Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 72

Search results for: MANET

72 Communication in a Heterogeneous Ad Hoc Network

Authors: C. Benjbara, A. Habbani

Abstract:

Wireless networks are getting more and more used in every new technology or feature, especially those without infrastructure (Ad hoc mode) which provide a low cost alternative to the infrastructure mode wireless networks and a great flexibility for application domains such as environmental monitoring, smart cities, precision agriculture, and so on. These application domains present a common characteristic which is the need of coexistence and intercommunication between modules belonging to different types of ad hoc networks like wireless sensor networks, mesh networks, mobile ad hoc networks, vehicular ad hoc networks, etc. This vision to bring to life such heterogeneous networks will make humanity duties easier but its development path is full of challenges. One of these challenges is the communication complexity between its components due to the lack of common or compatible protocols standard. This article proposes a new patented routing protocol based on the OLSR standard in order to resolve the heterogeneous ad hoc networks communication issue. This new protocol is applied on a specific network architecture composed of MANET, VANET, and FANET.

Keywords: Ad hoc, heterogeneous, ID-Node, OLSR.

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71 Blockchain Security in MANETs

Authors: Nada Mouchfiq, Ahmed Habbani, Chaimae Benjbara

Abstract:

The security aspect of the IoT occupies a place of great importance especially after the evolution that has known this field lastly because it must take into account the transformations and the new applications .Blockchain is a new technology dedicated to the data sharing. However, this does not work the same way in the different systems with different operating principles. This article will discuss network security using the Blockchain to facilitate the sending of messages and information, enabling the use of new processes and enabling autonomous coordination of devices. To do this, we will discuss proposed solutions to ensure a high level of security in these networks in the work of other researchers. Finally, our article will propose a method of security more adapted to our needs as a team working in the ad hoc networks, this method is based on the principle of the Blockchain and that we named ”MPR Blockchain”.

Keywords: Ad hoc networks, blockchain, MPR, security.

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70 Analysis of Network Performance Using Aspect of Quantum Cryptography

Authors: Nisarg A. Patel, Hiren B. Patel

Abstract:

Quantum cryptography is described as a point-to-point secure key generation technology that has emerged in recent times in providing absolute security. Researchers have started studying new innovative approaches to exploit the security of Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) for a large-scale communication system. A number of approaches and models for utilization of QKD for secure communication have been developed. The uncertainty principle in quantum mechanics created a new paradigm for QKD. One of the approaches for use of QKD involved network fashioned security. The main goal was point-to-point Quantum network that exploited QKD technology for end-to-end network security via high speed QKD. Other approaches and models equipped with QKD in network fashion are introduced in the literature as. A different approach that this paper deals with is using QKD in existing protocols, which are widely used on the Internet to enhance security with main objective of unconditional security. Our work is towards the analysis of the QKD in Mobile ad-hoc network (MANET).

Keywords: QKD, cryptography, quantum cryptography, network performance.

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69 A Distributed Mobile Agent Based on Intrusion Detection System for MANET

Authors: Maad Kamal Al-Anni

Abstract:

This study is about an algorithmic dependence of Artificial Neural Network on Multilayer Perceptron (MPL) pertaining to the classification and clustering presentations for Mobile Adhoc Network vulnerabilities. Moreover, mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is ubiquitous intelligent internetworking devices in which it has the ability to detect their environment using an autonomous system of mobile nodes that are connected via wireless links. Security affairs are the most important subject in MANET due to the easy penetrative scenarios occurred in such an auto configuration network. One of the powerful techniques used for inspecting the network packets is Intrusion Detection System (IDS); in this article, we are going to show the effectiveness of artificial neural networks used as a machine learning along with stochastic approach (information gain) to classify the malicious behaviors in simulated network with respect to different IDS techniques. The monitoring agent is responsible for detection inference engine, the audit data is collected from collecting agent by simulating the node attack and contrasted outputs with normal behaviors of the framework, whenever. In the event that there is any deviation from the ordinary behaviors then the monitoring agent is considered this event as an attack , in this article we are going to demonstrate the  signature-based IDS approach in a MANET by implementing the back propagation algorithm over ensemble-based Traffic Table (TT), thus the signature of malicious behaviors or undesirable activities are often significantly prognosticated and efficiently figured out, by increasing the parametric set-up of Back propagation algorithm during the experimental results which empirically shown its effectiveness  for the ratio of detection index up to 98.6 percentage. Consequently it is proved in empirical results in this article, the performance matrices are also being included in this article with Xgraph screen show by different through puts like Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR), Through Put(TP), and Average Delay(AD).

Keywords: Mobile ad hoc network, MANET, intrusion detection system, back propagation algorithm, neural networks, traffic table, multilayer perceptron, feed-forward back-propagation, network simulator 2.

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68 Evaluation of Context Information for Intermittent Networks

Authors: S. Balaji, E. Golden Julie, Y. Harold Robinson

Abstract:

The context aware adaptive routing protocol is presented for unicast communication in intermittently connected mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). The selection of the node is done by the Kalman filter prediction theory and it also makes use of utility functions. The context aware adaptive routing is defined by spray and wait technique, but the time consumption in delivering the message is too high and also the resource wastage is more. In this paper, we describe the spray and focus routing scheme for avoiding the existing problems.

Keywords: Context aware adaptive routing, Kalman filter prediction, spray and wait, spray and focus, intermittent networks.

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67 Misleading Node Detection and Response Mechanism in Mobile Ad-Hoc Network

Authors: Earleen Jane Fuentes, Regeene Melarese Lim, Franklin Benjamin Tapia, Alexis Pantola

Abstract:

Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) is an infrastructure-less network of mobile devices, also known as nodes. These nodes heavily rely on each other’s resources such as memory, computing power, and energy. Thus, some nodes may become selective in forwarding packets so as to conserve their resources. These nodes are called misleading nodes. Several reputation-based techniques (e.g. CORE, CONFIDANT, LARS, SORI, OCEAN) and acknowledgment-based techniques (e.g. TWOACK, S-TWOACK, EAACK) have been proposed to detect such nodes. These techniques do not appropriately punish misleading nodes. Hence, this paper addresses the limitations of these techniques using a system called MINDRA.

Keywords: Mobile ad-hoc network, selfish nodes, reputation-based techniques, acknowledgment-based techniques.

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66 TBOR: Tree Based Opportunistic Routing for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: Y. Harold Robinson, M. Rajaram, E. Golden Julie, S. Balaji

Abstract:

A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a wireless communication network where nodes that are not within direct transmission range establish their communication via the help of other nodes to forward data. Routing protocols in MANETs are usually categorized as proactive. Tree Based Opportunistic Routing (TBOR) finds a multipath link based on maximum probability of the throughput. The simulation results show that the presented method is performed very well compared to the existing methods in terms of throughput, delay and routing overhead.

Keywords: Mobile ad hoc networks, opportunistic data forwarding, proactive Source routing, BFS.

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65 Detection of Black Holes in MANET Using Collaborative Watchdog with Fuzzy Logic

Authors: Y. Harold Robinson, M. Rajaram, E. Golden Julie, S. Balaji

Abstract:

Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a self-configuring network of mobile node connected without wires. A Fuzzy Logic Based Collaborative watchdog approach is used to reduce the detection time of misbehaved nodes and increase the overall truthfulness. This methodology will increase the secure efficient routing by detecting the Black Holes attacks. The simulation results proved that this method improved the energy, reduced the delay and also improved the overall performance of the detecting black hole attacks in MANET.

Keywords: MANET, collaborative watchdog, fuzzy logic, AODV.

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64 A Signature-Based Secure Authentication Framework for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: J. Jenefa, E. A. Mary Anita

Abstract:

Vehicular Ad hoc NETwork (VANET) is a kind of Mobile Ad hoc NETwork (MANET). It allows the vehicles to communicate with one another as well as with nearby Road Side Units (RSU) and Regional Trusted Authorities (RTA). Vehicles communicate through On-Board Units (OBU) in which privacy has to be assured which will avoid the misuse of private data. A secure authentication framework for VANETs is proposed in which Public Key Cryptography (PKC) based adaptive pseudonym scheme is used to generate self-generated pseudonyms. Self-generated pseudonyms are used instead of real IDs for privacy preservation and non-repudiation. The ID-Based Signature (IBS) and ID-Based Online/Offline Signature (IBOOS) schemes are used for authentication. IBS is used to authenticate between vehicle and RSU whereas IBOOS provides authentication among vehicles. Security attacks like impersonation attack in the network are resolved and the attacking nodes are rejected from the network, thereby ensuring secure communication among the vehicles in the network. Simulation results shows that the proposed system provides better authentication in VANET environment.

Keywords: Non-repudiation, privacy preservation, public key cryptography, self- generated pseudonym.

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63 An Enhanced Associativity Based Routing with Fuzzy Based Trust to Mitigate Network Attacks

Authors: K. Geetha, P. Thangaraj

Abstract:

Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) is a collection of mobile devices forming a communication network without infrastructure. MANET is vulnerable to security threats due to network’s limited security, dynamic topology, scalability and the lack of central management. The Quality of Service (QoS) routing in such networks is limited by network breakage caused by node mobility or nodes energy depletions. The impact of node mobility on trust establishment is considered and its use to propagate trust through a network is investigated in this paper. This work proposes an enhanced Associativity Based Routing (ABR) with Fuzzy based Trust (Fuzzy- ABR) routing protocol for MANET to improve QoS and to mitigate network attacks.

Keywords: Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET), Associativity Based Routing (ABR), Fuzzy based Computed Trust.

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62 Secure Low-Bandwidth Video Streaming through Reliable Multipath Propagation in MANETs

Authors: S. Mohideen Badhusha, K. Duraiswamy

Abstract:

Most of the existing video streaming protocols provide video services without considering security aspects in decentralized mobile ad-hoc networks. The security policies adapted to the currently existing non-streaming protocols, do not comply with the live video streaming protocols resulting in considerable vulnerability, high bandwidth consumption and unreliability which cause severe security threats, low bandwidth and error prone transmission respectively in video streaming applications. Therefore a synergized methodology is required to reduce vulnerability and bandwidth consumption, and enhance reliability in the video streaming applications in MANET. To ensure the security measures with reduced bandwidth consumption and improve reliability of the video streaming applications, a Secure Low-bandwidth Video Streaming through Reliable Multipath Propagation (SLVRMP) protocol architecture has been proposed by incorporating the two algorithms namely Secure Low-bandwidth Video Streaming Algorithm and Reliable Secure Multipath Propagation Algorithm using Layered Video Coding in non-overlapping zone routing network topology. The performances of the proposed system are compared to those of the other existing secure multipath protocols Sec-MR, SPREAD using NS 2.34 and the simulation results show that the performances of the proposed system get considerably improved.

Keywords: Bandwidth consumption, layered video coding, multipath propagation, reliability, security threats, video streaming applications, vulnerability.

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61 A Survey on Opportunistic Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: R. Poonkuzhali, M. Y. Sanavullah, A. Sabari, T. Dhivyaa

Abstract:

Opportunistic Routing (OR) increases the transmission reliability and network throughput. Traditional routing protocols preselects one or more predetermined nodes before transmission starts and uses a predetermined neighbor to forward a packet in each hop. The opportunistic routing overcomes the drawback of unreliable wireless transmission by broadcasting one transmission can be overheard by manifold neighbors. The first cooperation-optimal protocol for Multirate OR (COMO) used to achieve social efficiency and prevent the selfish behavior of the nodes. The novel link-correlation-aware OR improves the performance by exploiting the miscellaneous low correlated forward links. Context aware Adaptive OR (CAOR) uses active suppression mechanism to reduce packet duplication. The Context-aware OR (COR) can provide efficient routing in mobile networks. By using Cooperative Opportunistic Routing in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (CORMAN), the problem of opportunistic data transfer can be tackled. While comparing to all the protocols, COMO is the best as it achieves social efficiency and prevents the selfish behavior of the nodes.

Keywords: CAOR, COMO, COR, CORMAN, MANET, Opportunistic Routing, Reliability, Throughput.

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60 Investigation on Bio-Inspired Population Based Metaheuristic Algorithms for Optimization Problems in Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: C. Rajan, K. Geetha, C. Rasi Priya, R. Sasikala

Abstract:

Nature is a great source of inspiration for solving complex problems in networks. It helps to find the optimal solution. Metaheuristic algorithm is one of the nature-inspired algorithm which helps in solving routing problem in networks. The dynamic features, changing of topology frequently and limited bandwidth make the routing, challenging in MANET. Implementation of appropriate routing algorithms leads to the efficient transmission of data in mobile ad hoc networks. The algorithms that are inspired by the principles of naturally-distributed/collective behavior of social colonies have shown excellence in dealing with complex optimization problems. Thus some of the bio-inspired metaheuristic algorithms help to increase the efficiency of routing in ad hoc networks. This survey work presents the overview of bio-inspired metaheuristic algorithms which support the efficiency of routing in mobile ad hoc networks.

Keywords: Ant colony optimization algorithm, Genetic algorithm, naturally inspired algorithms and particle swarm optimization algorithm.

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59 Investigation on Novel Based Naturally-Inspired Swarm Intelligence Algorithms for Optimization Problems in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: C. Rajan, K. Geetha, C. Rasi Priya, S. Geetha

Abstract:

Nature is the immense gifted source for solving complex problems. It always helps to find the optimal solution to solve the problem. Mobile Ad Hoc NETwork (MANET) is a wide research area of networks which has set of independent nodes. The characteristics involved in MANET’s are Dynamic, does not depend on any fixed infrastructure or centralized networks, High mobility. The Bio-Inspired algorithms are mimics the nature for solving optimization problems opening a new era in MANET. The typical Swarm Intelligence (SI) algorithms are Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), Artificial Bee Colony (ABC), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Modified Termite Algorithm, Bat Algorithm (BA), Wolf Search Algorithm (WSA) and so on. This work mainly concentrated on nature of MANET and behavior of nodes. Also it analyses various performance metrics such as throughput, QoS and End-to-End delay etc.

Keywords: Ant Colony Algorithm, Artificial Bee Colony algorithm, Bio-Inspired algorithm, Modified Termite Algorithm.

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58 IBFO_PSO: Evaluating the Performance of Bio-Inspired Integrated Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm and Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm in MANET Routing

Authors: K. Geetha, P. Thangaraj, C. Rasi Priya, C. Rajan, S. Geetha

Abstract:

This paper presents the performance of Integrated Bacterial Foraging Optimization and Particle Swarm Optimization (IBFO_PSO) technique in MANET routing. The BFO is a bio-inspired algorithm, which simulates the foraging behavior of bacteria. It is effectively applied in improving the routing performance in MANET. In results, it is proved that the PSO integrated with BFO reduces routing delay, energy consumption and communication overhead.

Keywords: Ant Colony Optimization, Bacterial Foraging Optimization, Hybrid Routing Intelligent Algorithm, Naturally inspired algorithms, Particle Swarm Optimization.

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57 Energy Aware Adhoc On-demand Multipath Distance Vector Protocol for QoS Routing

Authors: J. Seetaram, P. Satish Kumar

Abstract:

Mobile Adhoc Networks (MANETs) are infrastructure-less, dynamic network of collections of wireless mobile nodes communicating with each other without any centralized authority. A MANET is a mobile device of interconnections through wireless links, forming a dynamic topology. Routing protocols have a big role in data transmission across a network. Routing protocols, two major classifications are unipath and multipath. This study evaluates performance of an on-demand multipath routing protocol named Adhoc On-demand Multipath Distance Vector routing (AOMDV). This study proposes Energy Aware AOMDV (EAAOMDV) an extension of AOMDV which decreases energy consumed on a route.

Keywords: Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET), unipath, multipath, Adhoc On-demand Multipath Distance Vector routing (AOMDV).

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56 Trust and Reputation Mechanism with Path Optimization in Multipath Routing

Authors: Ramya Dorai, M. Rajaram

Abstract:

A Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET) is a collection of mobile nodes that communicate with each other with wireless links and without pre-existing communication infrastructure. Routing is an important issue which impacts network performance. As MANETs lack central administration and prior organization, their security concerns are different from those of conventional networks. Wireless links make MANETs susceptible to attacks. This study proposes a new trust mechanism to mitigate wormhole attack in MANETs. Different optimization techniques find available optimal path from source to destination. This study extends trust and reputation to an improved link quality and channel utilization based Adhoc Ondemand Multipath Distance Vector (AOMDV). Differential Evolution (DE) is used for optimization.

Keywords: Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET), Adhoc Ondemand Multi-Path Distance Vector (AOMDV), Trust and Reputation, Differential Evolution (DE), Link Quality, Channel Utilization.

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55 Link Availability Estimation for Modified AOMDV Protocol

Authors: R. Prabha, N. Ramaraj

Abstract:

Routing in adhoc networks is a challenge as nodes are mobile, and links are constantly created and broken. Present ondemand adhoc routing algorithms initiate route discovery after a path breaks, incurring significant cost to detect disconnection and establish a new route. Specifically, when a path is about to be broken, the source is warned of the likelihood of a disconnection. The source then initiates path discovery early, avoiding disconnection totally. A path is considered about to break when link availability decreases. This study modifies Adhoc On-demand Multipath Distance Vector routing (AOMDV) so that route handoff occurs through link availability estimation.

Keywords: Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET), Routing, Adhoc On-demand Multipath Distance Vector routing (AOMDV), Link Availability.

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54 Performance Comparison of AODV and Soft AODV Routing Protocol

Authors: Abhishek, Seema Devi, Jyoti Ohri

Abstract:

A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) represents a system of wireless mobile nodes that can self-organize freely and dynamically into arbitrary and temporary network topology. Unlike a wired network, wireless network interface has limited transmission range. Routing is the task of forwarding data packets from source to a given destination. Ad-hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol creates a path for a destination only when it required. This paper describes the implementation of AODV routing protocol using MATLAB-based Truetime simulator. In MANET's node movements are not fixed while they are random in nature. Hence intelligent techniques i.e. fuzzy and ANFIS are used to optimize the transmission range. In this paper, we compared the transmission range of AODV, fuzzy AODV and ANFIS AODV. For soft computing AODV, we have taken transmitted power and received threshold as input and transmission range as output. ANFIS gives better results as compared to fuzzy AODV.

Keywords: ANFIS, AODV, fuzzy, MANET, reactive routing protocol, routing protocol, Truetime.

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53 Parameters Used in Gateway Selection Schemes for Internet Connected MANETs: A Review

Authors: Zainab S. Mahmood, Aisha H. Abdalla, Wan Haslina Hassan, Farhat Anwar

Abstract:

The wide use of the Internet-based applications bring many challenges to the researchers to guarantee the continuity of the connections needed by the mobile hosts and provide reliable Internet access for them. One of proposed solutions by Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is to connect the local, multi-hop, and infrastructure-less Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) with Internet structure. This connection is done through multi-interface devices known as Internet Gateways. Many issues are related to this connection like gateway discovery, handoff, address auto-configuration and selecting the optimum gateway when multiple gateways exist. Many studies were done proposing gateway selection schemes with a single selection criterion or weighted multiple criteria. In this research, a review of some of these schemes is done showing the differences, the features, the challenges and the drawbacks of each of them.

Keywords: Internet Gateway, MANET, Mobility, Selection criteria.

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52 Appraisal on Link Lifetime Prediction Using Geographical Information

Authors: C. Nallusamy, A. Sabari, K. Suganya

Abstract:

Geographical routing protocol requires node physical location information to make forwarding decision. Geographical routing uses location service or position service to obtain the position of a node. The geographical information is a geographic coordinates or can be obtained through reference points on some fixed coordinate system. Link can be formed between two nodes. Link lifetime plays a crucial role in MANET. Link lifetime represent how long the link is stable without any failure between the nodes. Link failure may occur due to mobility and because of link failure energy of nodes can be drained. Thus this paper proposes survey about link lifetime prediction using geographical information.

Keywords: MANET, Geographical routing, Link lifetime, Link stability.

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51 Packet Reserving and Clogging Control via Routing Aware Packet Reserving Framework in MANET

Authors: C. Sathiyakumar, K. Duraiswamy

Abstract:

In MANET, mobile nodes communicate with each other using the wireless channel where transmission takes place with significant interference. The wireless medium used in MANET is a shared resource used by all the nodes available in MANET. Packet reserving is one important resource management scheme which controls the allocation of bandwidth among multiple flows through node cooperation in MANET. This paper proposes packet reserving and clogging control via Routing Aware Packet Reserving (RAPR) framework in MANET. It mainly focuses the end-to-end routing condition with maximal throughput. RAPR is complimentary system where the packet reserving utilizes local routing information available in each node. Path setup in RAPR estimates the security level of the system, and symbolizes the end-to-end routing by controlling the clogging. RAPR reaches the packet to the destination with high probability ratio and minimal delay count. The standard performance measures such as network security level, communication overhead, end-to-end throughput, resource utilization efficiency and delay measure are considered in this work. The results reveals that the proposed packet reservation and clogging control via Routing Aware Packet Reserving (RAPR) framework performs well for the above said performance measures compare to the existing methods.

Keywords: Packet reserving, Clogging control, Packet reservation in MANET, RAPR.

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50 An Approach for the Integration of the Existing Wireless Networks

Authors: Rajkumar Samanta, Abhishek Pal

Abstract:

The demand of high quality services has fueled dimensional research and development in wireless communications and networking. As a result, different wireless technologies like Wireless LAN, CDMA, GSM, UMTS, MANET, Bluetooth and satellite networks etc. have emerged in the last two decades. Future networks capable of carrying multimedia traffic need IP convergence, portability, seamless roaming and scalability among the existing networking technologies without changing the core part of the existing communications networks. To fulfill these goals, the present networking systems are required to work in cooperation to ensure technological independence, seamless roaming, high security and authentication, guaranteed Quality of Services (QoS). In this paper, a conceptual framework for a cooperative network (CN) is proposed for integration of heterogeneous existing networks to meet out the requirements of the next generation wireless networks.

Keywords: Cooperative Network, Wireless Network, Integration.

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49 Cluster Based Ant Colony Routing Algorithm for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

Authors: Alaa E. Abdallah, Bajes Y. Alskarnah

Abstract:

Ant colony based routing algorithms are known to grantee the packet delivery, but they suffer from the huge overhead of control messages which are needed to discover the route. In this paper we utilize the network nodes positions to group the nodes in connected clusters. We use clusters-heads only on forwarding the route discovery control messages. Our simulations proved that the new algorithm has decreased the overhead dramatically without affecting the delivery rate.

Keywords: Ant colony-based routing, position-based routing, MANET.

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48 A Comparative Study of Novel Opportunistic Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: R. Poonkuzhali, M. Y. Sanavullah, M. R. Gurupriya

Abstract:

Opportunistic routing is used, where the network has the features like dynamic topology changes and intermittent network connectivity. In Delay tolerant network or Disruption tolerant network opportunistic forwarding technique is widely used. The key idea of opportunistic routing is selecting forwarding nodes to forward data packets and coordination among these nodes to avoid duplicate transmissions. This paper gives the analysis of pros and cons of various opportunistic routing techniques used in MANET.

Keywords: Expected Transmission Count (ETX), Opportunistic routing, Proactive Source Routing (PSR), throughput.

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47 Back Bone Node Based Black Hole Detection Mechanism in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: Nidhi Gupta, Sanjoy Das, Khushal Singh

Abstract:

Mobile Ad hoc Network is a set of self-governing nodes which communicate through wireless links. Dynamic topology MANETs makes routing a challenging task. Various routing protocols are there, but due to various fundamental characteristic open medium, changing topology, distributed collaboration and constrained capability, these protocols are tend to various types of security attacks. Black hole is one among them. In this attack, malicious node represents itself as having the shortest path to the destination but that path not even exists. In this paper, we aim to develop a routing protocol for detection and prevention of black hole attack by modifying AODV routing protocol. This protocol is able to detect and prevent the black hole attack. Simulation is done using NS-2, which shows the improvement in network performance.

Keywords: Ad hoc, AODV, Back Bone, routing, Security.

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46 Impact of Node Density and Transmission Range on the Performance of OLSR and DSDV Routing Protocols in VANET City Scenarios

Authors: Yassine Meraihi, Dalila Acheli, Rabah Meraihi

Abstract:

Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET) is a special case of Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) used to establish communications and exchange information among nearby vehicles and between vehicles and nearby fixed infrastructure. VANET is seen as a promising technology used to provide safety, efficiency, assistance and comfort to the road users. Routing is an important issue in Vehicular Ad Hoc Network to find and maintain communication between vehicles due to the highly dynamic topology, frequently disconnected network and mobility constraints.

This paper evaluates the performance of two most popular proactive routing protocols OLSR and DSDV in real city traffic scenario on the basis of three metrics namely Packet delivery ratio, throughput and average end to end delay by varying vehicles density and transmission range.

Keywords: DSDV, OLSR, Quality of service, Routing protocols, VANET.

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45 Investigation on Novel Based Metaheuristic Algorithms for Combinatorial Optimization Problems in Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: C. Rajan, N. Shanthi, C. Rasi Priya, K. Geetha

Abstract:

Routing in MANET is extremely challenging because of MANETs dynamic features, its limited bandwidth, frequent topology changes caused by node mobility and power energy consumption. In order to efficiently transmit data to destinations, the applicable routing algorithms must be implemented in mobile ad-hoc networks. Thus we can increase the efficiency of the routing by satisfying the Quality of Service (QoS) parameters by developing routing algorithms for MANETs. The algorithms that are inspired by the principles of natural biological evolution and distributed collective behavior of social colonies have shown excellence in dealing with complex optimization problems and are becoming more popular. This paper presents a survey on few meta-heuristic algorithms and naturally-inspired algorithms.

Keywords: Ant colony optimization, genetic algorithm, Naturally-inspired algorithms and particle swarm optimization.

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44 Performance Evaluation of QoS Based Forwarding and Non Forwarding Energetic Node Selection Algorithm for Reducing the Flooding in Multihop Routing in Highly Dynamic MANET

Authors: R. Reka, R. S. D. Wahidabanu

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to propose a novel technique to guarantee Quality of Service (QoS) in a highly dynamic environment. The MANET changes its topology dynamically as the nodes are moved frequently. This will cause link failure between mobile nodes. MANET cannot ensure reliability without delay. The relay node is selected based on achieving QoS in previous transmission. It considers one more factor Connection Existence Period (CEP) to ensure reliability. CEP is to find out the period during that connection exists between the nodes. The node with highest CEP becomes a next relay node. The relay node is selected dynamically to avoid frequent failure. The bandwidth of each link changed dynamically based on service rate and request rate. This paper proposes Active bandwidth setting up algorithm to guarantee the QoS. The series of results obtained by using the Network Simulator (NS-2) demonstrate the viability of our proposed techniques.

Keywords: Bandwidth, Connection Existence Period (CEP), Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET), Quality of Service (QoS), Relay node.

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43 Vehicular Ad Hoc Network

Authors: S. Swapna Kumar

Abstract:

A Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network (VANET) is a mobile Ad-Hoc Network that provides connectivity moving device to fixed equipments. Such type of device is equipped with vehicle provides safety for the passengers. In the recent research areas of traffic management there observed the wide scope of design of new methodology of extension of wireless sensor networks and ad-hoc network principal for development of VANET technology. This paper provides the wide research view of the VANET and MANET concept for the researchers to contribute the better optimization technique for the development of effective and fast atomization technique for the large size of data exchange in this complex networks.

Keywords: Ad-Hoc, MANET, Sensors, Security, VANET

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