hand tracking is a challenging task in many computer vision applications such as gesture recognition. This paper proposes a robust method for hand tracking in a complex environment using Mean-shift analysis and Kalman filter in conjunction with 3D depth map. The depth information solve the overlapping problem between hands and face, which is obtained by passive stereo measuring based on cross correlation and the known calibration data of the cameras. Mean-shift analysis uses the gradient of Bhattacharyya coefficient as a similarity function to derive the candidate of the hand that is most similar to a given hand target model. And then, Kalman filter is used to estimate the position of the hand target. The results of hand tracking, tested on various video sequences, are robust to changes in shape as well as partial occlusion.
Keywords: Computer Vision and Image Analysis, Object Tracking, Gesture Recognition.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2794
146 A Study of Visual Attention in Diagnosing Cerebellar Tumours
Authors: Kuryati Kipli, Kasumawati Lias, Dayang Azra Awang Mat, Al-Khalid Othman, Ade Syaheda Wani Marzuki, Nurdiani Zamhari
Abstract:Visual attention allows user to select the most relevant information to ongoing behaviour. This paper presents a study on; i) the performance of people measurements, ii) accurateness of people measurement of the peaks that correspond to chemical quantities from the Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) graphs and iii) affects of people measurements to the algorithm-based diagnosis. Participant-s eye-movement was recorded using eye-tracker tool (Eyelink II). This experiment involves three participants for examining 20 MRS graphs to estimate the peaks of chemical quantities which indicate the abnormalities associated with Cerebellar Tumours (CT). The status of each MRS is verified by using decision algorithm. Analysis involves determination of humans-s eye movement pattern in measuring the peak of spectrograms, scan path and determining the relationship of distributions of fixation durations with the accuracy of measurement. In particular, the eye-tracking data revealed which aspects of the spectrogram received more visual attention and in what order they were viewed. This preliminary investigation provides a proof of concept for use of the eye tracking technology as the basis for expanded CT diagnosis.
Keywords: eye tracking, fixation durations, pattern, scan paths, spectrograms, visual.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1319
145 Temperature Control of Industrial Water Cooler using Hot-gas Bypass
Authors: Jung-in Yoon, Seung-taek Oh, Seung-moon Baek, Jun-hyuk Choi, Jong-yeong Byun, Seok-kwon Jeong, Choon-guen Moon
Abstract:In this study, we experiment on precise control outlet temperature of water from the water cooler with hot-gas bypass method based on PI control logic for machine tool. Recently, technical trend for machine tools is focused on enhancement of speed and accuracy. High speedy processing causes thermal and structural deformation of objects from the machine tools. Water cooler has to be applied to machine tools to reduce the thermal negative influence with accurate temperature controlling system. The goal of this study is to minimize temperature error in steady state. In addition, control period of an electronic expansion valve were considered to increment of lifetime of the machine tools and quality of product with a water cooler.
Keywords: Hot-gas bypass, Water cooler, PI control, Electronic Expansion Valve, Gain tuningProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3057
144 Humanoid Personalized Avatar Through Multiple Natural Language Processing
Authors: Jin Hou, Xia Wang, Fang Xu, Viet Dung Nguyen, Ling Wu
There has been a growing interest in implementing humanoid avatars in networked virtual environment. However, most existing avatar communication systems do not take avatars- social backgrounds into consideration. This paper proposes a novel humanoid avatar animation system to represent personalities and facial emotions of avatars based on culture, profession, mood, age, taste, and so forth. We extract semantic keywords from the input text through natural language processing, and then the animations of personalized avatars are retrieved and displayed according to the order of the keywords. Our primary work is focused on giving avatars runtime instruction from multiple natural languages. Experiments with Chinese, Japanese and English input based on the prototype show that interactive avatar animations can be displayed in real time and be made available online. This system provides a more natural and interesting means of human communication, and therefore is expected to be used for cross-cultural communication, multiuser online games, and other entertainment applications.
Keywords: personalized avatar, mutiple natural luanguage processing, social backgrounds, anmimation, human computer interactionProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1786
143 Construct Pairwise Test Suites Based on the Bak-Sneppen Model of Biological Evolution
Authors: Jianjun Yuan, Changjun Jiang
Abstract:Pairwise testing, which requires that every combination of valid values of each pair of system factors be covered by at lease one test case, plays an important role in software testing since many faults are caused by unexpected 2-way interactions among system factors. Although meta-heuristic strategies like simulated annealing can generally discover smaller pairwise test suite, they may cost more time to perform search, compared with greedy algorithms. We propose a new method, improved Extremal Optimization (EO) based on the Bak-Sneppen (BS) model of biological evolution, for constructing pairwise test suites and define fitness function according to the requirement of improved EO. Experimental results show that improved EO gives similar size of resulting pairwise test suite and yields an 85% reduction in solution time over SA.
Keywords: Covering Arrays, Extremal Optimization, Simulated Annealing, Software Testing.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1660
142 Dynamic Decompression for Text Files
Authors: Ananth Kamath, Ankit Kant, Aravind Srivatsa, Harisha J.A
Abstract:Compression algorithms reduce the redundancy in data representation to decrease the storage required for that data. Lossless compression researchers have developed highly sophisticated approaches, such as Huffman encoding, arithmetic encoding, the Lempel-Ziv (LZ) family, Dynamic Markov Compression (DMC), Prediction by Partial Matching (PPM), and Burrows-Wheeler Transform (BWT) based algorithms. Decompression is also required to retrieve the original data by lossless means. A compression scheme for text files coupled with the principle of dynamic decompression, which decompresses only the section of the compressed text file required by the user instead of decompressing the entire text file. Dynamic decompressed files offer better disk space utilization due to higher compression ratios compared to most of the currently available text file formats.
Keywords: Compression, Dynamic Decompression, Text file format, Portable Document Format, Compression Ratio.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1650
141 [a, b]-Factors Excluding Some Specified Edges In Graphs
Authors: Sizhong Zhou, Bingyuan Pu
Let G be a graph of order n, and let a, b and m be positive integers with 1 ≤ a<b. An [a, b]-factor of G is deﬁned as a spanning subgraph F of G such that a ≤ dF (x) ≤ b for each x ∈ V (G). In this paper, it is proved that if n ≥ (a+b−1+√(a+b+1)m−2)2−1 b and δ(G) > n + a + b − 2 √bn+ 1, then for any subgraph H of G with m edges, G has an [a, b]-factor F such that E(H)∩ E(F) = ∅. This result is an extension of thatof Egawa .
Keywords: graph, minimum degree, [a, b]-factor.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 988
140 Position Vector of a Partially Null Curve Derived from a Vector Differential Equation
Authors: Süha Yılmaz, Emin Özyılmaz, Melih Turgut, Şuur Nizamoğlu
In this paper, position vector of a partially null unit speed curve with respect to standard frame of Minkowski space-time is studied. First, it is proven that position vector of every partially null unit speed curve satisfies a vector differential equation of fourth order. In terms of solution of the differential equation, position vector of a partially null unit speed curve is expressed.
Keywords: Frenet Equations, Partially Null Curves, Minkowski Space-time, Vector Differential Equation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1067
139 The Slant Helices According to Bishop Frame
Authors: Bahaddin Bukcu, Murat Kemal Karacan
Abstract:In this study, we have defined slant helix according to Bishop frame in Euclidean 3-Space. Furthermore, we have given some necassary and sufficient conditons for the slant helix.
Keywords: Slant helix, Bishop frame, Parallel transport frameProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1709
138 On the Determination of a Time-like Dual Curve in Dual Lorentzian Space
Authors: Emin Özyılmaz
Abstract:In this work, position vector of a time-like dual curve according to standard frame of D31 is investigated. First, it is proven that position vector of a time-like dual curve satisfies a dual vector differential equation of fourth order. The general solution of this dual vector differential equation has not yet been found. Due to this, in terms of special solutions, position vectors of some special time-like dual curves with respect to standard frame of D31 are presented.
Keywords: Classical Differential Geometry, Dual Numbers, DualFrenet Equations, Time-like Dual Curve, Position Vector, DualLorentzian Space.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1367
137 On the Differential Geometry of the Curves in Minkowski Space-Time II
Authors: Süha Yılmaz, Emin Özyılmaz, Melih Turgut
Abstract:In the first part of this paper , a method to determine Frenet apparatus of the space-like curves in Minkowski space-time is presented. In this work, the mentioned method is developed for the time-like curves in Minkowski space-time. Additionally, an example of presented method is illustrated.
Keywords: Frenet Apparatus, Time-like Curves, MinkowskiSpace-time.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1552
136 Exact Solutions of Steady Plane Flows of an Incompressible Fluid of Variable Viscosity Using (ξ, ψ)- Or (η, ψ)- Coordinates
Authors: Rana Khalid Naeem, Asif Mansoor, Waseem Ahmed Khan, Aurangzaib
The exact solutions of the equations describing the steady plane motion of an incompressible fluid of variable viscosity for an arbitrary state equation are determined in the (ξ,ψ) − or (η,ψ )- coordinates where ψ(x,y) is the stream function, ξ and η are the parts of the analytic function, ϖ =ξ( x,y )+iη( x,y ). Most of the solutions involve arbitrary function/ functions indicating that the flow equations possess an infinite set of solutions.
Keywords: Exact solutions, Fluid of variable viscosity, Navier-Stokes equations, Steady plane flowsProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3338
135 Lagrangian Method for Solving Unsteady Gas Equation
Authors: Amir Taghavi, kourosh Parand, Hosein Fani
In this paper we propose, a Lagrangian method to solve unsteady gas equation which is a nonlinear ordinary differential equation on semi-infnite interval. This approach is based on Modified generalized Laguerre functions. This method reduces the solution of this problem to the solution of a system of algebraic equations. We also compare this work with some other numerical results. The findings show that the present solution is highly accurate.
Keywords: Unsteady gas equation, Generalized Laguerre functions, Lagrangian method, Nonlinear ODE.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1393
134 On The Elliptic Divisibility Sequences over Finite Fields
Authors: Osman Bizim
Abstract:In this work we study elliptic divisibility sequences over finite fields. MorganWard in [11, 12] gave arithmetic theory of elliptic divisibility sequences. We study elliptic divisibility sequences, equivalence of these sequences and singular elliptic divisibility sequences over finite fields Fp, p > 3 is a prime.
Keywords: Elliptic divisibility sequences, equivalent sequences, singular sequences.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1366
133 Model Reduction of Linear Systems by Conventional and Evolutionary Techniques
Authors: S. Panda, S. K. Tomar, R. Prasad, C. Ardil
Reduction of Single Input Single Output (SISO) continuous systems into Reduced Order Model (ROM), using a conventional and an evolutionary technique is presented in this paper. In the conventional technique, the mixed advantages of Mihailov stability criterion and continued fraction expansions (CFE) technique is employed where the reduced denominator polynomial is derived using Mihailov stability criterion and the numerator is obtained by matching the quotients of the Cauer second form of Continued fraction expansions. In the evolutionary technique method Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is employed to reduce the higher order model. PSO method is based on the minimization of the Integral Squared Error (ISE) between the transient responses of original higher order model and the reduced order model pertaining to a unit step input. Both the methods are illustrated through numerical example.
Keywords: Reduced Order Modeling, Stability, Continued Fraction Expansions, Mihailov Stability Criterion, Particle Swarm Optimization, Integral Squared Error.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1821
132 A Method to Calculate Frenet Apparatus of W-Curves in the Euclidean 6-Space
Authors: Süha Yılmaz, Melih Turgut
Abstract:These In this work, a regular unit speed curve in six dimensional Euclidean space, whose Frenet curvatures are constant, is considered. Thereafter, a method to calculate Frenet apparatus of this curve is presented.
Keywords: Classical Differential Geometry, Euclidean 6-space, Frenet Apparatus of the curves.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1185
131 The Number of Rational Points on Singular Curvesy 2 = x(x - a)2 over Finite Fields Fp
Authors: Ahmet Tekcan
Abstract:Let p ≥ 5 be a prime number and let Fp be a finite field. In this work, we determine the number of rational points on singular curves Ea : y2 = x(x - a)2 over Fp for some specific values of a.
Keywords: Singular curve, elliptic curve, rational points.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1323
130 MaxMin Share Based Medium Access for Attaining Fairness and Channel Utilization in Mobile Adhoc Networks
Authors: P. Priakanth, P. Thangaraj
Abstract:Due to the complex network architecture, the mobile adhoc network-s multihop feature gives additional problems to the users. When the traffic load at each node gets increased, the additional contention due its traffic pattern might cause the nodes which are close to destination to starve the nodes more away from the destination and also the capacity of network is unable to satisfy the total user-s demand which results in an unfairness problem. In this paper, we propose to create an algorithm to compute the optimal MAC-layer bandwidth assigned to each flow in the network. The bottleneck links contention area determines the fair time share which is necessary to calculate the maximum allowed transmission rate used by each flow. To completely utilize the network resources, we compute two optimal rates namely, the maximum fair share and minimum fair share. We use the maximum fair share achieved in order to limit the input rate of those flows which crosses the bottleneck links contention area when the flows that are not allocated to the optimal transmission rate and calculate the following highest fair share. Through simulation results, we show that the proposed protocol achieves improved fair share and throughput with reduced delay.
Keywords: MAC-layer, MANETs, Multihop, optimal rate, Transmission.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1422
129 Business Rules for Data Warehouse
Authors: Rajeev Kaula
Abstract:Business rules and data warehouse are concepts and technologies that impact a wide variety of organizational tasks. In general, each area has evolved independently, impacting application development and decision-making. Generating knowledge from data warehouse is a complex process. This paper outlines an approach to ease import of information and knowledge from a data warehouse star schema through an inference class of business rules. The paper utilizes the Oracle database for illustrating the working of the concepts. The star schema structure and the business rules are stored within a relational database. The approach is explained through a prototype in Oracle-s PL/SQL Server Pages.
Keywords: Business Rules, Data warehouse, PL/SQL ServerPages, Relational model, Web Application.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2869
128 Particle Filter Applied to Noisy Synchronization in Polynomial Chaotic Maps
Authors: Moussa Yahia, Pascal Acco, Malek Benslama
Polynomial maps offer analytical properties used to obtain better performances in the scope of chaos synchronization under noisy channels. This paper presents a new method to simplify equations of the Exact Polynomial Kalman Filter (ExPKF) given in . This faster algorithm is compared to other estimators showing that performances of all considered observers vanish rapidly with the channel noise making application of chaos synchronization intractable. Simulation of ExPKF shows that saturation drawn on the emitter to keep it stable impacts badly performances for low channel noise. Then we propose a particle filter that outperforms all other Kalman structured observers in the case of noisy channels.
Keywords: Chaos synchronization, Saturation, Fast ExPKF, Particlefilter, Polynomial maps.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1134
127 Bandwidth Estimation Algorithms for the Dynamic Adaptation of Voice Codec
Authors: Davide Pierattoni, Ivan Macor, Pier Luca Montessoro
Abstract:In the recent years multimedia traffic and in particular VoIP services are growing dramatically. We present a new algorithm to control the resource utilization and to optimize the voice codec selection during SIP call setup on behalf of the traffic condition estimated on the network path. The most suitable methodologies and the tools that perform realtime evaluation of the available bandwidth on a network path have been integrated with our proposed algorithm: this selects the best codec for a VoIP call in function of the instantaneous available bandwidth on the path. The algorithm does not require any explicit feedback from the network, and this makes it easily deployable over the Internet. We have also performed intensive tests on real network scenarios with a software prototype, verifying the algorithm efficiency with different network topologies and traffic patterns between two SIP PBXs. The promising results obtained during the experimental validation of the algorithm are now the basis for the extension towards a larger set of multimedia services and the integration of our methodology with existing PBX appliances.
Keywords: Integrated voice-data communication, computernetwork performance, resource optimization.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1579
126 A Novel Method For evaluating Parameters Of Ongoing Calls In Low Earth Orbit Mobile Satellite System
Authors: Wassila Kiamouche, Malek Benslama
Abstract:In order to derive important parameters concerning mobile subscriber MS with ongoing calls in Low Earth Orbit Mobile Satellite Systems LEO MSSs, a positioning system had to be integrated into MSS in order to localize mobile subscribers MSs and track them during the connection. Such integration is regarded as a complex implementation. We propose in this paper a novel method based on advantages of mobility model of Low Earth Orbit Mobile Satellite System LEO MSS called Evaluation Parameters Method EPM which allows for such systems the evaluation of different information concerning a MS with a call in progress even if its location is unknown.
Keywords: Cellular layout, LEO mobile satellite system, mobilitymodel, positioning system.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1222
125 Coding based Synchronization Algorithm for Secondary Synchronization Channel in WCDMA
Authors: Deng Liao, Dongyu Qiu, Ahmed K. Elhakeem
Abstract:A new code synchronization algorithm is proposed in this paper for the secondary cell-search stage in wideband CDMA systems. Rather than using the Cyclically Permutable (CP) code in the Secondary Synchronization Channel (S-SCH) to simultaneously determine the frame boundary and scrambling code group, the new synchronization algorithm implements the same function with less system complexity and less Mean Acquisition Time (MAT). The Secondary Synchronization Code (SSC) is redesigned by splitting into two sub-sequences. We treat the information of scrambling code group as data bits and use simple time diversity BCH coding for further reliability. It avoids involved and time-costly Reed-Solomon (RS) code computations and comparisons. Analysis and simulation results show that the Synchronization Error Rate (SER) yielded by the new algorithm in Rayleigh fading channels is close to that of the conventional algorithm in the standard. This new synchronization algorithm reduces system complexities, shortens the average cell-search time and can be implemented in the slot-based cell-search pipeline. By taking antenna diversity and pipelining correlation processes, the new algorithm also shows its flexible application in multiple antenna systems.
Keywords: WCDMA cell-search, synchronization algorithm, secondary synchronization channel, antenna diversity.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2267
124 An Efficient Graph Query Algorithm Based on Important Vertices and Decision Features
Authors: Xiantong Li, Jianzhong Li
Abstract:Graph has become increasingly important in modeling complicated structures and schemaless data such as proteins, chemical compounds, and XML documents. Given a graph query, it is desirable to retrieve graphs quickly from a large database via graph-based indices. Different from the existing methods, our approach, called VFM (Vertex to Frequent Feature Mapping), makes use of vertices and decision features as the basic indexing feature. VFM constructs two mappings between vertices and frequent features to answer graph queries. The VFM approach not only provides an elegant solution to the graph indexing problem, but also demonstrates how database indexing and query processing can benefit from data mining, especially frequent pattern mining. The results show that the proposed method not only avoids the enumeration method of getting subgraphs of query graph, but also effectively reduces the subgraph isomorphism tests between the query graph and graphs in candidate answer set in verification stage.
Keywords: Decision Feature, Frequent Feature, Graph Dataset, Graph QueryProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1749
123 Building the Reliability Prediction Model of Component-Based Software Architectures
Authors: Pham Thanh Trung, Huynh Quyet Thang
Reliability is one of the most important quality attributes of software. Based on the approach of Reussner and the approach of Cheung, we proposed the reliability prediction model of component-based software architectures. Also, the value of the model is shown through the experimental evaluation on a web server system.
Keywords: component-based architecture, reliability prediction model, software reliability engineering.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1303
122 Improvement of MLLR Speaker Adaptation Using a Novel Method
Authors: Ing-Jr Ding
Abstract:This paper presents a technical speaker adaptation method called WMLLR, which is based on maximum likelihood linear regression (MLLR). In MLLR, a linear regression-based transform which adapted the HMM mean vectors was calculated to maximize the likelihood of adaptation data. In this paper, the prior knowledge of the initial model is adequately incorporated into the adaptation. A series of speaker adaptation experiments are carried out at a 30 famous city names database to investigate the efficiency of the proposed method. Experimental results show that the WMLLR method outperforms the conventional MLLR method, especially when only few utterances from a new speaker are available for adaptation.
Keywords: hidden Markov model, maximum likelihood linearregression, speech recognition, speaker adaptation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1728
121 Generating Qualitative Causal Graph using Modeling Constructs of Qualitative Process Theory for Explaining Organic Chemistry Reactions
Authors: Alicia Y. C. Tang, Rukaini Abdullah, Sharifuddin M. Zain, Noorsaadah A. Rahman
Abstract:This paper discusses the causal explanation capability of QRIOM, a tool aimed at supporting learning of organic chemistry reactions. The development of the tool is based on the hybrid use of Qualitative Reasoning (QR) technique and Qualitative Process Theory (QPT) ontology. Our simulation combines symbolic, qualitative description of relations with quantity analysis to generate causal graphs. The pedagogy embedded in the simulator is to both simulate and explain organic reactions. Qualitative reasoning through a causal chain will be presented to explain the overall changes made on the substrate; from initial substrate until the production of final outputs. Several uses of the QPT modeling constructs in supporting behavioral and causal explanation during run-time will also be demonstrated. Explaining organic reactions through causal graph trace can help improve the reasoning ability of learners in that their conceptual understanding of the subject is nurtured.
Keywords: Qualitative reasoning, causal graph, organicreactions, explanation, QPT, modeling constructs.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1314
120 Formant Tracking Linear Prediction Model using HMMs for Noisy Speech Processing
Authors: Zaineb Ben Messaoud, Dorra Gargouri, Saida Zribi, Ahmed Ben Hamida
Abstract:This paper presents a formant-tracking linear prediction (FTLP) model for speech processing in noise. The main focus of this work is the detection of formant trajectory based on Hidden Markov Models (HMM), for improved formant estimation in noise. The approach proposed in this paper provides a systematic framework for modelling and utilization of a time- sequence of peaks which satisfies continuity constraints on parameter; the within peaks are modelled by the LP parameters. The formant tracking LP model estimation is composed of three stages: (1) a pre-cleaning multi-band spectral subtraction stage to reduce the effect of residue noise on formants (2) estimation stage where an initial estimate of the LP model of speech for each frame is obtained (3) a formant classification using probability models of formants and Viterbi-decoders. The evaluation results for the estimation of the formant tracking LP model tested in Gaussian white noise background, demonstrate that the proposed combination of the initial noise reduction stage with formant tracking and LPC variable order analysis, results in a significant reduction in errors and distortions. The performance was evaluated with noisy natual vowels extracted from international french and English vocabulary speech signals at SNR value of 10dB. In each case, the estimated formants are compared to reference formants.
Keywords: Formants Estimation, HMM, Multi Band Spectral Subtraction, Variable order LPC coding, White Gauusien Noise.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1863
119 An Adaptive Hand-Talking System for the Hearing Impaired
Authors: Zhou Yu, Jiang Feng
Abstract:An adaptive Chinese hand-talking system is presented in this paper. By analyzing the 3 data collecting strategies for new users, the adaptation framework including supervised and unsupervised adaptation methods is proposed. For supervised adaptation, affinity propagation (AP) is used to extract exemplar subsets, and enhanced maximum a posteriori / vector field smoothing (eMAP/VFS) is proposed to pool the adaptation data among different models. For unsupervised adaptation, polynomial segment models (PSMs) are used to help hidden Markov models (HMMs) to accurately label the unlabeled data, then the "labeled" data together with signerindependent models are inputted to MAP algorithm to generate signer-adapted models. Experimental results show that the proposed framework can execute both supervised adaptation with small amount of labeled data and unsupervised adaptation with large amount of unlabeled data to tailor the original models, and both achieve improvements on the performance of recognition rate.
Keywords: sign language recognition, signer adaptation, eMAP/VFS, polynomial segment model.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1642
118 Local Steerable Pyramid Binary Pattern Sequence LSPBPS for Face Recognition Method
Authors: Mohamed El Aroussi, Mohammed El Hassouni, Sanaa Ghouzali, Mohammed Rziza, Driss Aboutajdine
In this paper the problem of face recognition under variable illumination conditions is considered. Most of the works in the literature exhibit good performance under strictly controlled acquisition conditions, but the performance drastically drop when changes in pose and illumination occur, so that recently number of approaches have been proposed to deal with such variability. The aim of this work is to introduce an efficient local appearance feature extraction method based steerable pyramid (SP) for face recognition. Local information is extracted from SP sub-bands using LBP(Local binary Pattern). The underlying statistics allow us to reduce the required amount of data to be stored. The experiments carried out on different face databases confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Keywords: Face recognition (FR), Steerable pyramid (SP), localBinary Pattern (LBP).Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2056
117 Reconstruction of the Most Energetic Modes in a Fully Developed Turbulent Channel Flow with Density Variation
Authors: Elteyeb Eljack, Takashi Ohta
Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is used to reconstruct spatio-temporal data of a fully developed turbulent channel flow with density variation at Reynolds number of 150, based on the friction velocity and the channel half-width, and Prandtl number of 0.71. To apply POD to the fully developed turbulent channel flow with density variation, the flow field (velocities, density, and temperature) is scaled by the corresponding root mean square values (rms) so that the flow field becomes dimensionless. A five-vector POD problem is solved numerically. The reconstructed second-order moments of velocity, temperature, and density from POD eigenfunctions compare favorably to the original Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) data.
Keywords: Pattern Recognition, POD, Coherent Structures, Low dimensional modelling.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1274
116 Scale-Space Volume Descriptors for Automatic 3D Facial Feature Extraction
Authors: Daniel Chen, George Mamic, Clinton Fookes, Sridha Sridharan
An automatic method for the extraction of feature points for face based applications is proposed. The system is based upon volumetric feature descriptors, which in this paper has been extended to incorporate scale space. The method is robust to noise and has the ability to extract local and holistic features simultaneously from faces stored in a database. Extracted features are stable over a range of faces, with results indicating that in terms of intra-ID variability, the technique has the ability to outperform manual landmarking.
Keywords: Scale space volume descriptor, feature extraction, 3D facial landmarkingProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1366
115 A Novel Compression Algorithm for Electrocardiogram Signals based on Wavelet Transform and SPIHT
Authors: Sana Ktata, Kaïs Ouni, Noureddine Ellouze
Abstract:Electrocardiogram (ECG) data compression algorithm is needed that will reduce the amount of data to be transmitted, stored and analyzed, but without losing the clinical information content. A wavelet ECG data codec based on the Set Partitioning In Hierarchical Trees (SPIHT) compression algorithm is proposed in this paper. The SPIHT algorithm has achieved notable success in still image coding. We modified the algorithm for the one-dimensional (1-D) case and applied it to compression of ECG data. By this compression method, small percent root mean square difference (PRD) and high compression ratio with low implementation complexity are achieved. Experiments on selected records from the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database revealed that the proposed codec is significantly more efficient in compression and in computation than previously proposed ECG compression schemes. Compression ratios of up to 48:1 for ECG signals lead to acceptable results for visual inspection.
Keywords: Discrete Wavelet Transform, ECG compression, SPIHT.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2010
114 Multi-stage Directional Median Filter
Abstract:Median filter is widely used to remove impulse noise without blurring sharp edges. However, when noise level increased, or with thin edges, median filter may work poorly. This paper proposes a new filter, which will detect edges along four possible directions, and then replace noise corrupted pixel with estimated noise-free edge median value. Simulations show that the proposed multi-stage directional median filter can provide excellent performance of suppressing impulse noise in all situations.
Keywords: Impulse noise, Median filter, Multi-stage, EdgepreservingProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2210
113 Transform-Domain Rate-Distortion Optimization Accelerator for H.264/AVC Video Encoding
Authors: Mohammed Golam Sarwer, Lai Man Po, Kai Guo, Q.M. Jonathan Wu
Abstract:In H.264/AVC video encoding, rate-distortion optimization for mode selection plays a significant role to achieve outstanding performance in compression efficiency and video quality. However, this mode selection process also makes the encoding process extremely complex, especially in the computation of the ratedistortion cost function, which includes the computations of the sum of squared difference (SSD) between the original and reconstructed image blocks and context-based entropy coding of the block. In this paper, a transform-domain rate-distortion optimization accelerator based on fast SSD (FSSD) and VLC-based rate estimation algorithm is proposed. This algorithm could significantly simplify the hardware architecture for the rate-distortion cost computation with only ignorable performance degradation. An efficient hardware structure for implementing the proposed transform-domain rate-distortion optimization accelerator is also proposed. Simulation results demonstrated that the proposed algorithm reduces about 47% of total encoding time with negligible degradation of coding performance. The proposed method can be easily applied to many mobile video application areas such as a digital camera and a DMB (Digital Multimedia Broadcasting) phone.
Keywords: Context-adaptive variable length coding (CAVLC), H.264/AVC, rate-distortion optimization (RDO), sum of squareddifference (SSD).Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1487
112 Weight Functions for Signal Reconstruction Based On Level Crossings
Authors: Nagesha, G. Hemantha Kumar
Although the level crossing concept has been the subject of intensive investigation over the last few years, certain problems of great interest remain unsolved. One of these concern is distribution of threshold levels. This paper presents a new threshold level allocation schemes for level crossing based on nonuniform sampling. Intuitively, it is more reasonable if the information rich regions of the signal are sampled finer and those with sparse information are sampled coarser. To achieve this objective, we propose non-linear quantization functions which dynamically assign the number of quantization levels depending on the importance of the given amplitude range. Two new approaches to determine the importance of the given amplitude segment are presented. The proposed methods are based on exponential and logarithmic functions. Various aspects of proposed techniques are discussed and experimentally validated. Its efficacy is investigated by comparison with uniform sampling.
Keywords: speech signals, sampling, signal reconstruction, asynchronousdelta modulation, non-linear quantization.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1236
111 Performance Analysis of Digital Signal Processors Using SMV Benchmark
Authors: Erh-Wen Hu, Cyril S. Ku, Andrew T. Russo, Bogong Su, Jian Wang
Abstract:Unlike general-purpose processors, digital signal processors (DSP processors) are strongly application-dependent. To meet the needs for diverse applications, a wide variety of DSP processors based on different architectures ranging from the traditional to VLIW have been introduced to the market over the years. The functionality, performance, and cost of these processors vary over a wide range. In order to select a processor that meets the design criteria for an application, processor performance is usually the major concern for digital signal processing (DSP) application developers. Performance data are also essential for the designers of DSP processors to improve their design. Consequently, several DSP performance benchmarks have been proposed over the past decade or so. However, none of these benchmarks seem to have included recent new DSP applications. In this paper, we use a new benchmark that we recently developed to compare the performance of popular DSP processors from Texas Instruments and StarCore. The new benchmark is based on the Selectable Mode Vocoder (SMV), a speech-coding program from the recent third generation (3G) wireless voice applications. All benchmark kernels are compiled by the compilers of the respective DSP processors and run on their simulators. Weighted arithmetic mean of clock cycles and arithmetic mean of code size are used to compare the performance of five DSP processors. In addition, we studied how the performance of a processor is affected by code structure, features of processor architecture and optimization of compiler. The extensive experimental data gathered, analyzed, and presented in this paper should be helpful for DSP processor and compiler designers to meet their specific design goals.
Keywords: digital signal processors, DSP benchmark, instruction level parallelism, modified cyclomatic complexity, performance analysis.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1477
110 Reversible Watermarking on Stereo Image Sequences
Authors: John N. Ellinas
In this paper, a new reversible watermarking method is presented that reduces the size of a stereoscopic image sequence while keeping its content visible. The proposed technique embeds the residuals of the right frames to the corresponding frames of the left sequence, halving the total capacity. The residual frames may result in after a disparity compensated procedure between the two video streams or by a joint motion and disparity compensation. The residuals are usually lossy compressed before embedding because of the limited embedding capacity of the left frames. The watermarked frames are visible at a high quality and at any instant the stereoscopic video may be recovered by an inverse process. In fact, the left frames may be exactly recovered whereas the right ones are slightly distorted as the residuals are not embedded intact. The employed embedding method reorders the left frame into an array of consecutive pixel pairs and embeds a number of bits according to their intensity difference. In this way, it hides a number of bits in intensity smooth areas and most of the data in textured areas where resulting distortions are less visible. The experimental evaluation demonstrates that the proposed scheme is quite effective.
Keywords: Stereoscopic video, Reversible watermarking, Disparity compensation, Joint compensationProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1327
109 Signal Driven Sampling and Filtering a Promising Approach for Time Varying Signals Processing
Authors: Saeed Mian Qaisar, Laurent Fesquet, Marc Renaudin
Abstract:The mobile systems are powered by batteries. Reducing the system power consumption is a key to increase its autonomy. It is known that mostly the systems are dealing with time varying signals. Thus, we aim to achieve power efficiency by smartly adapting the system processing activity in accordance with the input signal local characteristics. It is done by completely rethinking the processing chain, by adopting signal driven sampling and processing. In this context, a signal driven filtering technique, based on the level crossing sampling is devised. It adapts the sampling frequency and the filter order by analysing the input signal local variations. Thus, it correlates the processing activity with the signal variations. It leads towards a drastic computational gain of the proposed technique compared to the classical one.
Keywords: Level Crossing Sampling, Activity Selection, Adaptive Rate Filtering, Computational Complexity.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1258
108 A Signal Driven Adaptive Resolution Short-Time Fourier Transform
Authors: Saeed Mian Qaisar, Laurent Fesquet, Marc Renaudin
Abstract:The frequency contents of the non-stationary signals vary with time. For proper characterization of such signals, a smart time-frequency representation is necessary. Classically, the STFT (short-time Fourier transform) is employed for this purpose. Its limitation is the fixed timefrequency resolution. To overcome this drawback an enhanced STFT version is devised. It is based on the signal driven sampling scheme, which is named as the cross-level sampling. It can adapt the sampling frequency and the window function (length plus shape) by following the input signal local variations. This adaptation results into the proposed technique appealing features, which are the adaptive time-frequency resolution and the computational efficiency.
Keywords: Level Crossing Sampling, Activity Selection, Adaptive Resolution Analysis, Computational Complexity.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1456
107 A High Quality Speech Coder at 600 bps
Authors: Yong Zhang, Ruimin Hu
This paper presents a vocoder to obtain high quality synthetic speech at 600 bps. To reduce the bit rate, the algorithm is based on a sinusoidally excited linear prediction model which extracts few coding parameters, and three consecutive frames are grouped into a superframe and jointly vector quantization is used to obtain high coding efficiency. The inter-frame redundancy is exploited with distinct quantization schemes for different unvoiced/voiced frame combinations in the superframe. Experimental results show that the quality of the proposed coder is better than that of 2.4kbps LPC10e and achieves approximately the same as that of 2.4kbps MELP and with high robustness.
Keywords: Speech coding, Vector quantization, linear predicition, Mixed sinusoidal excitationProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2080
106 Robust Statistics Based Algorithm to Remove Salt and Pepper Noise in Images
Authors: V.R.Vijaykumar, P.T.Vanathi, P.Kanagasabapathy, D.Ebenezer
In this paper, a robust statistics based filter to remove salt and pepper noise in digital images is presented. The function of the algorithm is to detect the corrupted pixels first since the impulse noise only affect certain pixels in the image and the remaining pixels are uncorrupted. The corrupted pixels are replaced by an estimated value using the proposed robust statistics based filter. The proposed method perform well in removing low to medium density impulse noise with detail preservation upto a noise density of 70% compared to standard median filter, weighted median filter, recursive weighted median filter, progressive switching median filter, signal dependent rank ordered mean filter, adaptive median filter and recently proposed decision based algorithm. The visual and quantitative results show the proposed algorithm outperforms in restoring the original image with superior preservation of edges and better suppression of impulse noise
Keywords: Image denoising, Nonlinear filter, Robust Statistics, and Salt and Pepper Noise.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2081
105 Decimation Filter Design Toolbox for Multi-Standard Wireless Transceivers using MATLAB
Authors: Shahana T. K., Babita R. Jose, K. Poulose Jacob, Sreela Sasi
The demand for new telecommunication services requiring higher capacities, data rates and different operating modes have motivated the development of new generation multi-standard wireless transceivers. A multi-standard design often involves extensive system level analysis and architectural partitioning, typically requiring extensive calculations. In this research, a decimation filter design tool for wireless communication standards consisting of GSM, WCDMA, WLANa, WLANb, WLANg and WiMAX is developed in MATLAB® using GUIDE environment for visual analysis. The user can select a required wireless communication standard, and obtain the corresponding multistage decimation filter implementation using this toolbox. The toolbox helps the user or design engineer to perform a quick design and analysis of decimation filter for multiple standards without doing extensive calculation of the underlying methods.
Keywords: Decimation filter, MATLAB® toolbox, Multistandard transceivers, Sigma-delta A/D converter.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2815
104 Image Adaptive Watermarking with Visual Model in Orthogonal Polynomials based Transformation Domain
Authors: Krishnamoorthi R., Sheba Kezia Malarchelvi P. D.
Abstract:In this paper, an image adaptive, invisible digital watermarking algorithm with Orthogonal Polynomials based Transformation (OPT) is proposed, for copyright protection of digital images. The proposed algorithm utilizes a visual model to determine the watermarking strength necessary to invisibly embed the watermark in the mid frequency AC coefficients of the cover image, chosen with a secret key. The visual model is designed to generate a Just Noticeable Distortion mask (JND) by analyzing the low level image characteristics such as textures, edges and luminance of the cover image in the orthogonal polynomials based transformation domain. Since the secret key is required for both embedding and extraction of watermark, it is not possible for an unauthorized user to extract the embedded watermark. The proposed scheme is robust to common image processing distortions like filtering, JPEG compression and additive noise. Experimental results show that the quality of OPT domain watermarked images is better than its DCT counterpart.
Keywords: Orthogonal Polynomials based Transformation, Digital Watermarking, Copyright Protection, Visual model.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1598
103 Estimating Frequency, Amplitude and Phase of Two Sinusoids with Very Close Frequencies
Authors: Jayme G. A. Barbedo, Amauri Lopes
This paper presents an algorithm to estimate the parameters of two closely spaced sinusoids, providing a frequency resolution that is more than 800 times greater than that obtained by using the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). The strategy uses a highly optimized grid search approach to accurately estimate frequency, amplitude and phase of both sinusoids, keeping at the same time the computational effort at reasonable levels. The proposed method has three main characteristics: 1) a high frequency resolution; 2) frequency, amplitude and phase are all estimated at once using one single package; 3) it does not rely on any statistical assumption or constraint. Potential applications to this strategy include the difficult task of resolving coincident partials of instruments in musical signals.
Keywords: Closely spaced sinusoids, high-resolution parameter estimation, optimized grid search.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2721
102 Efficient Block Matching Algorithm for Motion Estimation
Authors: Zong Chen
Abstract:Motion estimation is a key problem in video processing and computer vision. Optical flow motion estimation can achieve high estimation accuracy when motion vector is small. Three-step search algorithm can handle large motion vector but not very accurate. A joint algorithm was proposed in this paper to achieve high estimation accuracy disregarding whether the motion vector is small or large, and keep the computation cost much lower than full search.
Keywords: Motion estimation, Block Matching, Optical flow, Three step search.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2052
101 Dempster-Shafer Evidence Theory for Image Segmentation: Application in Cells Images
Authors: S. Ben Chaabane, M. Sayadi, F. Fnaiech, E. Brassart
Abstract:In this paper we propose a new knowledge model using the Dempster-Shafer-s evidence theory for image segmentation and fusion. The proposed method is composed essentially of two steps. First, mass distributions in Dempster-Shafer theory are obtained from the membership degrees of each pixel covering the three image components (R, G and B). Each membership-s degree is determined by applying Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) clustering to the gray levels of the three images. Second, the fusion process consists in defining three discernment frames which are associated with the three images to be fused, and then combining them to form a new frame of discernment. The strategy used to define mass distributions in the combined framework is discussed in detail. The proposed fusion method is illustrated in the context of image segmentation. Experimental investigations and comparative studies with the other previous methods are carried out showing thus the robustness and superiority of the proposed method in terms of image segmentation.
Keywords: Fuzzy C-means, Color image, data fusion, Dempster-Shafer's evidence theoryProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2095
100 Union is Strength in Lossy Image Compression
Authors: Mario Mastriani
Abstract:In this work, we present a comparison between different techniques of image compression. First, the image is divided in blocks which are organized according to a certain scan. Later, several compression techniques are applied, combined or alone. Such techniques are: wavelets (Haar's basis), Karhunen-Loève Transform, etc. Simulations show that the combined versions are the best, with minor Mean Squared Error (MSE), and higher Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and better image quality, even in the presence of noise.
Keywords: Haar's basis, Image compression, Karhunen-LoèveTransform, Morton's scan, row-rafter scan.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1630
99 Distributed Estimation Using an Improved Incremental Distributed LMS Algorithm
Authors: Amir Rastegarnia, Mohammad Ali Tinati, Azam Khalili
In this paper we consider the problem of distributed adaptive estimation in wireless sensor networks for two different observation noise conditions. In the first case, we assume that there are some sensors with high observation noise variance (noisy sensors) in the network. In the second case, different variance for observation noise is assumed among the sensors which is more close to real scenario. In both cases, an initial estimate of each sensor-s observation noise is obtained. For the first case, we show that when there are such sensors in the network, the performance of conventional distributed adaptive estimation algorithms such as incremental distributed least mean square (IDLMS) algorithm drastically decreases. In addition, detecting and ignoring these sensors leads to a better performance in a sense of estimation. In the next step, we propose a simple algorithm to detect theses noisy sensors and modify the IDLMS algorithm to deal with noisy sensors. For the second case, we propose a new algorithm in which the step-size parameter is adjusted for each sensor according to its observation noise variance. As the simulation results show, the proposed methods outperforms the IDLMS algorithm in the same condition.
Keywords: Distributes estimation, sensor networks, adaptive filter, IDLMS.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1342
98 From Maskee to Audible Noise in Perceptual Speech Enhancement
Authors: Asmaa Amehraye, Dominique Pastor, Ahmed Tamtaoui, Driss Aboutajdine
Abstract:A new analysis of perceptual speech enhancement is presented. It focuses on the fact that if only noise above the masking threshold is filtered, then noise below the masking threshold, but above the absolute threshold of hearing, can become audible after the masker filtering. This particular drawback of some perceptual filters, hereafter called the maskee-to-audible-noise (MAN) phenomenon, favours the emergence of isolated tonals that increase musical noise. Two filtering techniques that avoid or correct the MAN phenomenon are proposed to effectively suppress background noise without introducing much distortion. Experimental results, including objective and subjective measurements, show that these techniques improve the enhanced speech quality and the gain they bring emphasizes the importance of the MAN phenomenon.
Keywords: Perceptual speech filtering, maskee to audible noise, distorsion, musical noise.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1382
97 A Complexity-Based Approach in Image Compression using Neural Networks
Authors: Hadi Veisi, Mansour Jamzad
Abstract:In this paper we present an adaptive method for image compression that is based on complexity level of the image. The basic compressor/de-compressor structure of this method is a multilayer perceptron artificial neural network. In adaptive approach different Back-Propagation artificial neural networks are used as compressor and de-compressor and this is done by dividing the image into blocks, computing the complexity of each block and then selecting one network for each block according to its complexity value. Three complexity measure methods, called Entropy, Activity and Pattern-based are used to determine the level of complexity in image blocks and their ability in complexity estimation are evaluated and compared. In training and evaluation, each image block is assigned to a network based on its complexity value. Best-SNR is another alternative in selecting compressor network for image blocks in evolution phase which chooses one of the trained networks such that results best SNR in compressing the input image block. In our evaluations, best results are obtained when overlapping the blocks is allowed and choosing the networks in compressor is based on the Best-SNR. In this case, the results demonstrate superiority of this method comparing with previous similar works and JPEG standard coding.
Keywords: Adaptive image compression, Image complexity, Multi-layer perceptron neural network, JPEG Standard, PSNR.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2104
96 Modulation Identification Algorithm for Adaptive Demodulator in Software Defined Radios Using Wavelet Transform
Authors: P. Prakasam, M. Madheswaran
A generalized Digital Modulation Identification algorithm for adaptive demodulator has been developed and presented in this paper. The algorithm developed is verified using wavelet Transform and histogram computation to identify QPSK and QAM with GMSK and M–ary FSK modulations. It has been found that the histogram peaks simplifies the procedure for identification. The simulated results show that the correct modulation identification is possible to a lower bound of 5 dB and 12 dB for GMSK and QPSK respectively. When SNR is above 5 dB the throughput of the proposed algorithm is more than 97.8%. The receiver operating characteristics (ROC) has been computed to measure the performance of the proposed algorithm and the analysis shows that the probability of detection (Pd) drops rapidly when SNR is 5 dB and probability of false alarm (Pf) is smaller than 0.3. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been compared with existing methods and found it will identify all digital modulation schemes with low SNR.
Keywords: Bit Error rate, Receiver Operating Characteristics, Software Defined Radio, Wavelet Transform.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2311
95 Codebook Generation for Vector Quantization on Orthogonal Polynomials based Transform Coding
Authors: R. Krishnamoorthi, N. Kannan
In this paper, a new algorithm for generating codebook is proposed for vector quantization (VQ) in image coding. The significant features of the training image vectors are extracted by using the proposed Orthogonal Polynomials based transformation. We propose to generate the codebook by partitioning these feature vectors into a binary tree. Each feature vector at a non-terminal node of the binary tree is directed to one of the two descendants by comparing a single feature associated with that node to a threshold. The binary tree codebook is used for encoding and decoding the feature vectors. In the decoding process the feature vectors are subjected to inverse transformation with the help of basis functions of the proposed Orthogonal Polynomials based transformation to get back the approximated input image training vectors. The results of the proposed coding are compared with the VQ using Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and Pairwise Nearest Neighbor (PNN) algorithm. The new algorithm results in a considerable reduction in computation time and provides better reconstructed picture quality.
Keywords: Orthogonal Polynomials, Image Coding, Vector Quantization, TSVQ, Binary Tree ClassifierProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1959
94 Design of Multiplier-free State-Space Digital Filters
Authors: Tamal Bose, Zhurun Zhang, Miloje Radenkovic, Ojas Chauhan
Abstract:In this paper, a novel approach is presented for designing multiplier-free state-space digital filters. The multiplier-free design is obtained by finding power-of-2 coefficients and also quantizing the state variables to power-of-2 numbers. Expressions for the noise variance are derived for the quantized state vector and the output of the filter. A “structuretransformation matrix" is incorporated in these expressions. It is shown that quantization effects can be minimized by properly designing the structure-transformation matrix. Simulation results are very promising and illustrate the design algorithm.
Keywords: Digital filters, minimum noise, multiplier-free, quantization, state-space.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1417
93 Using HMM-based Classifier Adapted to Background Noises with Improved Sounds Features for Audio Surveillance Application
Authors: Asma Rabaoui, Zied Lachiri, Noureddine Ellouze
Abstract:Discrimination between different classes of environmental sounds is the goal of our work. The use of a sound recognition system can offer concrete potentialities for surveillance and security applications. The first paper contribution to this research field is represented by a thorough investigation of the applicability of state-of-the-art audio features in the domain of environmental sound recognition. Additionally, a set of novel features obtained by combining the basic parameters is introduced. The quality of the features investigated is evaluated by a HMM-based classifier to which a great interest was done. In fact, we propose to use a Multi-Style training system based on HMMs: one recognizer is trained on a database including different levels of background noises and is used as a universal recognizer for every environment. In order to enhance the system robustness by reducing the environmental variability, we explore different adaptation algorithms including Maximum Likelihood Linear Regression (MLLR), Maximum A Posteriori (MAP) and the MAP/MLLR algorithm that combines MAP and MLLR. Experimental evaluation shows that a rather good recognition rate can be reached, even under important noise degradation conditions when the system is fed by the convenient set of features.
Keywords: Sounds recognition, HMM classifier, Multi-style training, Environmental Adaptation, Feature combinations.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1507
92 Using Teager Energy Cepstrum and HMM distancesin Automatic Speech Recognition and Analysis of Unvoiced Speech
Authors: Panikos Heracleous
Abstract:In this study, the use of silicon NAM (Non-Audible Murmur) microphone in automatic speech recognition is presented. NAM microphones are special acoustic sensors, which are attached behind the talker-s ear and can capture not only normal (audible) speech, but also very quietly uttered speech (non-audible murmur). As a result, NAM microphones can be applied in automatic speech recognition systems when privacy is desired in human-machine communication. Moreover, NAM microphones show robustness against noise and they might be used in special systems (speech recognition, speech conversion etc.) for sound-impaired people. Using a small amount of training data and adaptation approaches, 93.9% word accuracy was achieved for a 20k Japanese vocabulary dictation task. Non-audible murmur recognition in noisy environments is also investigated. In this study, further analysis of the NAM speech has been made using distance measures between hidden Markov model (HMM) pairs. It has been shown the reduced spectral space of NAM speech using a metric distance, however the location of the different phonemes of NAM are similar to the location of the phonemes of normal speech, and the NAM sounds are well discriminated. Promising results in using nonlinear features are also introduced, especially under noisy conditions.
Keywords: Speech recognition, unvoiced speech, nonlinear features, HMM distance measuresProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1542
91 Denoising and Compression in Wavelet Domainvia Projection on to Approximation Coefficients
Authors: Mario Mastriani
We describe a new filtering approach in the wavelet domain for image denoising and compression, based on the projections of details subbands coefficients (resultants of the splitting procedure, typical in wavelet domain) onto the approximation subband coefficients (much less noisy). The new algorithm is called Projection Onto Approximation Coefficients (POAC). As a result of this approach, only the approximation subband coefficients and three scalars are stored and/or transmitted to the channel. Besides, with the elimination of the details subbands coefficients, we obtain a bigger compression rate. Experimental results demonstrate that our approach compares favorably to more typical methods of denoising and compression in wavelet domain.
Keywords: Compression, denoising, projections, wavelets.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1516
90 Improved Text-Independent Speaker Identification using Fused MFCC and IMFCC Feature Sets based on Gaussian Filter
Authors: Sandipan Chakroborty, Goutam Saha
Abstract:A state of the art Speaker Identification (SI) system requires a robust feature extraction unit followed by a speaker modeling scheme for generalized representation of these features. Over the years, Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) modeled on the human auditory system has been used as a standard acoustic feature set for speech related applications. On a recent contribution by authors, it has been shown that the Inverted Mel- Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (IMFCC) is useful feature set for SI, which contains complementary information present in high frequency region. This paper introduces the Gaussian shaped filter (GF) while calculating MFCC and IMFCC in place of typical triangular shaped bins. The objective is to introduce a higher amount of correlation between subband outputs. The performances of both MFCC & IMFCC improve with GF over conventional triangular filter (TF) based implementation, individually as well as in combination. With GMM as speaker modeling paradigm, the performances of proposed GF based MFCC and IMFCC in individual and fused mode have been verified in two standard databases YOHO, (Microphone Speech) and POLYCOST (Telephone Speech) each of which has more than 130 speakers.
Keywords: Gaussian Filter, Triangular Filter, Subbands, Correlation, MFCC, IMFCC, GMM.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2260
89 A Scheme of Model Verification of the Concurrent Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) for Image Compression
Authors: Kamrul Hasan Talukder, Koichi Harada
The scientific community has invested a great deal of effort in the fields of discrete wavelet transform in the last few decades. Discrete wavelet transform (DWT) associated with the vector quantization has been proved to be a very useful tool for the compression of image. However, the DWT is very computationally intensive process requiring innovative and computationally efficient method to obtain the image compression. The concurrent transformation of the image can be an important solution to this problem. This paper proposes a model of concurrent DWT for image compression. Additionally, the formal verification of the model has also been performed. Here the Symbolic Model Verifier (SMV) has been used as the formal verification tool. The system has been modeled in SMV and some properties have been verified formally.
Keywords: Computation Tree Logic, Discrete WaveletTransform, Formal Verification, Image Compression, Symbolic Model Verifier.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1626
88 Bounds on the Second Stage Spectral Radius of Graphs
Authors: S.K.Ayyaswamy, S.Balachandran, K.Kannan
Let G be a graph of order n. The second stage adjacency matrix of G is the symmetric n × n matrix for which the ijth entry is 1 if the vertices vi and vj are of distance two; otherwise 0. The sum of the absolute values of this second stage adjacency matrix is called the second stage energy of G. In this paper we investigate a few properties and determine some upper bounds for the largest eigenvalue.
Keywords: Second stage spectral radius, Irreducible matrix, Derived graphProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1200
87 A New Heuristic Approach for the Large-Scale Generalized Assignment Problem
Authors: S. Raja Balachandar, K.Kannan
This paper presents a heuristic approach to solve the Generalized Assignment Problem (GAP) which is NP-hard. It is worth mentioning that many researches used to develop algorithms for identifying the redundant constraints and variables in linear programming model. Some of the algorithms are presented using intercept matrix of the constraints to identify redundant constraints and variables prior to the start of the solution process. Here a new heuristic approach based on the dominance property of the intercept matrix to find optimal or near optimal solution of the GAP is proposed. In this heuristic, redundant variables of the GAP are identified by applying the dominance property of the intercept matrix repeatedly. This heuristic approach is tested for 90 benchmark problems of sizes upto 4000, taken from OR-library and the results are compared with optimum solutions. Computational complexity is proved to be O(mn2) of solving GAP using this approach. The performance of our heuristic is compared with the best state-ofthe- art heuristic algorithms with respect to both the quality of the solutions. The encouraging results especially for relatively large size test problems indicate that this heuristic approach can successfully be used for finding good solutions for highly constrained NP-hard problems.
Keywords: Combinatorial Optimization Problem, Generalized Assignment Problem, Intercept Matrix, Heuristic, Computational Complexity, NP-Hard Problems.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2245
86 Approximating Maximum Weighted Independent Set Using Vertex Support
Authors: S. Balaji, V. Swaminathan, K. Kannan
Abstract:The Maximum Weighted Independent Set (MWIS) problem is a classic graph optimization NP-hard problem. Given an undirected graph G = (V, E) and weighting function defined on the vertex set, the MWIS problem is to find a vertex set S V whose total weight is maximum subject to no two vertices in S are adjacent. This paper presents a novel approach to approximate the MWIS of a graph using minimum weighted vertex cover of the graph. Computational experiments are designed and conducted to study the performance of our proposed algorithm. Extensive simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can yield better solutions than other existing algorithms found in the literature for solving the MWIS.
Keywords: weighted independent set, vertex cover, vertex support, heuristic, NP - hard problem.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1927
85 The Orlicz Space of the Entire Sequence Fuzzy Numbers Defined by Infinite Matrices
Authors: N.Subramanian, C.Murugesan
This paper is devoted to the study of the general properties of Orlicz space of entire sequence of fuzzy numbers by using infinite matrices.
Keywords: Fuzzy numbers, infinite matrix, Orlicz space, entiresequence.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1077
84 A New Class χ2 (M, A,) of the Double Difference Sequences of Fuzzy Numbers
Authors: N.Subramanian, U.K.Misra
The aim of this paper is to introduce and study a new concept of strong double χ2 (M,A, Δ) of fuzzy numbers and also some properties of the resulting sequence spaces of fuzzy numbers were examined.
Keywords: Modulus function, fuzzy number, metric space.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2169
83 A Self-stabilizing Algorithm for Maximum Popular Matching of Strictly Ordered Preference Lists
Authors: Zhengnan Shi
In this paper, we consider the problem of Popular Matching of strictly ordered preference lists. A Popular Matching is not guaranteed to exist in any network. We propose an IDbased, constant space, self-stabilizing algorithm that converges to a Maximum Popular Matching an optimum solution, if one exist. We show that the algorithm stabilizes in O(n5) moves under any scheduler (daemon).
Keywords: self-stabilization, popular matching, algorithm, distributed computing, fault toleranceProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1075
82 Decomposition of Graphs into Induced Paths and Cycles
Authors: I. Sahul Hamid, Abraham V. M.
A decomposition of a graph G is a collection ψ of subgraphs H1,H2, . . . , Hr of G such that every edge of G belongs to exactly one Hi. If each Hi is either an induced path or an induced cycle in G, then ψ is called an induced path decomposition of G. The minimum cardinality of an induced path decomposition of G is called the induced path decomposition number of G and is denoted by πi(G). In this paper we initiate a study of this parameter.
Keywords: Path decomposition, Induced path decomposition, Induced path decomposition number.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2265
81 Application of Generalized NAUT B-Spline Curveon Circular Domain to Generate Circle Involute
Authors: Ashok Ganguly, Pranjali Arondekar
In the present paper, we use generalized B-Spline curve in trigonometric form on circular domain, to capture the transcendental nature of circle involute curve and uncertainty characteristic of design. The required involute curve get generated within the given tolerance limit and is useful in gear design.
Keywords: Bézier, Circle Involute, NAUT B-Spline, Spur Gear.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1689
80 Analyzing the Factors Influencing Exclusive Breastfeeding Using the Generalized Poisson Regression Model
Authors: Cheika Jahangeer, Naushad Mamode Khan, Maleika Heenaye-Mamode Khan
Exclusive breastfeeding is the feeding of a baby on no other milk apart from breast milk. Exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life is of fundamental importance because it supports optimal growth and development during infancy and reduces the risk of obliterating diseases and problems. Moreover, in developed countries, exclusive breastfeeding has decreased the incidence and/or severity of diarrhea, lower respiratory infection and urinary tract infection. In this paper, we study the factors that influence exclusive breastfeeding and use the Generalized Poisson regression model to analyze the practices of exclusive breastfeeding in Mauritius. We develop two sets of quasi-likelihood equations (QLE)to estimate the parameters.
Keywords: Exclusive breastfeeding, Regression model, Quasilikelihood.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1671
79 The Diophantine Equation y2 − 2yx − 3 = 0 and Corresponding Curves over Fp
Authors: Ahmet Tekcan, Arzu Özkoç, Hatice Alkan
Abstract:In this work, we consider the number of integer solutions of Diophantine equation D : y2 - 2yx - 3 = 0 over Z and also over finite fields Fp for primes p ≥ 5. Later we determine the number of rational points on curves Ep : y2 = Pp(x) = yp 1 + yp 2 over Fp, where y1 and y2 are the roots of D. Also we give a formula for the sum of x- and y-coordinates of all rational points (x, y) on Ep over Fp.
Keywords: Diophantine equation, Pell equation, quadratic form.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1171
78 Load Balancing in Genetic Zone Routing Protocol for MANETs
Authors: P. Sateesh Kumar , S. Ramachandram
Abstract:Genetic Zone Routing Protocol (GZRP) is a new hybrid routing protocol for MANETs which is an extension of ZRP by using Genetic Algorithm (GA). GZRP uses GA on IERP and BRP parts of ZRP to provide a limited set of alternative routes to the destination in order to load balance the network and robustness during node/link failure during the route discovery process. GZRP is studied for its performance compared to ZRP in many folds like scalability for packet delivery and proved with improved results. This paper presents the results of the effect of load balancing on GZRP. The results show that GZRP outperforms ZRP while balancing the load.
Keywords: MANET, routing, ZRP, Genetic algorithm, GZRP, load balancingProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2095
77 Tensorial Transformations of Double Gai Sequence Spaces
Authors: N.Subramanian, U.K.Misra
The precise form of tensorial transformations acting on a given collection of infinite matrices into another ; for such classical ideas connected with the summability field of double gai sequence spaces. In this paper the results are impose conditions on the tensor g so that it becomes a tensorial transformations from the metric space χ2 to the metric space C
Keywords: tensorial transformations, double gai sequences , double analytic, dual.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1054
76 A Normalization-based Robust Watermarking Scheme Using Zernike Moments
Authors: Say Wei Foo, Qi Dong
Digital watermarking has become an important technique for copyright protection but its robustness against attacks remains a major problem. In this paper, we propose a normalizationbased robust image watermarking scheme. In the proposed scheme, original host image is first normalized to a standard form. Zernike transform is then applied to the normalized image to calculate Zernike moments. Dither modulation is adopted to quantize the magnitudes of Zernike moments according to the watermark bit stream. The watermark extracting method is a blind method. Security analysis and false alarm analysis are then performed. The quality degradation of watermarked image caused by the embedded watermark is visually transparent. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme has very high robustness against various image processing operations and geometric attacks.
Keywords: Image watermarking, Image normalization, Zernike moments, Robustness.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1656
75 Ethiopian Opposition Political Parties and Rebel Fronts: Past and Present
Authors: Wondwosen Teshome B.
Abstract:In a representative democracy political parties promote vital competition on different policy issues and play essential roles by offering ideological alternatives. They also give channels for citizens- participation in government decision-making processes and they are significant conduits and interpreters of information about government. This paper attempts to examine how opposition political parties and rebel fronts emerged in Ethiopia, and examines their present conditions. In this paper, selected case studies of political parties and rebel fronts are included to highlight the status and the role of opposition groups in the country in the three successive administrations: Haile Selassie (1930-1974), Derg (1974- 1991), and EPRDF (1991-Present).
Keywords: Ethiopia, Hybrid regime, Incumbent, Multi-Partyelection, Opposition Party, Political Party, Rebel fronts.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 5203
74 Modeling and Optimization of Abrasive Waterjet Parameters using Regression Analysis
Authors: Farhad Kolahan, A. Hamid Khajavi
Abrasive waterjet is a novel machining process capable of processing wide range of hard-to-machine materials. This research addresses modeling and optimization of the process parameters for this machining technique. To model the process a set of experimental data has been used to evaluate the effects of various parameter settings in cutting 6063-T6 aluminum alloy. The process variables considered here include nozzle diameter, jet traverse rate, jet pressure and abrasive flow rate. Depth of cut, as one of the most important output characteristics, has been evaluated based on different parameter settings. The Taguchi method and regression modeling are used in order to establish the relationships between input and output parameters. The adequacy of the model is evaluated using analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique. The pairwise effects of process parameters settings on process response outputs are also shown graphically. The proposed model is then embedded into a Simulated Annealing algorithm to optimize the process parameters. The optimization is carried out for any desired values of depth of cut. The objective is to determine proper levels of process parameters in order to obtain a certain level of depth of cut. Computational results demonstrate that the proposed solution procedure is quite effective in solving such multi-variable problems.
Keywords: AWJ cutting, Mathematical modeling, Simulated Annealing, OptimizationProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2006
73 Natural Language Database Interface for Selection of Data Using Grammar and Parsing
Authors: N. D. Karande, G. A. Patil
Databases have become ubiquitous. Almost all IT applications are storing into and retrieving information from databases. Retrieving information from the database requires knowledge of technical languages such as Structured Query Language (SQL). However majority of the users who interact with the databases do not have a technical background and are intimidated by the idea of using languages such as SQL. This has led to the development of a few Natural Language Database Interfaces (NLDBIs). A NLDBI allows the user to query the database in a natural language. This paper highlights on architecture of new NLDBI system, its implementation and discusses on results obtained. In most of the typical NLDBI systems the natural language statement is converted into an internal representation based on the syntactic and semantic knowledge of the natural language. This representation is then converted into queries using a representation converter. A natural language query is translated to an equivalent SQL query after processing through various stages. The work has been experimented on primitive database queries with certain constraints.
Keywords: Natural language database interface, representation converter, syntactic and semantic knowledgeProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2578
72 Integrating Decision Tree and Spatial Cluster Analysis for Landslide Susceptibility Zonation
Authors: Chien-Min Chu, Bor-Wen Tsai, Kang-Tsung Chang
Abstract:Landslide susceptibility map delineates the potential zones for landslide occurrence. Previous works have applied multivariate methods and neural networks for mapping landslide susceptibility. This study proposed a new approach to integrate decision tree model and spatial cluster statistic for assessing landslide susceptibility spatially. A total of 2057 landslide cells were digitized for developing the landslide decision tree model. The relationships of landslides and instability factors were explicitly represented by using tree graphs in the model. The local Getis-Ord statistics were used to cluster cells with high landslide probability. The analytic result from the local Getis-Ord statistics was classed to create a map of landslide susceptibility zones. The map was validated using new landslide data with 482 cells. Results of validation show an accuracy rate of 86.1% in predicting new landslide occurrence. This indicates that the proposed approach is useful for improving landslide susceptibility mapping.
Keywords: Landslide susceptibility Zonation, Decision treemodel, Spatial cluster, Local Getis-Ord statistics.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1798
71 Probabilities and the Persistence of Memory in a Bingo-like Carnival Game
Authors: M. Glomski, M. Lopes
Seemingly simple probabilities in the m-player game bingo have never been calculated. These probabilities include expected game length and the expected number of winners on a given turn. The difficulty in probabilistic analysis lies in the subtle interdependence among the m-many bingo game cards in play. In this paper, the game i got it!, a bingo variant, is considered. This variation provides enough weakening of the inter-player dependence to allow probabilistic analysis not possible for traditional bingo. The probability of winning in exactly k turns is calculated for a one-player game. Given a game of m-many players, the expected game length and tie probability are calculated. With these calculations, the game-s interesting payout scheme is considered.
Keywords: Conditional probability, games of chance, npersongames, probability theory.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1414
70 Security Analysis on Anonymous Mutual Authentication Protocol for RFID Tag without Back-End Database and its Improvement
Authors: Songyi Kim, Kwangwoo Lee, Seungjoo Kim, Dongho Won
Abstract:RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification) system has been widely used in our life, such as transport systems, passports, automotive, animal tracking, human implants, library, and so on. However, the RFID authentication protocols between RF (Radio Frequency) tags and the RF readers have been bring about various privacy problems that anonymity of the tags, tracking, eavesdropping, and so on. Many researchers have proposed the solution of the problems. However, they still have the problem, such as location privacy, mutual authentication. In this paper, we show the problems of the previous protocols, and then we propose a more secure and efficient RFID authentication protocol.
Keywords: RFID, mutual authentication, serverless, anonymity.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1813
69 Vehicle Detection Method using Haar-like Feature on Real Time System
Authors: Sungji Han, Youngjoon Han, Hernsoo Hahn
This paper presents a robust vehicle detection approach using Haar-like feature. It is possible to get a strong edge feature from this Haar-like feature. Therefore it is very effective to remove the shadow of a vehicle on the road. And we can detect the boundary of vehicles accurately. In the paper, the vehicle detection algorithm can be divided into two main steps. One is hypothesis generation, and the other is hypothesis verification. In the first step, it determines vehicle candidates using features such as a shadow, intensity, and vertical edge. And in the second step, it determines whether the candidate is a vehicle or not by using the symmetry of vehicle edge features. In this research, we can get the detection rate over 15 frames per second on our embedded system.
Keywords: vehicle detection, haar-like feauture, single camera, real timeProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3161
68 Probabilistic Center Voting Method for Subsequent Object Tracking and Segmentation
Authors: Suryanto, Hyo-Kak Kim, Sang-Hee Park, Dae-Hwan Kim, Sung-Jea Ko
In this paper, we introduce a novel algorithm for object tracking in video sequence. In order to represent the object to be tracked, we propose a spatial color histogram model which encodes both the color distribution and spatial information. The object tracking from frame to frame is accomplished via center voting and back projection method. The center voting method has every pixel in the new frame to cast a vote on whereabouts the object center is. The back projection method segments the object from the background. The segmented foreground provides information on object size and orientation, omitting the need to estimate them separately. We do not put any assumption on camera motion; the proposed algorithm works equally well for object tracking in both static and moving camera videos.
Keywords: center voting, back projection, object tracking, size adaptation, non-stationary camera tracking.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1518
67 Using Secure-Image Mechanism to Protect Mobile Agent Against Malicious Hosts
Authors: Tarig Mohamed Ahmed
The usage of internet is rapidly increasing and the usage of mobile agent technology in internet environment has a great demand. The security issue one of main obstacles that restrict the mobile agent technology to spread. This paper proposes Secure-Image Mechanism (SIM) as a new mechanism to protect mobile agents against malicious hosts. . SIM aims to protect mobile agent by using the symmetric encryption and hash function in cryptography science. This mechanism can prevent the eavesdropping and alteration attacks. It assists the mobile agents to continue their journey normally incase attacks occurred.
Keywords: Agent protection, cryptography, mobile agent security.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1798
66 A Study of Under Actuator Dynamic System by Comparing between Minimum Energy and Minimum Jerk Problems
Authors: Tawiwat V., Phermsak S., Noppasit C.
This paper deals with under actuator dynamic systems such as spring-mass-damper system when the number of control variable is less than the number of state variable. In order to apply optimal control, the controllability must be checked. There are many objective functions to be selected as the goal of the optimal control such as minimum energy, maximum energy and minimum jerk. As the objective function is the first priority, if one like to have the second goal to be applied; however, it could not fit in the objective function format and also avoiding the vector cost for the objective, this paper will illustrate the problem of under actuator dynamic systems with the easiest to deal with comparing between minimum energy and minimum jerk.
Keywords: Under actuator, Dynamic optimal control, Minimumjerk, Minimum energy.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1168
65 Using Memetic Algorithms for the Solution of Technical Problems
Authors: Ulrike Völlinger, Erik Lehmann, Rainer Stark
The intention of this paper is, to help the user of evolutionary algorithms to adapt them easier to their problem at hand. For a lot of problems in the technical field it is not necessary to reach an optimum solution, but to reach a good solution in time. In many cases the solution is undetermined or there doesn-t exist a method to determine the solution. For these cases an evolutionary algorithm can be useful. This paper intents to give the user rules of thumb with which it is easier to decide if the problem is suitable for an evolutionary algorithm and how to design them.
Keywords: Multi criteria optimization, Memetic algorithmsProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1309
64 Double Aperture Camera for High Resolution Measurement
Authors: Venkatesh Bagaria, Nagesh AS, Varun AV
Abstract:In the domain of machine vision, the measurement of length is done using cameras where the accuracy is directly proportional to the resolution of the camera and inversely to the size of the object. Since most of the pixels are wasted imaging the entire body as opposed to just imaging the edges in a conventional system, a double aperture system is constructed to focus on the edges to measure at higher resolution. The paper discusses the complexities and how they are mitigated to realize a practical machine vision system.
Keywords: Machine Vision, double aperture camera, accurate length measurementProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1465
63 Effect of Concentration of Sodium Borohydrate on the Synthesis of Silicon Nanoparticles via Microemulsion Route
Authors: W. L. Liong, Srimala Sreekantan, Sabar D. Hutagalung
Abstract:The effect of concentration of reduction agent of sodium borohydrate (NaBH4) on the properties of silicon nanoparticles synthesized via microemulsion route is reported. In this work, the concentration of the silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4) that served as silicon source with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) as stabilizer and surfactant, respectively, are keep fixed. Four samples with varied concentration of NaBH4 from 0.05 M to 0.20 M were synthesized. It was found that the lowest concentration of NaBH4 gave better formation of silicon nanoparticles.
Keywords: Microelmusion, nanoparticles, reduction, siliconProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1858
62 A High Bitrate Information Hiding Algorithm for Video in Video
Authors: Wang Shou-Dao, Xiao Chuang-Bai, Lin Yu
Abstract:In high bitrate information hiding techniques, 1 bit is embedded within each 4 x 4 Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) coefficient block by means of vector quantization, then the hidden bit can be effectively extracted in terminal end. In this paper high bitrate information hiding algorithms are summarized, and the scheme of video in video is implemented. Experimental result shows that the host video which is embedded numerous auxiliary information have little visually quality decline. Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR)Y of host video only degrades 0.22dB in average, while the hidden information has a high percentage of survives and keeps a high robustness in H.264/AVC compression, the average Bit Error Rate(BER) of hiding information is 0.015%.
Keywords: Information Hiding, Embed, Quantification, ExtractProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1779
61 A Variety of Meteorological and Geographical Characteristics Effects on Watershed Responses to a Storm Event
Authors: Wen Hui Kuan, Chia Ling Chang, Pei Shan Lui
Abstract:The Chichiawan stream in the Wulin catchment in Taiwan is the natural habitat of Formosan landlocked salmon. Human and agriculture activities gradually worsen water quality and impact the fish habitat negatively. To protect and manage Formosan landlocked salmon habitat, it is important to understand a variety land-uses affect on the watershed responses to storms. This study discusses watershed responses to the dry-day before a storm event and a variety of land-uses in the Wulin catchment. Under the land-use planning in the Wulin catchment, the peak flows during typhoon events do not have noticeable difference. However, the nutrient exports can be highly reduced under the strategies of restraining agriculture activities. Due to the higher affinity of P for soil than that of N, the exports of TN from overall Wuling catchment were much greater than Ortho-P. Agriculture mainly centralized in subbasin A, which is the important source of nutrients in nonpoint source discharge. The subbasin A supplied about 26% of the TN and 32% of the Ortho-P discharge in 2004, despite the fact it only covers 19% area of the Wuling catchment. The subbasin analysis displayed that the agricultural subbasin A exports higher nutrients per unit area than other forest subbasins. Additionally, the agricultural subbasin A contributed a higher percentage to total Ortho-P exports compares to TN. The results of subbasin analysis might imply the transport of Ortho-P was similar to the particulate matter which was mainly influenced by the runoff and affected by the desorption from soil particles while the TN (dominated as nitrate-N) was mainly influenced by base-flow.
Keywords: Chiachiawan stream, Formosan landlocked salmon, modeling, typhoon, watershed response.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1184
60 A Weighted Least Square Algorithm for Low-Delay FIR Filters with Piecewise Variable Stopbands
Authors: Yasunori Sugita, Toshinori Yoshikawa, Naoyuki Aikawa
Variable digital filters are useful for various signal processing and communication applications where the frequency characteristics, such as fractional delays and cutoff frequencies, can be varied. In this paper, we propose a design method of variable FIR digital filters with an approximate linear phase characteristic in the passband. The proposed variable FIR filters have some large attenuation in stopband and their large attenuation can be varied by spectrum parameters. In the proposed design method, a quasi-equiripple characteristic can be obtained by using an iterative weighted least square method. The usefulness of the proposed design method is verified through some examples.
Keywords: Weighted Least Squares Approximation, Variable FIR Filters, Low-Delay, Quasi-EquirippleProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1445
59 Non-contact Gaze Tracking with Head Movement Adaptation based on Single Camera
Authors: Ying Huang, Zhiliang Wang, An Ping
With advances in computer vision, non-contact gaze tracking systems are heading towards being much easier to operate and more comfortable for use, the technique proposed in this paper is specially designed for achieving these goals. For the convenience in operation, the proposal aims at the system with simple configuration which is composed of a fixed wide angle camera and dual infrared illuminators. Then in order to enhance the usability of the system based on single camera, a self-adjusting method which is called Real-time gaze Tracking Algorithm with head movement Compensation (RTAC) is developed for estimating the gaze direction under natural head movement and simplifying the calibration procedure at the same time. According to the actual evaluations, the average accuracy of about 1° is achieved over a field of 20×15×15 cm3.
Keywords: computer vision, gaze tracking, human-computer interaction.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1810
58 Design as Contract and Blueprint – Tackling Maturity Level 1 Software Vendors in an e-School Project
Authors: Yung-Pin Cheng, Ching-Huei Wang
Abstract:Process improvements have drawn much attention in practical software engineering. The capability maturity levels from CMMI have become an important index to assess a software company-s software engineering capability. However, in countries like Taiwan, customers often have no choices but to deal with vendors that are not CMMI prepared or qualified. We call these vendors maturitylevel- 1 (ML1) vendors. In this paper, we describe our experience from consulting an e-school project. We propose an approach to help our client tackle the ML1 vendors. Through our system analysis, we produce a design. This design is suggested to be used as part of contract and a blueprint to guide the implementation.
Keywords: CMMI, Software Engineering, Software Design, Designas Contract.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1433
57 Study of Efficiency and Capability LZW++ Technique in Data Compression
Authors: Yusof. Mohd Kamir, Mat Deris. Mohd Sufian, Abidin. Ahmad Faisal Amri
The purpose of this paper is to show efficiency and capability LZWµ in data compression. The LZWµ technique is enhancement from existing LZW technique. The modification the existing LZW is needed to produce LZWµ technique. LZW read one by one character at one time. Differ with LZWµ technique, where the LZWµ read three characters at one time. This paper focuses on data compression and tested efficiency and capability LZWµ by different data format such as doc type, pdf type and text type. Several experiments have been done by different types of data format. The results shows LZWµ technique is better compared to existing LZW technique in term of file size.
Keywords: Data Compression, Huffman Encoding, LZW, LZWµ, RLL, Size.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1975
56 Improved Wavelet Neural Networks for Early Cancer Diagnosis Using Clustering Algorithms
Authors: Zarita Zainuddin, Ong Pauline
Wavelet neural networks (WNNs) have emerged as a vital alternative to the vastly studied multilayer perceptrons (MLPs) since its first implementation. In this paper, we applied various clustering algorithms, namely, K-means (KM), Fuzzy C-means (FCM), symmetry-based K-means (SBKM), symmetry-based Fuzzy C-means (SBFCM) and modified point symmetry-based K-means (MPKM) clustering algorithms in choosing the translation parameter of a WNN. These modified WNNs are further applied to the heterogeneous cancer classification using benchmark microarray data and were compared against the conventional WNN with random initialization method. Experimental results showed that a WNN classifier with the MPKM algorithm is more precise than the conventional WNN as well as the WNNs with other clustering algorithms.
Keywords: Clustering, microarray, symmetry, wavelet neural networks.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1496
55 An Investigation of Short Circuit Analysis in Komag Sarawak Operations (KSO) Factory
Authors: M. H. Hairi, H. Zainuddin, M.H.N. Talib, A. Khamis, J. Y. Lichun
Short circuit currents plays a vital role in influencing the design and operation of equipment and power system and could not be avoided despite careful planning and design, good maintenance and thorough operation of the system. This paper discusses the short circuit analysis conducted in KSO briefly comprising of its significances, methods and results. A result sample of the analysis based on a single transformer is detailed in this paper. Furthermore, the results of the analysis and its significances were also discussed and commented.
Keywords: Short circuit currents, Transformer fault currentProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2301
54 Fully Parameterizable FPGA based Crypto-Accelerator
Authors: Iqbalur Rahman, Miftahur Rahman, Abul L Haque, Mostafizur Rahman,
Abstract:In this paper, RSA encryption algorithm and its hardware implementation in Xilinx-s Virtex Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) is analyzed. The issues of scalability, flexible performance, and silicon efficiency for the hardware acceleration of public key crypto systems are being explored in the present work. Using techniques based on the interleaved math for exponentiation, the proposed RSA calculation architecture is compared to existing FPGA-based solutions for speed, FPGA utilization, and scalability. The paper covers the RSA encryption algorithm, interleaved multiplication, Miller Rabin algorithm for primality test, extended Euclidean math, basic FPGA technology, and the implementation details of the proposed RSA calculation architecture. Performance of several alternative hardware architectures is discussed and compared. Finally, conclusion is drawn, highlighting the advantages of a fully flexible & parameterized design.
Keywords: Crypto Accelerator, FPGA, Public Key Cryptography, RSA.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2644
53 A Study on Removal Characteristics of (Mn2+) from Aqueous Solution by CNT
Authors: Nassereldeen A. Kabashi, Suleyman A. Muyibi. Mohammed E. Saeed., Farhana I. Yahya
Abstract:It is important to remove manganese from water because of its effects on human and the environment. Human activities are one of the biggest contributors for excessive manganese concentration in the environment. The proposed method to remove manganese in aqueous solution by using adsorption as in carbon nanotubes (CNT) at different parameters: The parameters are CNT dosage, pH, agitation speed and contact time. Different pHs are pH 6.0, pH 6.5, pH 7.0, pH 7.5 and pH 8.0, CNT dosages are 5mg, 6.25mg, 7.5mg, 8.75mg or 10mg, contact time are 10 min, 32.5 min, 55 min, 87.5 min and 120 min while the agitation speeds are 100rpm, 150rpm, 200rpm, 250rpm and 300rpm. The parameters chosen for experiments are based on experimental design done by using Central Composite Design, Design Expert 6.0 with 4 parameters, 5 levels and 2 replications. Based on the results, condition set at pH 7.0, agitation speed of 300 rpm, 7.5mg and contact time 55 minutes gives the highest removal with 75.5%. From ANOVA analysis in Design Expert 6.0, the residual concentration will be very much affected by pH and CNT dosage. Initial manganese concentration is 1.2mg/L while the lowest residual concentration achieved is 0.294mg/L, which almost satisfy DOE Malaysia Standard B requirement. Therefore, further experiments must be done to remove manganese from model water to the required standard (0.2 mg/L) with the initial concentration set to 0.294 mg/L.
Keywords: Adsorption, CNT, DOE, Manganese, Parameters.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1378
52 Smith Predictor Design by CDM for Temperature Control System
Authors: Roengruen P., Tipsuwanporn V., Puawade P., Numsomran A.
Smith Predictor control is theoretically a good solution to the problem of controlling the time delay systems. However, it seldom gets use because it is almost impossible to find out a precise mathematical model of the practical system and very sensitive to uncertain system with variable time-delay. In this paper is concerned with a design method of smith predictor for temperature control system by Coefficient Diagram Method (CDM). The simulation results show that the control system with smith predictor design by CDM is stable and robust whilst giving the desired time domain system performance.
Keywords: CDM, Smith Predictor, temperature processProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2282
51 Inheritance Growth: a Biology Inspired Method to Build Structures in P2P
Authors: Panchalee Sukjit, Herwig Unger
Abstract:IT infrastructures are becoming more and more difficult. Therefore, in the first industrial IT systems, the P2P paradigm has replaced the traditional client server and methods of self-organization are gaining more and more importance. From the past it is known that especially regular structures like grids may significantly improve the system behavior and performance. This contribution introduces a new algorithm based on a biologic analogue, which may provide the growth of several regular structures on top of anarchic grown P2P- or social network structures.
Keywords: P2P, Pattern generation, Grid, Social network, Inheritance, ReproductionProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1324
50 Nonlinear Seismic Dynamic Response of Continuous Curved Highway Viaducts with Different Bearing Supports
Authors: Rinna Tanaka, Carlos Mendez Galindo, Toshiro Hayashikawa
The results show that the bridge equipped with seismic isolation bearing system shows a high amount of energy dissipation. The purpose of the present study is to analyze the overall performance of continuous curved highway viaducts with different bearing supports, with an emphasis on the effectiveness of seismic isolation based on lead rubber bearing and hedge reaction force bearing system consisted of friction sliding bearing and rubber bearing. The bridge seismic performance has been evaluated on six different cases with six bearing models. The effects of the different arrangement of bearing on the deck superstructure displacements, the seismic damage at the bottom of the piers, movement track at the pier-s top and the total and strain energies absorbed by the structure are evaluated. In conclusion, the results provide sufficient evidence of the effectiveness on the use of seismic isolation on steel curved highway bridges.
Keywords: Curved highway viaducts, non-linear dynamic response, seismic damage.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1535
49 Ratio Type Estimators of the Population Mean Based on Ranked Set Sampling
Authors: Said Ali Al-Hadhrami
Ranked set sampling (RSS) was first suggested to increase the efficiency of the population mean. It has been shown that this method is highly beneficial to the estimation based on simple random sampling (SRS). There has been considerable development and many modifications were done on this method. When a concomitant variable is available, ratio estimation based on ranked set sampling was proposed. This ratio estimator is more efficient than that based on SRS. In this paper some ratio type estimators of the population mean based on RSS are suggested. These estimators are found to be more efficient than the estimators of similar form using simple random sample.
Keywords: Bias, Efficiency, Ranked Set Sampling, Ratio Type EstimatorProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1247
48 Challenges on Adopting Scrum for Distributed Teams in Home Office Environments
Authors: Marlon Luz, Daniel Gazineu, Mauro Teófilo
Abstract:This paper describes the two actual tendencies in the software development process usage: 'Scrum' and 'work in home office'. It-s exposed the four main challenges to adopt Scrum framework for distributed teams in this cited kind of work. The challenges are mainly based on the communication problems due distances since the Scrum encourages the team to work together in the same room, and this is not possible when people work distributed in their homes.
Keywords: Agile, Scrum, Distributed Work, Home Office.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2300
47 Efficient Supplies to Assembly Areas from Storage Stages
Authors: Matthias Schmidt, Steffen C. Eickemeyer, Prof. Peter Nyhuis
Abstract:Guaranteeing the availability of the required parts at the scheduled time represents a key logistical challenge. This is especially important when several parts are required together. This article describes a tool that supports the positioning in the area of conflict between low stock costs and a high service level for a consumer.
Keywords: Systems Modeling, Manufacturing Systems, Simulation & Control, logistics and supply chain managementProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1537
46 Optimization Parameters of Rotary Positioner Controller using CDM
Authors: Meemongkol A., Tipsuwanporn V., Numsomran A.
Abstract:The authors present optimization parameters of rotary positioner controller in hard disk drive servo track writing process using coefficient diagram method; CDM. Due to estimation parameters in PI Positioning Control System by expected ratio method cannot meet the required specification of response effectively, we suggest coefficient diagram method for defining controller parameters under the requirement of the system. Finally, the simulation results show that our proposed method can improve the problem in tuning parameter of rotary positioner controller. It is satisfied specification of performance of control system. Furthermore, it is very convenient as a fast adjustment damping ratio as well as a high speed response.
Keywords: Optimization Parameters, Rotary Positioner, CDMProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1438
45 Adaptive Kernel Principal Analysis for Online Feature Extraction
Authors: Mingtao Ding, Zheng Tian, Haixia Xu
The batch nature limits the standard kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) methods in numerous applications, especially for dynamic or large-scale data. In this paper, an efficient adaptive approach is presented for online extraction of the kernel principal components (KPC). The contribution of this paper may be divided into two parts. First, kernel covariance matrix is correctly updated to adapt to the changing characteristics of data. Second, KPC are recursively formulated to overcome the batch nature of standard KPCA.This formulation is derived from the recursive eigen-decomposition of kernel covariance matrix and indicates the KPC variation caused by the new data. The proposed method not only alleviates sub-optimality of the KPCA method for non-stationary data, but also maintains constant update speed and memory usage as the data-size increases. Experiments for simulation data and real applications demonstrate that our approach yields improvements in terms of both computational speed and approximation accuracy.
Keywords: adaptive method, kernel principal component analysis, online extraction, recursive algorithmProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1421
44 Intelligent Design of Reconfigurable Machines
Authors: Majid Tolouei-Rad
Abstract:This paper presents methodologies for developing an intelligent CAD system assisting in analysis and design of reconfigurable special machines. It describes a procedure for determining feasibility of utilizing these machines for a given part and presents a model for developing an intelligent CAD system. The system analyzes geometrical and topological information of the given part to determine possibility of the part being produced by reconfigurable special machines from a technical point of view. Also feasibility of the process from a economical point of view is analyzed. Then the system determines proper positioning of the part considering details of machining features and operations needed. This involves determination of operation types, cutting tools and the number of working stations needed. Upon completion of this stage the overall layout of the machine and machining equipment required are determined.
Keywords: CAD, Knowledge based system, ReconfigurableProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1331
43 Expression of Leucaena Leucocephala de Wit Chitinase in Transgenic Koshihikari Rice
Authors: M. Kaomek, J. R. Ketudat-Cairns
Abstract:The cDNA encoding the 326 amino acids of a Class I basic chitinase gene from Leucaena leucocephala de Wit (KB3, Genbank accession: AAM49597) was cloned under the control of CaMV35S promoter in pCAMBIA 1300 and transferred to Koshihikari. Calli of Koshihikari rice was transformed with agrobacterium with this construct expressing the chitinase and β- glucouronidase (GUS). The frequencies of calli 90 % has been obtained from rice seedlings cultured on NB medium. The high regeneration frequencies, 74% was obtained from calli cultured on regeneration medium containing 4 mg/l BAP, and 7 g/l phytagel at 25°C. Various factors were studied in order to establish a procedure for the transformation of Koshihikari Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Supplementation of 50 mM acetosyringone to the medium during coculivation was important to enhance the frequency to transient transformation. The 4 week-old scutellum-derived calli were excellent starting materials. Selection medium based on NB medium supplement with 40 mg/l hygromycin and 400 mg/l cefotaxime were an optimized medium for selection of transformed rice calli. The percentage of transformation 70 was obtained. Recombinant calli and regenerated rice plants were checked the expression of chitinase and gus by PCR, northern blot gel, southern blot gel, and gus assay. Chitinase and gus were expressed in all parts of recombinant rice. The rice line expressing the KB3 chiitnase was more resistant to the blast fungus Fusarium monoliforme than control line.
Keywords: chitinase, Leucaena leucocephala de Wit, Koshihikari, transgenic rice.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1471
42 Multifunctional Barcode Inventory System for Retailing. Are You Ready for It?
Authors: Ling Shi Cai, Leau Yu Beng, Charlie Albert Lasuin, Tan Soo Fun, Chin Pei Yee
This paper explains the development of Multifunctional Barcode Inventory Management System (MBIMS) to manage inventory and stock ordering. Today, most of the retailing market is still manually record their stocks and its effectiveness is quite low. By providing MBIMS, it will bring effectiveness to retailing market in inventory management. MBIMS will not only save time in recording input, output and refilling the inventory stock, but also in calculating remaining stock and provide auto-ordering function. This system is developed through System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) and the flow and structure of the system is fully built based on requirements of a retailing market. Furthermore, this system has been developed from methodical research and study where each part of the system is vigilantly designed. Thus, MBIMS will offer a good solution to the retailing market in achieving effectiveness and efficiency in inventory management.
Keywords: Inventory, Retailing Market, Barcode, Automated Alerting and OrderingProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1970
41 Dynamic Interaction Network to Model the Interactive Patterns of International Stock Markets
Authors: Laura Lukmanto, Harya Widiputra, Lukas
Studies in economics domain tried to reveal the correlation between stock markets. Since the globalization era, interdependence between stock markets becomes more obvious. The Dynamic Interaction Network (DIN) algorithm, which was inspired by a Gene Regulatory Network (GRN) extraction method in the bioinformatics field, is applied to reveal important and complex dynamic relationship between stock markets. We use the data of the stock market indices from eight countries around the world in this study. Our results conclude that DIN is able to reveal and model patterns of dynamic interaction from the observed variables (i.e. stock market indices). Furthermore, it is also found that the extracted network models can be utilized to predict movement of the stock market indices with a considerably good accuracy.
Keywords: complex dynamic relationship, dynamic interaction network, interactive stock markets, stock market interdependence.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1280
40 A Heuristic Algorithm Approach for Scheduling of Multi-criteria Unrelated Parallel Machines
Authors: Farhad Kolahan, Vahid Kayvanfar
In this paper we address a multi-objective scheduling problem for unrelated parallel machines. In unrelated parallel systems, the processing cost/time of a given job on different machines may vary. The objective of scheduling is to simultaneously determine the job-machine assignment and job sequencing on each machine. In such a way the total cost of the schedule is minimized. The cost function consists of three components, namely; machining cost, earliness/tardiness penalties and makespan related cost. Such scheduling problem is combinatorial in nature. Therefore, a Simulated Annealing approach is employed to provide good solutions within reasonable computational times. Computational results show that the proposed approach can efficiently solve such complicated problems.
Keywords: Makespan, Parallel machines, Scheduling, Simulated AnnealingProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1503
39 A Dynamic Model of Air Pollution, Health,and Population Growth Using System Dynamics: A Study on Tehran-Iran (With Computer Simulation by the Software Vensim)
Authors: Keyvan Shahgholian, Hamid Hajihosseini
The significance of environmental protection is wellknown in today's world. The execution of any program depends on sufficient knowledge and required familiarity with environment and its pollutants. Taking advantage of a systematic method, as a new science, in environmental planning can solve many problems. In this article, air pollution in Tehran and its relationship with health and population growth have been analyzed using dynamic systems. Firstly, by using casual loops, the relationship between the parameters effective on air pollution in Tehran were taken into consideration, then these casual loops were turned into flow diagrams , and finally, they were simulated using the software Vensim in order to conclude what the effect of each parameter will be on air pollution in Tehran in the next 10 years, how changing of one or more parameters influences other parameters, and which parameter among all other parameters requires to be controlled more.
Keywords: Air pollutions, Simulation, System Dynamics, Tehran, Vensim.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4104
38 Design of Nonlinear Observer by Using Augmented Linear System based on Formal Linearization of Polynomial Type
Authors: Kazuo Komatsu, Hitoshi Takata
The objective of this study is to propose an observer design for nonlinear systems by using an augmented linear system derived by application of a formal linearization method. A given nonlinear differential equation is linearized by the formal linearization method which is based on Taylor expansion considering up to the higher order terms, and a measurement equation is transformed into an augmented linear one. To this augmented dimensional linear system, a linear estimation theory is applied and a nonlinear observer is derived. As an application of this method, an estimation problem of transient state of electric power systems is studied, and its numerical experiments indicate that this observer design shows remarkable performances for nonlinear systems.
Keywords: nonlinear system, augmented linear system, nonlinear observer, formal linearization, electric power system.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1472
37 Extracting Human Body based on Background Estimation in Modified HLS Color Space
Authors: Jang-Hee Yoo, Doosung Hwang, Jong-Wook Han, Ki-Young Moon
The ability to recognize humans and their activities by computer vision is a very important task, with many potential application. Study of human motion analysis is related to several research areas of computer vision such as the motion capture, detection, tracking and segmentation of people. In this paper, we describe a segmentation method for extracting human body contour in modified HLS color space. To estimate a background, the modified HLS color space is proposed, and the background features are estimated by using the HLS color components. Here, the large amount of human dataset, which was collected from DV cameras, is pre-processed. The human body and its contour is successfully extracted from the image sequences.
Keywords: Background Subtraction, Human Silhouette Extraction, HLS Color Space, and Object SegmentationProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2323
36 Stable Robust Adaptive Controller and Observer Design for a Class of SISO Nonlinear Systems with Unknown Dead Zone
Authors: Ibrahim F. Jasim
This paper presents a new stable robust adaptive controller and observer design for a class of nonlinear systems that contain i. Coupling of unmeasured states and unknown parameters ii. Unknown dead zone at the system actuator. The system is firstly cast into a modified form in which the observer and parameter estimation become feasible. Then a stable robust adaptive controller, state observer, parameter update laws are derived that would provide global adaptive system stability and desirable performance. To validate the approach, simulation was performed to a single-link mechanical system with a dynamic friction model and unknown dead zone exists at the system actuation. Then a comparison is presented with the results when there is no dead zone at the system actuation.
Keywords: Dead Zone, Nonlinear Systems, Observer, Robust Adaptive Control.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1549
35 Security Analysis on the Online Office and Proposal of the Evaluation Criteria
Authors: Hyunsang Park, Kwangwoo Lee, Yunho Lee, Seungjoo Kim, Dongho Won
Abstract:The online office is one of web application. We can easily use the online office through a web browser with internet connected PC. The online office has the advantage of using environment regardless of location or time. When users want to use the online office, they access the online office server and use their content. However, recently developed and launched online office has the weakness of insufficient consideration. In this paper, we analyze the security vulnerabilities of the online office. In addition, we propose the evaluation criteria to make secure online office using Common Criteria. This evaluation criteria can be used to establish trust between the online office server and the user. The online office market will be more active than before.
Keywords: Online Office, Vulnerabilities, CommonCriteria(CC)Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1302
34 Cryptanalysis of Two-Factor Authenticated Key Exchange Protocol in Public Wireless LANs
Authors: Hyunseung Lee, Donghyun Choi, Yunho Lee, Dongho Won, Seungjoo Kim
Abstract:In Public Wireless LANs(PWLANs), user anonymity is an essential issue. Recently, Juang et al. proposed an anonymous authentication and key exchange protocol using smart cards in PWLANs. They claimed that their proposed scheme provided identity privacy, mutual authentication, and half-forward secrecy. In this paper, we point out that Juang et al.'s protocol is vulnerable to the stolen-verifier attack and does not satisfy user anonymity.
Keywords: PWLANs, user privacy, smart card, authentication, key exchangeProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1279
33 Security Weaknesses of Dynamic ID-based Remote User Authentication Protocol
Authors: Hyoungseob Lee, Donghyun Choi, Yunho Lee, Dongho Won, Seungjoo Kim
Abstract:Recently, with the appearance of smart cards, many user authentication protocols using smart card have been proposed to mitigate the vulnerabilities in user authentication process. In 2004, Das et al. proposed a ID-based user authentication protocol that is secure against ID-theft and replay attack using smart card. In 2009, Wang et al. showed that Das et al.-s protocol is not secure to randomly chosen password attack and impersonation attack, and proposed an improved protocol. Their protocol provided mutual authentication and efficient password management. In this paper, we analyze the security weaknesses and point out the vulnerabilities of Wang et al.-s protocol.
Keywords: Message Alteration Attack, Impersonation AttackProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1655
32 Characteristics of Cascade and C3MR Cycle on Natural Gas Liquefaction Process
Authors: Jung-in Yoon, Ho-saeng Lee, Seung-taek Oh, Sang-gyu Lee, Keun-hyung Choi
In this paper, several different types of natural gas liquefaction cycle. First, two processes are a cascade process with two staged compression were designed and simulated. These include Inter-cooler which is consisted to Propane, Ethylene and Methane cycle, and also, liquid-gas heat exchanger is applied to between of methane and ethylene cycles (process2) and between of ethylene and propane (process2). Also, these cycles are compared with two staged cascade process using only a Inter-cooler (process1). The COP of process2 and process3 showed about 13.99% and 6.95% higher than process1, respectively. Also, the yield efficiency of LNG improved comparing with process1 by 13.99% lower specific power. Additionally, C3MR process are simulated and compared with Process 2.
Keywords: Cascade, C3MR, LNG, Inter-coolerProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 7790
31 UB-Tree Indexing for Semantic Query Optimization of Range Queries
Authors: S. Housseno, A. Simonet, M. Simonet
Abstract:Semantic query optimization consists in restricting the search space in order to reduce the set of objects of interest for a query. This paper presents an indexing method based on UB-trees and a static analysis of the constraints associated to the views of the database and to any constraint expressed on attributes. The result of the static analysis is a partitioning of the object space into disjoint blocks. Through Space Filling Curve (SFC) techniques, each fragment (block) of the partition is assigned a unique identifier, enabling the efficient indexing of fragments by UB-trees. The search space corresponding to a range query is restricted to a subset of the blocks of the partition. This approach has been developed in the context of a KB-DBMS but it can be applied to any relational system.
Keywords: Index, Range query, UB-tree, Space Filling Curve, Query optimization, Views, Database, Integrity Constraint, Classification.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1369
30 An Improved Greedy Routing Algorithm for Grid using Pheromone-Based Landmarks
Authors: Lada-On Lertsuwanakul, Herwig Unger
This paper objects to extend Jon Kleinberg-s research. He introduced the structure of small-world in a grid and shows with a greedy algorithm using only local information able to find route between source and target in delivery time O(log2n). His fundamental model for distributed system uses a two-dimensional grid with longrange random links added between any two node u and v with a probability proportional to distance d(u,v)-2. We propose with an additional information of the long link nearby, we can find the shorter path. We apply the ant colony system as a messenger distributed their pheromone, the long-link details, in surrounding area. The subsequence forwarding decision has more option to move to, select among local neighbors or send to node has long link closer to its target. Our experiment results sustain our approach, the average routing time by Color Pheromone faster than greedy method.
Keywords: Routing algorithm, Small-World network, Ant Colony Optimization, and Peer-to-peer System.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1758
29 Visualisation and Navigation in Large Scale P2P Service Networks
Authors: H. Unger, H. Coltzau
In Peer-to-Peer service networks, where peers offer any kind of publicly available services or applications, intuitive navigation through all services in the network becomes more difficult as the number of services increases. In this article, a concept is discussed that enables users to intuitively browse and use large scale P2P service networks. The concept extends the idea of creating virtual 3D-environments solely based on Peer-to-Peer technologies. Aside from browsing, users shall have the possibility to emphasize services of interest using their own semantic criteria. The appearance of the virtual world shall intuitively reflect network properties that may be of interest for the user. Additionally, the concept comprises options for load- and traffic-balancing. In this article, the requirements concerning the underlying infrastructure and the graphical user interface are defined. First impressions of the appearance of future systems are presented and the next steps towards a prototypical implementation are discussed.
Keywords: Internet Operating System, Peer-To-Peer, Service ExplorationProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1184
28 Design and Trajectory Planning of Bipedal Walking Robot with Minimum Sufficient Actuation System
Authors: H. Siswoyo Jo, N. Mir-Nasiri, E. Jayamani
This paper presents a new type of mechanism and trajectory planning strategy for bipedal walking robot. The newly designed mechanism is able to improve the performance of bipedal walking robot in terms of energy efficiency and weight reduction by utilizing minimum number of actuators. The usage of parallelogram mechanism eliminates the needs of having an extra actuator at the knee joint. This mechanism works together with the joint space trajectory planning in order to realize straight legged walking which cannot be achieved by conventional inverse kinematics trajectory planning due to the singularity. The effectiveness of the proposed strategy is confirmed by computer simulation results.
Keywords: Bipedal robot, Energy efficiency, Straight legged walking, Trajectory planning.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1759
27 Design and Development of Pico-hydro Generation System for Energy Storage Using Consuming Water Distributed to Houses
Authors: H. Zainuddin, M. S. Yahaya, J. M. Lazi, M. F. M. Basar, Z. Ibrahim
This paper describes the design and development of pico-hydro generation system using consuming water distributed to houses. Water flow in the domestic pipes has kinetic energy that potential to generate electricity for energy storage purposes in addition to the routine activities such as laundry, cook and bathe. The inherent water pressure and flow inside the pipe from utility-s main tank that used for those usual activities is also used to rotate small scale hydro turbine to drive a generator for electrical power generation. Hence, this project is conducted to develop a small scale hydro generation system using consuming water distributed to houses as an alternative electrical energy source for residential use.
Keywords: Alternative Energy, Energy storage, Permanent Magnet DC Generator, Pico-Hydro Generation System.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 8226
26 Phase Equilibrium in Aqueous Two-phase Systems Containing Poly (propylene glycol) and Sodium Citrate at Different pH
Authors: Farshad Rahimpour, Ali Reza Baharvand
Abstract:The phase diagrams and compositions of coexisting phases have been determined for aqueous two-phase systems containing poly(propylene glycol) with average molecular weight of 425 and sodium citrate at various pH of 3.93, 4.44, 4.6, 4.97, 5.1, 8.22. The effect of pH on the salting-out effect of poly (propylene glycol) by sodium citrate has been studied. It was found that, an increasing in pH caused the expansion of two-phase region. Increasing pH also increases the concentration of PPG in the PPGrich phase, while the salt-rich phase will be somewhat mole diluted.
Keywords: Aqueous two-phase system, Phase equilibrium, Biomolecules purificationProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2537
25 Analysis of Dynamic Loads Induced by Spectator Movements in Stadium
Authors: Gee-Cheol Kim, Sang-Hoon Lee, Joo-Won Kang
Abstract:In the stadium structure, the significant dynamic responses such as resonance or similar behavior can be occurred by spectator rhythmical activities. Thus, accurate analysis and precise investigation of stadium structure that is subjected to dynamic loads are required for practical design and serviceability check of stadium structures. Moreover, it is desirable to measure and analyze the dynamic loads of spectator activities because these dynamic loads can not be easily expressed in numerical formula. In this study, various dynamic loads induced by spectator movements are measured and analyzed. These dynamic loads induced by spectators movement of stadium structure can be classified into the impact load and the periodic load. These dynamic loads can be expressed as Fourier harmonic load. And, these dynamic loads could be applied for the accurate vibration analysis of a stadium structure.
Keywords: stadium structure, spectator rhythmical activities, vibration analysis.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2665
24 A Statistical Approach for Predicting and Optimizing Depth of Cut in AWJ Machining for 6063-T6 Al Alloy
Authors: Farhad Kolahan, A. Hamid Khajavi
In this paper, a set of experimental data has been used to assess the influence of abrasive water jet (AWJ) process parameters in cutting 6063-T6 aluminum alloy. The process variables considered here include nozzle diameter, jet traverse rate, jet pressure and abrasive flow rate. The effects of these input parameters are studied on depth of cut (h); one of most important characteristics of AWJ. The Taguchi method and regression modeling are used in order to establish the relationships between input and output parameters. The adequacy of the model is evaluated using analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique. In the next stage, the proposed model is embedded into a Simulated Annealing (SA) algorithm to optimize the AWJ process parameters. The objective is to determine a suitable set of process parameters that can produce a desired depth of cut, considering the ranges of the process parameters. Computational results prove the effectiveness of the proposed model and optimization procedure.
Keywords: AWJ machining, Mathematical modeling, Simulated Annealing, OptimizationProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1650
23 A New Approach for Predicting and Optimizing Weld Bead Geometry in GMAW
Authors: Farhad Kolahan, Mehdi Heidari
Abstract:Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) processes is an important joining process widely used in metal fabrication industries. This paper addresses modeling and optimization of this technique using a set of experimental data and regression analysis. The set of experimental data has been used to assess the influence of GMAW process parameters in weld bead geometry. The process variables considered here include voltage (V); wire feed rate (F); torch Angle (A); welding speed (S) and nozzle-to-plate distance (D). The process output characteristics include weld bead height, width and penetration. The Taguchi method and regression modeling are used in order to establish the relationships between input and output parameters. The adequacy of the model is evaluated using analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique. In the next stage, the proposed model is embedded into a Simulated Annealing (SA) algorithm to optimize the GMAW process parameters. The objective is to determine a suitable set of process parameters that can produce desired bead geometry, considering the ranges of the process parameters. Computational results prove the effectiveness of the proposed model and optimization procedure.
Keywords: Weld Bead Geometry, GMAW welding, Processparameters Optimization, Modeling, SA algorithmProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2088
22 Solution of Two Dimensional Quasi-Harmonic Equations with CA Approach
Authors: F. Rezaie Moghaddam, J. Amani, T. Rezaie Moghaddam
Abstract:Many computational techniques were applied to solution of heat conduction problem. Those techniques were the finite difference (FD), finite element (FE) and recently meshless methods. FE is commonly used in solution of equation of heat conduction problem based on the summation of stiffness matrix of elements and the solution of the final system of equations. Because of summation process of finite element, convergence rate was decreased. Hence in the present paper Cellular Automata (CA) approach is presented for the solution of heat conduction problem. Each cell considered as a fixed point in a regular grid lead to the solution of a system of equations is substituted by discrete systems of equations with small dimensions. Results show that CA can be used for solution of heat conduction problem.
Keywords: Heat conduction, Cellular automata, convergencerate, discrete system.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1664
21 Rural Connectivity Technologies Cost Analysis
Authors: F. Simba, L. Trojer, N.H. Mvungi, B.M. Mwinyiwiwa, E.M. Mjema
Rural areas of Tanzania are still disadvantaged in terms of diffusion of IP-based services; this is due to lack of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) infrastructures, especially lack of connectivity. One of the limitations for connectivity problems in rural areas of Tanzania is the high cost to establish infrastructures for IP-based services [1-2]. However the cost of connectivity varies from one technology to the other and at the same time, the cost is also different from one operator (service provider) to another within the country. This paper presents development of software system to calculate cost of connectivity to rural areas of Tanzania. The system is developed to make an easy access of connectivity cost from different technologies and different operators. The development of the calculator follows the V-model software development lifecycle. The calculator is used to evaluate the economic viability of different technologies considered as being potential candidates to provide rural connectivity. In this paper, the evaluation is based on the techno-economic analysis approach.
Keywords: rural, connectivity, cost, V-model, techno economic analysis.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1777
20 Conceptual Investigation of Short-Columns and Masonary Infill Frames Effect in the Earthquakes
Authors: Ebrahim Khalilzadeh Vahidi, Maryam Mokhtari Malekabadi
Abstract:This paper highlights the importance of the selection of the building-s wall material,and the shortcomings of the most commonly used framed structures with masonry infills .The objective of this study is investigating the behavior of infill walls as structural components in existing structures.Structural infill walls are very important in structural behavior under earthquake effects. Structural capacity under the effect of earthquake,displacement and relative story displacement are affected by the structural irregularities .The presence of nonstructural masonry infill walls can modify extensively the global seismic behavior of framed buildings .The stability and integrity of reinforced concrete frames are enhanced by masonry infill walls. Masonry infill walls alter displacement and base shear of the frame as well. Short columns have great importance during earthquakes,because their failure may lead to additional structural failures and result in total building collapse. Consequently the effects of short columns are considered in this study.
Keywords: Short columns , Infill masonary wall , Buildings , Earthquake.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3348
19 A Stereo Vision System for Top View Book Scanners
Authors: Erik Lilienblum, Robert Niese, Bernd Michaelis
Abstract:This paper proposes a novel stereo vision technique for top view book scanners which provide us with dense 3d point clouds of page surfaces. This is a precondition to dewarp bound volumes independent of 2d information on the page. Our method is based on algorithms, which normally require the projection of pattern sequences with structured light. We use image sequences of the moving stripe lighting of the top view scanner instead of an additional light projection. Thus the stereo vision setup is simplified without losing measurement accuracy. Furthermore we improve a surface model dewarping method through introducing a difference vector based on real measurements. Although our proposed method is hardly expensive neither in calculation time nor in hardware requirements we present good dewarping results even for difficult examples.
Keywords: stereo vision, 3d surface reconstruction, dewarpingdocuments, book scannerProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1487
18 Fuzzy Fingerprint Vault using Multiple Polynomials
Authors: Daesung Moon, Woo-Yong Choi, Kiyoung Moon
Fuzzy fingerprint vault is a recently developed cryptographic construct based on the polynomial reconstruction problem to secure critical data with the fingerprint data. However, the previous researches are not applicable to the fingerprint having a few minutiae since they use a fixed degree of the polynomial without considering the number of fingerprint minutiae. To solve this problem, we use an adaptive degree of the polynomial considering the number of minutiae extracted from each user. Also, we apply multiple polynomials to avoid the possible degradation of the security of a simple solution(i.e., using a low-degree polynomial). Based on the experimental results, our method can make the possible attack difficult 2192 times more than using a low-degree polynomial as well as verify the users having a few minutiae.
Keywords: Fuzzy vault, fingerprint recognition multiple polynomials.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1441
17 Examination of Flood Runoff Reproductivity for Different Rainfall Sources in Central Vietnam
Authors: Do Hoai Nam, Keiko Udo, Akira Mano
This paper presents the combination of different precipitation data sets and the distributed hydrological model, in order to examine the flood runoff reproductivity of scattered observation catchments. The precipitation data sets were obtained from observation using rain-gages, satellite based estimate (TRMM), and numerical weather prediction model (NWP), then were coupled with the super tank model. The case study was conducted in three basins (small, medium, and large size) located in Central Vietnam. Calculated hydrographs based on ground observation rainfall showed best fit to measured stream flow, while those obtained from TRMM and NWP showed high uncertainty of peak discharges. However, calculated hydrographs using the adjusted rainfield depicted a promising alternative for the application of TRMM and NWP in flood modeling for scattered observation catchments, especially for the extension of forecast lead time.
Keywords: Flood forecast, rainfall-runoff model, satellite rainfall estimate, numerical weather prediction, quantitative precipitation forecasting.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1512
16 The Impact of Selected Economic Indicators for the Development of Zlin Region in the Czech Republic
Authors: D. Charvatova, Z. Charvat
This article considers with the influence of selected economic indicators for the development of the Zlin region. Development of the region is mainly influenced by business entities which are located in the region, as well as investors who contribute to the development of regions. For the development of the region it is necessary for skilled workers remain in the region and not to leave these skilled workers. The above-mentioned and other factors are affecting the development of each region.
Keywords: Macroeconomic indicators, population, the overallincrease in population, location and area, territory, Zlin Region.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1069
15 Recovery of Copper and DCA from Simulated Micellar Enhanced Ultrafiltration (MEUF)Waste Stream
Authors: Chuan-Kun Liu, Chi-Wang Li
Abstract:Simultaneous recovery of copper and DCA from simulated MEUF concentrated stream was investigated. Effects of surfactant (DCA) and metal (copper) concentrations, surfactant to metal molar ratio (S/M ratio), electroplating voltage, EDTA concentration, solution pH, and salt concentration on metal recovery and current efficiency were studied. Electric voltage of -0.5 V was shown to be optimum operation condition in terms of Cu recovery, current efficiency, and surfactant recovery. Increasing Cu recovery and current efficiency were observed with increases of Cu concentration while keeping concentration of DCA constant. However, increasing both Cu and DCA concentration while keeping S/M ratio constant at 2.5 showed detrimental effect on Cu recovery at DCA concentration higher than 15 mM. Cu recovery decreases with increasing pH while current efficiency showed an opposite trend. It is believed that conductivity is the main cause for discrepancy of Cu recovery and current efficiency observed at different pH. Finally, it was shown that EDTA had adverse effect on both Cu recovery and current efficiency while addition of NaCl salt had negative impact on current efficiency at concentration higher than 8000 mg/L.
Keywords: metal recovery, MEUF waste, surfactant, electroplating.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1473
14 The Mechanistic and Oxidative Study of Methomyl and Parathion Degradation by Fenton Process
Authors: Chihhao Fan, Ming-Chu Liao
Abstract:The purpose of this study is to investigate the chemical degradation of the organophosphorus pesticide of parathion and carbamate insecticide of methomyl in the aqueous phase through Fenton process. With the employment of batch Fenton process, the degradation of the two selected pesticides at different pH, initial concentration, humic acid concentration, and Fenton reagent dosages was explored. The Fenton process was found effective to degrade parathion and methomyl. The optimal dosage of Fenton reagents (i.e., molar concentration ratio of H2O2 to Fe2+) at pH 7 for parathion degradation was equal to 3, which resulted in 50% removal of parathion. Similarly, the optimal dosage for methomyl degradation was 1, resulting in 80% removal of methomyl. This study also found that the presence of humic substances has enhanced pesticide degradation by Fenton process significantly. The mass spectroscopy results showed that the hydroxyl free radical may attack the single bonds with least energy of investigated pesticides to form smaller molecules which is more easily to degrade either through physio-chemical or bilolgical processes.
Keywords: Fenton Process, humic acid, methomyl, parathion, pesticidesProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1540
13 The Panpositionable Hamiltonicity of k-ary n-cubes
Authors: Chia-Jung Tsai, Shin-Shin Kao
Abstract:The hypercube Qn is one of the most well-known and popular interconnection networks and the k-ary n-cube Qk n is an enlarged family from Qn that keeps many pleasing properties from hypercubes. In this article, we study the panpositionable hamiltonicity of Qk n for k ≥ 3 and n ≥ 2. Let x, y of V (Qk n) be two arbitrary vertices and C be a hamiltonian cycle of Qk n. We use dC(x, y) to denote the distance between x and y on the hamiltonian cycle C. Define l as an integer satisfying d(x, y) ≤ l ≤ 1 2 |V (Qk n)|. We prove the followings: • When k = 3 and n ≥ 2, there exists a hamiltonian cycle C of Qk n such that dC(x, y) = l. • When k ≥ 5 is odd and n ≥ 2, we request that l /∈ S where S is a set of specific integers. Then there exists a hamiltonian cycle C of Qk n such that dC(x, y) = l. • When k ≥ 4 is even and n ≥ 2, we request l-d(x, y) to be even. Then there exists a hamiltonian cycle C of Qk n such that dC(x, y) = l. The result is optimal since the restrictions on l is due to the structure of Qk n by definition.
Keywords: Hamiltonian, panpositionable, bipanpositionable, k-ary n-cube.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1296
12 PID Controller Design for Following Control of Hard Disk Drive by Characteristic Ratio Assignment Method
Authors: Chaoraingern J., Trisuwannawat T., Numsomran A.
Abstract:The author present PID controller design for following control of hard disk drive by characteristic ratio assignment method. The study in this paper concerns design of a PID controller which sufficiently robust to the disturbances and plant perturbations on following control of hard disk drive. Characteristic Ratio Assignment (CRA) is shown to be an efficient control technique to serve this requirement. The controller design by CRA is based on the choice of the coefficients of the characteristic polynomial of the closed loop system according to the convenient performance criteria such as equivalent time constant and ration of characteristic coefficient. Hence, in this study, CRA method is applied in PID controller design for following control of hard disk drive. Matlab simulation results shown that CRA design is fairly stable and robust whilst giving the convenience in controller-s parameters adjustment.
Keywords: Following Control, Hard Disk Drive, PID, CRAProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1837
11 Design of PI Controller Using MRAC Techniques For Couple-Tanks Process
Authors: Boonsrimuang P., Numsomran A., Kangwanrat S.
Abstract:The typical coupled-tanks process that is TITO plant has the difficulty in controller design because changing of system dynamics and interacting of process. This paper presents design methodology of auto-adjustable PI controller using MRAC technique. The proposed method can adjust the controller parameters in response to changes in plant and disturbance real time by referring to the reference model that specifies properties of the desired control system.
Keywords: PI controller, MRAC, Couple-tanks processProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2536
10 Experimental Modal Analysis and Model Validation of Antenna Structures
Authors: B.R. Potgieter, G. Venter
Abstract:Numerical design optimization is a powerful tool that can be used by engineers during any stage of the design process. There are many different applications for structural optimization. A specific application that will be discussed in the following paper is experimental data matching. Data obtained through tests on a physical structure will be matched with data from a numerical model of that same structure. The data of interest will be the dynamic characteristics of an antenna structure focusing on the mode shapes and modal frequencies. The structure used was a scaled and simplified model of the Karoo Array Telescope-7 (KAT-7) antenna structure. This kind of data matching is a complex and difficult task. This paper discusses how optimization can assist an engineer during the process of correlating a finite element model with vibration test data.
Keywords: Finite Element Model (FEM), Karoo Array Telescope(KAT-7), modal frequencies, mode shapes, optimization, shape optimization, size optimization, vibration testsProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1729
9 Damage Evaluation of Curved Steel Bridges Upgraded with Isolation Bearings and Unseating Prevention Cable Restrainers
Authors: Carlos Mendez Galindo, Toshiro Hayashikawa, Javier Gil Belda
Abstract:This paper investigates the effectiveness of the use of seismic isolation devices on the overall 3D seismic response of curved highway viaducts with an emphasis on expansion joints. Furthermore, an evaluation of the effectiveness of the use of cable restrainers is presented. For this purpose, the bridge seismic performance has been evaluated on four different radii of curvature, considering two cases: restrained and unrestrained curved viaducts. Depending on the radius of curvature, three-dimensional non-linear dynamic analysis shows the vulnerability of curved viaducts to pounding and deck unseating damage. In this study, the efficiency of using LRB supports combined with cable restrainers on curved viaducts is demonstrated, not only by reducing in all cases the possible damage, but also by providing a similar behavior in the viaducts despite of curvature radius.
Keywords: Nonlinear dynamic response, seismic design, seismic isolation, unseating prevention system.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1711
8 Individual Configuration of Production Control to Suit Requirements
Authors: Ben Muenzberg, Prof. Peter Nyhuis
The logistical requirements placed on industrial manufacturing companies are steadily increasing. In order to meet those requirements, a consistent and efficient concept is necessary for production control. Set up properly, production control offers considerable potential with respect to achieving the logistical targets. As experience with the many production control methods already in existence and their compatibility is, however, often inadequate, this article describes a systematic approach to the configuration of production control based on the Lödding model. This model enables production control to be set up individually to suit a company and the requirements. It therefore permits today-s demands regarding logistical performance to be met.
Keywords: Production, planning, control, configuration.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1496
7 Health Monitoring of Power Transformers by Dissolved Gas Analysis using Regression Method and Study the Effect of Filtration on Oil
Authors: Anjali Chatterjee, Nirmal Kumar Roy
Economically transformers constitute one of the largest investments in a Power system. For this reason, transformer condition assessment and management is a high priority task. If a transformer fails, it would have a significant negative impact on revenue and service reliability. Monitoring the state of health of power transformers has traditionally been carried out using laboratory Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA) tests performed at periodic intervals on the oil sample, collected from the transformers. DGA of transformer oil is the single best indicator of a transformer-s overall condition and is a universal practice today, which started somewhere in the 1960s. Failure can occur in a transformer due to different reasons. Some failures can be limited or prevented by maintenance. Oil filtration is one of the methods to remove the dissolve gases and prevent the deterioration of the oil. In this paper we analysis the DGA data by regression method and predict the gas concentration in the oil in the future. We bring about a comparative study of different traditional methods of regression and the errors generated out of their predictions. With the help of these data we can deduce the health of the transformer by finding the type of fault if it has occurred or will occur in future. Additional in this paper effect of filtration on the transformer health is highlight by calculating the probability of failure of a transformer with and without oil filtrating.
Keywords: Power Transformers, Dissolve gas Analysis, Regression method, Filtration, oil.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2814
6 Deriving Causal Explanation from Qualitative Model Reasoning
Authors: Alicia Y. C. Tang, Sharifuddin M. Zain, Noorsaadah A. Rahman, Rukaini Abdullah
Abstract:This paper discusses a qualitative simulator QRiOM that uses Qualitative Reasoning (QR) technique, and a process-based ontology to model, simulate and explain the behaviour of selected organic reactions. Learning organic reactions requires the application of domain knowledge at intuitive level, which is difficult to be programmed using traditional approach. The main objective of QRiOM is to help learners gain a better understanding of the fundamental organic reaction concepts, and to improve their conceptual comprehension on the subject by analyzing the multiple forms of explanation generated by the software. This paper focuses on the generation of explanation based on causal theories to explicate various phenomena in the chemistry subject. QRiOM has been tested with three classes problems related to organic chemistry, with encouraging results. This paper also presents the results of preliminary evaluation of QRiOM that reveal its explanation capability and usefulness.
Keywords: Artificial intelligence, explanation, ontology, organicreactions, qualitative reasoning, QPT.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1553
5 A New Approach for Image Segmentation using Pillar-Kmeans Algorithm
Authors: Ali Ridho Barakbah, Yasushi Kiyoki
Abstract:This paper presents a new approach for image segmentation by applying Pillar-Kmeans algorithm. This segmentation process includes a new mechanism for clustering the elements of high-resolution images in order to improve precision and reduce computation time. The system applies K-means clustering to the image segmentation after optimized by Pillar Algorithm. The Pillar algorithm considers the pillars- placement which should be located as far as possible from each other to withstand against the pressure distribution of a roof, as identical to the number of centroids amongst the data distribution. This algorithm is able to optimize the K-means clustering for image segmentation in aspects of precision and computation time. It designates the initial centroids- positions by calculating the accumulated distance metric between each data point and all previous centroids, and then selects data points which have the maximum distance as new initial centroids. This algorithm distributes all initial centroids according to the maximum accumulated distance metric. This paper evaluates the proposed approach for image segmentation by comparing with K-means and Gaussian Mixture Model algorithm and involving RGB, HSV, HSL and CIELAB color spaces. The experimental results clarify the effectiveness of our approach to improve the segmentation quality in aspects of precision and computational time.
Keywords: Image segmentation, K-means clustering, Pillaralgorithm, color spaces.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3262
4 Sustainable Development in Construction
Authors: Ali Hemmati, Ali Kheyroddin
Abstract:Semnan is a city in semnan province, northern Iran with a population estimated at 119,778 inhabitants. It is the provincial capital of semnan province. Iran is a developing country and construction is a basic factor of developing too. Hence, Semnan city needs to a special programming for construction of buildings, structures and infrastructures. Semnan municipality tries to begin this program. In addition to, city has some historical monuments which can be interesting for tourists. Hence, Semnan inhabitants can benefit from tourist industry. Optimization of Energy in construction industry is another activity of this municipality and the inhabitants who execute these regulations receive some discounts. Many parts of Iran such as semnan are located in highly seismic zones and structures must be constructed safe e.g., according to recent seismic codes. In this paper opportunities of IT in construction industry of Iran are investigated in three categories. Pre-construction phase, construction phase and earthquake disaster mitigation are studied. Studies show that information technology can be used in these items for reducing the losses and increasing the benefits. Both government and private sectors must contribute to this strategic project for obtaining the best result.
Keywords: approval, building, construction, document, industry, IT, SemnanProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1419
3 Free-Form Query for Cell Phones
Authors: R. Ahmad, S. Abdul-Kareem
Abstract:It is a challenge to provide a wide range of queries to database query systems for small mobile devices, such as the PDAs and cell phones. Currently, due to the physical and resource limitations of these devices, most reported database querying systems developed for them are only offering a small set of pre-determined queries for users to possibly pose. The above can be resolved by allowing free-form queries to be entered on the devices. Hence, a query language that does not restrict the combination of query terms entered by users is proposed. This paper presents the free-form query language and the method used in translating free-form queries to their equivalent SQL statements.
Keywords: Cell phone, database query language, free-formqueries, unplanned queries.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1288
2 Force Analysis of an Automated Rapid Maxillary Expansion (ARME) Appliance
Authors: A.A.Sharizli, N.A.Abu Osman, A.A.Saifizul
Abstract:An Automated Rapid Maxillary Expander (ARME) is a specially designed microcontroller-based orthodontic appliance to overcome the shortcomings imposed by the traditional maxillary expansion appliances. This new device is operates by automatically widening the maxilla (upper jaw) by expanding the midpalatal suture . The ARME appliance that has been developed is a combination of modified butterfly expander appliance, micro gear, micro motor, and microcontroller to automatically produce light and continuous pressure to expand the maxilla. For this study, the functionality of the system is verified through laboratory tests by measure the forced applied to the teeth each time the maxilla expands. The laboratory test results show that the developed appliance meets the desired performance specifications consistently.
Keywords: Maxillary Expansion, Microcontroller, Automated, Orthodontist, Force Analysis.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1673
1 Closed Form Optimal Solution of a Tuned Liquid Column Damper Responding to Earthquake
Authors: A. Farshidianfar, P. Oliazadeh
In this paper the vibration behaviors of a structure equipped with a tuned liquid column damper (TLCD) under a harmonic type of earthquake loading are studied. However, due to inherent nonlinear liquid damping, it is no doubt that a great deal of computational effort is required to search the optimum parameters of the TLCD, numerically. Therefore by linearization the equation of motion of the single degree of freedom structure equipped with the TLCD, the closed form solutions of the TLCD-structure system are derived. To find the reliability of the analytical method, the results have been compared with other researcher and have good agreement. Further, the effects of optimal design parameters such as length ratio and mass ratio on the performance of the TLCD for controlling the responses of a structure are investigated by using the harmonic type of earthquake excitation. Finally, the Citicorp Center which has a very flexible structure is used as an example to illustrate the design procedure for the TLCD under the earthquake excitation.
Keywords: Closed form solution, Earthquake excitation, TLCD.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1917