Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1815

Search results for: Image compression

1815 Parallel Image Compression and Analysis with Wavelets

Authors: M. Kutila, J. Viitanen

Abstract:

This paper presents image compression with wavelet based method. The wavelet transformation divides image to low- and high pass filtered parts. The traditional JPEG compression technique requires lower computation power with feasible losses, when only compression is needed. However, there is obvious need for wavelet based methods in certain circumstances. The methods are intended to the applications in which the image analyzing is done parallel with compression. Furthermore, high frequency bands can be used to detect changes or edges. Wavelets enable hierarchical analysis for low pass filtered sub-images. The first analysis can be done for a small image, and only if any interesting is found, the whole image is processed or reconstructed.

Keywords: image compression, jpeg, wavelet, vlc

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1814 An Analysis of Compression Methods and Implementation of Medical Images in Wireless Network

Authors: C. Rajan, K. Geetha, S. Geetha

Abstract:

The motivation of image compression technique is to reduce the irrelevance and redundancy of the image data in order to store or pass data in an efficient way from one place to another place. There are several types of compression methods available. Without the help of compression technique, the file size is knowingly larger, usually several megabytes, but by doing the compression technique, it is possible to reduce file size up to 10% as of the original without noticeable loss in quality. Image compression can be lossless or lossy. The compression technique can be applied to images, audio, video and text data. This research work mainly concentrates on methods of encoding, DCT, compression methods, security, etc. Different methodologies and network simulations have been analyzed here. Various methods of compression methodologies and its performance metrics has been investigated and presented in a table manner.

Keywords: Image compression techniques, encoding, DCT, lossy compression, lossless compression, JPEG.

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1813 A Parallel Quadtree Approach for Image Compression using Wavelets

Authors: Hamed Vahdat Nejad, Hossein Deldari

Abstract:

Wavelet transforms are multiresolution decompositions that can be used to analyze signals and images. Image compression is one of major applications of wavelet transforms in image processing. It is considered as one of the most powerful methods that provides a high compression ratio. However, its implementation is very time-consuming. At the other hand, parallel computing technologies are an efficient method for image compression using wavelets. In this paper, we propose a parallel wavelet compression algorithm based on quadtrees. We implement the algorithm using MatlabMPI (a parallel, message passing version of Matlab), and compute its isoefficiency function, and show that it is scalable. Our experimental results confirm the efficiency of the algorithm also.

Keywords: Image compression, MPI, Parallel computing, Wavelets.

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1812 Union is Strength in Lossy Image Compression

Authors: Mario Mastriani

Abstract:

In this work, we present a comparison between different techniques of image compression. First, the image is divided in blocks which are organized according to a certain scan. Later, several compression techniques are applied, combined or alone. Such techniques are: wavelets (Haar's basis), Karhunen-Loève Transform, etc. Simulations show that the combined versions are the best, with minor Mean Squared Error (MSE), and higher Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and better image quality, even in the presence of noise.

Keywords: Haar's basis, Image compression, Karhunen-LoèveTransform, Morton's scan, row-rafter scan.

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1811 Colour Image Compression Method Based On Fractal Block Coding Technique

Authors: Dibyendu Ghoshal, Shimal Das

Abstract:

Image compression based on fractal coding is a lossy compression method and normally used for gray level images range and domain blocks in rectangular shape. Fractal based digital image compression technique provide a large compression ratio and in this paper, it is proposed using YUV colour space and the fractal theory which is based on iterated transformation. Fractal geometry is mainly applied in the current study towards colour image compression coding. These colour images possesses correlations among the colour components and hence high compression ratio can be achieved by exploiting all these redundancies. The proposed method utilises the self-similarity in the colour image as well as the cross-correlations between them. Experimental results show that the greater compression ratio can be achieved with large domain blocks but more trade off in image quality is good to acceptable at less than 1 bit per pixel.

Keywords: Fractal coding, Iterated Function System (IFS), Image compression, YUV colour space.

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1810 Blur and Ringing Artifact Measurement in Image Compression using Wavelet Transform

Authors: Madhuri Khambete, Madhuri Joshi

Abstract:

Quality evaluation of an image is an important task in image processing applications. In case of image compression, quality of decompressed image is also the criterion for evaluation of given coding scheme. In the process of compression -decompression various artifacts such as blocking artifacts, blur artifact, ringing or edge artifact are observed. However quantification of these artifacts is a difficult task. We propose here novel method to quantify blur and ringing artifact in an image.

Keywords: Blur, Compression, Objective Quality assessment, Ringing artifact.

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1809 Comparison of Compression Ability Using DCT and Fractal Technique on Different Imaging Modalities

Authors: Sumathi Poobal, G. Ravindran

Abstract:

Image compression is one of the most important applications Digital Image Processing. Advanced medical imaging requires storage of large quantities of digitized clinical data. Due to the constrained bandwidth and storage capacity, however, a medical image must be compressed before transmission and storage. There are two types of compression methods, lossless and lossy. In Lossless compression method the original image is retrieved without any distortion. In lossy compression method, the reconstructed images contain some distortion. Direct Cosine Transform (DCT) and Fractal Image Compression (FIC) are types of lossy compression methods. This work shows that lossy compression methods can be chosen for medical image compression without significant degradation of the image quality. In this work DCT and Fractal Compression using Partitioned Iterated Function Systems (PIFS) are applied on different modalities of images like CT Scan, Ultrasound, Angiogram, X-ray and mammogram. Approximately 20 images are considered in each modality and the average values of compression ratio and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) are computed and studied. The quality of the reconstructed image is arrived by the PSNR values. Based on the results it can be concluded that the DCT has higher PSNR values and FIC has higher compression ratio. Hence in medical image compression, DCT can be used wherever picture quality is preferred and FIC is used wherever compression of images for storage and transmission is the priority, without loosing picture quality diagnostically.

Keywords: DCT, FIC, PIFS, PSNR.

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1808 A Novel Approach to Image Compression of Colour Images by Plane Reduction Technique

Authors: K.Sowmyan, A.Siddarth, D.Menaka

Abstract:

Several methods have been proposed for color image compression but the reconstructed image had very low signal to noise ratio which made it inefficient. This paper describes a lossy compression technique for color images which overcomes the drawbacks. The technique works on spatial domain where the pixel values of RGB planes of the input color image is mapped onto two dimensional planes. The proposed technique produced better results than JPEG2000, 2DPCA and a comparative study is reported based on the image quality measures such as PSNR and MSE.Experiments on real time images are shown that compare this methodology with previous ones and demonstrate its advantages.

Keywords: Color Image compression, spatial domain, planereduction, root mean square, image restoration

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1807 A Proposed Hybrid Color Image Compression Based on Fractal Coding with Quadtree and Discrete Cosine Transform

Authors: Shimal Das, Dibyendu Ghoshal

Abstract:

Fractal based digital image compression is a specific technique in the field of color image. The method is best suited for irregular shape of image like snow bobs, clouds, flame of fire; tree leaves images, depending on the fact that parts of an image often resemble with other parts of the same image. This technique has drawn much attention in recent years because of very high compression ratio that can be achieved. Hybrid scheme incorporating fractal compression and speedup techniques have achieved high compression ratio compared to pure fractal compression. Fractal image compression is a lossy compression method in which selfsimilarity nature of an image is used. This technique provides high compression ratio, less encoding time and fart decoding process. In this paper, fractal compression with quad tree and DCT is proposed to compress the color image. The proposed hybrid schemes require four phases to compress the color image. First: the image is segmented and Discrete Cosine Transform is applied to each block of the segmented image. Second: the block values are scanned in a zigzag manner to prevent zero co-efficient. Third: the resulting image is partitioned as fractals by quadtree approach. Fourth: the image is compressed using Run length encoding technique.

Keywords: Fractal coding, Discrete Cosine Transform, Iterated Function System (IFS), Affine Transformation, Run length encoding.

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1806 Modified Vector Quantization Method for Image Compression

Authors: K.Somasundaram, S.Domnic

Abstract:

A low bit rate still image compression scheme by compressing the indices of Vector Quantization (VQ) and generating residual codebook is proposed. The indices of VQ are compressed by exploiting correlation among image blocks, which reduces the bit per index. A residual codebook similar to VQ codebook is generated that represents the distortion produced in VQ. Using this residual codebook the distortion in the reconstructed image is removed, thereby increasing the image quality. Our scheme combines these two methods. Experimental results on standard image Lena show that our scheme can give a reconstructed image with a PSNR value of 31.6 db at 0.396 bits per pixel. Our scheme is also faster than the existing VQ variants.

Keywords: Image compression, Vector Quantization, Residual Codebook.

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1805 Hybrid Genetic-Simulated Annealing Approach for Fractal Image Compression

Authors: Y.Chakrapani, K.Soundera Rajan

Abstract:

In this paper a hybrid technique of Genetic Algorithm and Simulated Annealing (HGASA) is applied for Fractal Image Compression (FIC). With the help of this hybrid evolutionary algorithm effort is made to reduce the search complexity of matching between range block and domain block. The concept of Simulated Annealing (SA) is incorporated into Genetic Algorithm (GA) in order to avoid pre-mature convergence of the strings. One of the image compression techniques in the spatial domain is Fractal Image Compression but the main drawback of FIC is that it involves more computational time due to global search. In order to improve the computational time along with acceptable quality of the decoded image, HGASA technique has been proposed. Experimental results show that the proposed HGASA is a better method than GA in terms of PSNR for Fractal image Compression.

Keywords: Fractal Image Compression, Genetic Algorithm, HGASA, Simulated Annealing.

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1804 Image Mapping with Cumulative Distribution Function for Quick Convergence of Counter Propagation Neural Networks in Image Compression

Authors: S. Anna Durai, E. Anna Saro

Abstract:

In general the images used for compression are of different types like dark image, high intensity image etc. When these images are compressed using Counter Propagation Neural Network, it takes longer time to converge. The reason for this is that the given image may contain a number of distinct gray levels with narrow difference with their neighborhood pixels. If the gray levels of the pixels in an image and their neighbors are mapped in such a way that the difference in the gray levels of the neighbor with the pixel is minimum, then compression ratio as well as the convergence of the network can be improved. To achieve this, a Cumulative Distribution Function is estimated for the image and it is used to map the image pixels. When the mapped image pixels are used the Counter Propagation Neural Network yield high compression ratio as well as it converges quickly.

Keywords: Correlation, Counter Propagation Neural Networks, Cummulative Distribution Function, Image compression.

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1803 A Scheme of Model Verification of the Concurrent Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) for Image Compression

Authors: Kamrul Hasan Talukder, Koichi Harada

Abstract:

The scientific community has invested a great deal of effort in the fields of discrete wavelet transform in the last few decades. Discrete wavelet transform (DWT) associated with the vector quantization has been proved to be a very useful tool for the compression of image. However, the DWT is very computationally intensive process requiring innovative and computationally efficient method to obtain the image compression. The concurrent transformation of the image can be an important solution to this problem. This paper proposes a model of concurrent DWT for image compression. Additionally, the formal verification of the model has also been performed. Here the Symbolic Model Verifier (SMV) has been used as the formal verification tool. The system has been modeled in SMV and some properties have been verified formally.

Keywords: Computation Tree Logic, Discrete WaveletTransform, Formal Verification, Image Compression, Symbolic Model Verifier.

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1802 Performance Analysis of Chrominance Red and Chrominance Blue in JPEG

Authors: Mamta Garg

Abstract:

While compressing text files is useful, compressing still image files is almost a necessity. A typical image takes up much more storage than a typical text message and without compression images would be extremely clumsy to store and distribute. The amount of information required to store pictures on modern computers is quite large in relation to the amount of bandwidth commonly available to transmit them over the Internet and applications. Image compression addresses the problem of reducing the amount of data required to represent a digital image. Performance of any image compression method can be evaluated by measuring the root-mean-square-error & peak signal to noise ratio. The method of image compression that will be analyzed in this paper is based on the lossy JPEG image compression technique, the most popular compression technique for color images. JPEG compression is able to greatly reduce file size with minimal image degradation by throwing away the least “important" information. In JPEG, both color components are downsampled simultaneously, but in this paper we will compare the results when the compression is done by downsampling the single chroma part. In this paper we will demonstrate more compression ratio is achieved when the chrominance blue is downsampled as compared to downsampling the chrominance red in JPEG compression. But the peak signal to noise ratio is more when the chrominance red is downsampled as compared to downsampling the chrominance blue in JPEG compression. In particular we will use the hats.jpg as a demonstration of JPEG compression using low pass filter and demonstrate that the image is compressed with barely any visual differences with both methods.

Keywords: JPEG, Discrete Cosine Transform, Quantization, Color Space Conversion, Image Compression, Peak Signal to Noise Ratio & Compression Ratio.

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1801 A DCT-Based Secure JPEG Image Authentication Scheme

Authors: Mona F. M. Mursi, Ghazy M.R. Assassa, Hatim A. Aboalsamh, Khaled Alghathbar

Abstract:

The challenge in the case of image authentication is that in many cases images need to be subjected to non malicious operations like compression, so the authentication techniques need to be compression tolerant. In this paper we propose an image authentication system that is tolerant to JPEG lossy compression operations. A scheme for JPEG grey scale images is proposed based on a data embedding method that is based on a secret key and a secret mapping vector in the frequency domain. An encrypted feature vector extracted from the image DCT coefficients, is embedded redundantly, and invisibly in the marked image. On the receiver side, the feature vector from the received image is derived again and compared against the extracted watermark to verify the image authenticity. The proposed scheme is robust against JPEG compression up to a maximum compression of approximately 80%,, but sensitive to malicious attacks such as cutting and pasting.

Keywords: Authentication, DCT, JPEG, Watermarking.

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1800 Evaluation of Wavelet Filters for Image Compression

Authors: G. Sadashivappa, K. V. S. AnandaBabu

Abstract:

The aim of this paper to characterize a larger set of wavelet functions for implementation in a still image compression system using SPIHT algorithm. This paper discusses important features of wavelet functions and filters used in sub band coding to convert image into wavelet coefficients in MATLAB. Image quality is measured objectively using peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) and its variation with bit rate (bpp). The effect of different parameters is studied on different wavelet functions. Our results provide a good reference for application designers of wavelet based coder.

Keywords: Wavelet, image compression, sub band, SPIHT, PSNR.

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1799 EZW Coding System with Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Saudagar Abdul Khader Jilani, Syed Abdul Sattar

Abstract:

Image compression plays a vital role in today-s communication. The limitation in allocated bandwidth leads to slower communication. To exchange the rate of transmission in the limited bandwidth the Image data must be compressed before transmission. Basically there are two types of compressions, 1) LOSSY compression and 2) LOSSLESS compression. Lossy compression though gives more compression compared to lossless compression; the accuracy in retrievation is less in case of lossy compression as compared to lossless compression. JPEG, JPEG2000 image compression system follows huffman coding for image compression. JPEG 2000 coding system use wavelet transform, which decompose the image into different levels, where the coefficient in each sub band are uncorrelated from coefficient of other sub bands. Embedded Zero tree wavelet (EZW) coding exploits the multi-resolution properties of the wavelet transform to give a computationally simple algorithm with better performance compared to existing wavelet transforms. For further improvement of compression applications other coding methods were recently been suggested. An ANN base approach is one such method. Artificial Neural Network has been applied to many problems in image processing and has demonstrated their superiority over classical methods when dealing with noisy or incomplete data for image compression applications. The performance analysis of different images is proposed with an analysis of EZW coding system with Error Backpropagation algorithm. The implementation and analysis shows approximately 30% more accuracy in retrieved image compare to the existing EZW coding system.

Keywords: Accuracy, Compression, EZW, JPEG2000, Performance.

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1798 Supercompression for Full-HD and 4k-3D (8k)Digital TV Systems

Authors: Mario Mastriani

Abstract:

In this work, we developed the concept of supercompression, i.e., compression above the compression standard used. In this context, both compression rates are multiplied. In fact, supercompression is based on super-resolution. That is to say, supercompression is a data compression technique that superpose spatial image compression on top of bit-per-pixel compression to achieve very high compression ratios. If the compression ratio is very high, then we use a convolutive mask inside decoder that restores the edges, eliminating the blur. Finally, both, the encoder and the complete decoder are implemented on General-Purpose computation on Graphics Processing Units (GPGPU) cards. Specifically, the mentio-ned mask is coded inside texture memory of a GPGPU.

Keywords: General-Purpose computation on Graphics Processing Units, Image Compression, Interpolation, Super-resolution.

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1797 Arriving at an Optimum Value of Tolerance Factor for Compressing Medical Images

Authors: Sumathi Poobal, G. Ravindran

Abstract:

Medical imaging uses the advantage of digital technology in imaging and teleradiology. In teleradiology systems large amount of data is acquired, stored and transmitted. A major technology that may help to solve the problems associated with the massive data storage and data transfer capacity is data compression and decompression. There are many methods of image compression available. They are classified as lossless and lossy compression methods. In lossy compression method the decompressed image contains some distortion. Fractal image compression (FIC) is a lossy compression method. In fractal image compression an image is coded as a set of contractive transformations in a complete metric space. The set of contractive transformations is guaranteed to produce an approximation to the original image. In this paper FIC is achieved by PIFS using quadtree partitioning. PIFS is applied on different images like , Ultrasound, CT Scan, Angiogram, X-ray, Mammograms. In each modality approximately twenty images are considered and the average values of compression ratio and PSNR values are arrived. In this method of fractal encoding, the parameter, tolerance factor Tmax, is varied from 1 to 10, keeping the other standard parameters constant. For all modalities of images the compression ratio and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) are computed and studied. The quality of the decompressed image is arrived by PSNR values. From the results it is observed that the compression ratio increases with the tolerance factor and mammogram has the highest compression ratio. The quality of the image is not degraded upto an optimum value of tolerance factor, Tmax, equal to 8, because of the properties of fractal compression.

Keywords: Fractal image compression, IFS, PIFS, PSNR, Quadtree partitioning.

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1796 A Comparative Study of Image Segmentation Algorithms

Authors: Mehdi Hosseinzadeh, Parisa Khoshvaght

Abstract:

In some applications, such as image recognition or compression, segmentation refers to the process of partitioning a digital image into multiple segments. Image segmentation is typically used to locate objects and boundaries (lines, curves, etc.) in images. Image segmentation is to classify or cluster an image into several parts (regions) according to the feature of image, for example, the pixel value or the frequency response. More precisely, image segmentation is the process of assigning a label to every pixel in an image such that pixels with the same label share certain visual characteristics. The result of image segmentation is a set of segments that collectively cover the entire image, or a set of contours extracted from the image. Several image segmentation algorithms were proposed to segment an image before recognition or compression. Up to now, many image segmentation algorithms exist and be extensively applied in science and daily life. According to their segmentation method, we can approximately categorize them into region-based segmentation, data clustering, and edge-base segmentation. In this paper, we give a study of several popular image segmentation algorithms that are available.

Keywords: Image Segmentation, hierarchical segmentation, partitional segmentation, density estimation.

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1795 Image Compression with Back-Propagation Neural Network using Cumulative Distribution Function

Authors: S. Anna Durai, E. Anna Saro

Abstract:

Image Compression using Artificial Neural Networks is a topic where research is being carried out in various directions towards achieving a generalized and economical network. Feedforward Networks using Back propagation Algorithm adopting the method of steepest descent for error minimization is popular and widely adopted and is directly applied to image compression. Various research works are directed towards achieving quick convergence of the network without loss of quality of the restored image. In general the images used for compression are of different types like dark image, high intensity image etc. When these images are compressed using Back-propagation Network, it takes longer time to converge. The reason for this is, the given image may contain a number of distinct gray levels with narrow difference with their neighborhood pixels. If the gray levels of the pixels in an image and their neighbors are mapped in such a way that the difference in the gray levels of the neighbors with the pixel is minimum, then compression ratio as well as the convergence of the network can be improved. To achieve this, a Cumulative distribution function is estimated for the image and it is used to map the image pixels. When the mapped image pixels are used, the Back-propagation Neural Network yields high compression ratio as well as it converges quickly.

Keywords: Back-propagation Neural Network, Cumulative Distribution Function, Correlation, Convergence.

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1794 A Novel VLSI Architecture of Hybrid Image Compression Model based on Reversible Blockade Transform

Authors: C. Hemasundara Rao, M. Madhavi Latha

Abstract:

Image compression can improve the performance of the digital systems by reducing time and cost in image storage and transmission without significant reduction of the image quality. Furthermore, the discrete cosine transform has emerged as the new state-of-the art standard for image compression. In this paper, a hybrid image compression technique based on reversible blockade transform coding is proposed. The technique, implemented over regions of interest (ROIs), is based on selection of the coefficients that belong to different transforms, depending on the coefficients is proposed. This method allows: (1) codification of multiple kernals at various degrees of interest, (2) arbitrary shaped spectrum,and (3) flexible adjustment of the compression quality of the image and the background. No standard modification for JPEG2000 decoder was required. The method was applied over different types of images. Results show a better performance for the selected regions, when image coding methods were employed for the whole set of images. We believe that this method is an excellent tool for future image compression research, mainly on images where image coding can be of interest, such as the medical imaging modalities and several multimedia applications. Finally VLSI implementation of proposed method is shown. It is also shown that the kernal of Hartley and Cosine transform gives the better performance than any other model.

Keywords: VLSI, Discrete Cosine Transform, JPEG, Hartleytransform, Radon Transform

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1793 Image Compression Using Hybrid Vector Quantization

Authors: S.Esakkirajan, T. Veerakumar, V. Senthil Murugan, P.Navaneethan

Abstract:

In this paper, image compression using hybrid vector quantization scheme such as Multistage Vector Quantization (MSVQ) and Pyramid Vector Quantization (PVQ) are introduced. A combined MSVQ and PVQ are utilized to take advantages provided by both of them. In the wavelet decomposition of the image, most of the information often resides in the lowest frequency subband. MSVQ is applied to significant low frequency coefficients. PVQ is utilized to quantize the coefficients of other high frequency subbands. The wavelet coefficients are derived using lifting scheme. The main aim of the proposed scheme is to achieve high compression ratio without much compromise in the image quality. The results are compared with the existing image compression scheme using MSVQ.

Keywords: Lifting Scheme, Multistage Vector Quantization and Pyramid Vector Quantization.

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1792 A Survey on Lossless Compression of Bayer Color Filter Array Images

Authors: Alina Trifan, António J. R. Neves

Abstract:

Although most digital cameras acquire images in a raw format, based on a Color Filter Array that arranges RGB color filters on a square grid of photosensors, most image compression techniques do not use the raw data; instead, they use the rgb result of an interpolation algorithm of the raw data. This approach is inefficient and by performing a lossless compression of the raw data, followed by pixel interpolation, digital cameras could be more power efficient and provide images with increased resolution given that the interpolation step could be shifted to an external processing unit. In this paper, we conduct a survey on the use of lossless compression algorithms with raw Bayer images. Moreover, in order to reduce the effect of the transition between colors that increase the entropy of the raw Bayer image, we split the image into three new images corresponding to each channel (red, green and blue) and we study the same compression algorithms applied to each one individually. This simple pre-processing stage allows an improvement of more than 15% in predictive based methods.

Keywords: Bayer images, CFA, losseless compression, image coding standards.

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1791 Coding of DWT Coefficients using Run-length Coding and Huffman Coding for the Purpose of Color Image Compression

Authors: Varun Setia, Vinod Kumar

Abstract:

In present paper we proposed a simple and effective method to compress an image. Here we found success in size reduction of an image without much compromising with it-s quality. Here we used Haar Wavelet Transform to transform our original image and after quantization and thresholding of DWT coefficients Run length coding and Huffman coding schemes have been used to encode the image. DWT is base for quite populate JPEG 2000 technique.

Keywords: Lossy compression, DWT, quantization, Run length coding, Huffman coding, JPEG2000.

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1790 Simulation Based VLSI Implementation of Fast Efficient Lossless Image Compression System Using Adjusted Binary Code & Golumb Rice Code

Authors: N. Muthukumaran, R. Ravi

Abstract:

The Simulation based VLSI Implementation of FELICS (Fast Efficient Lossless Image Compression System) Algorithm is proposed to provide the lossless image compression and is implemented in simulation oriented VLSI (Very Large Scale Integrated). To analysis the performance of Lossless image compression and to reduce the image without losing image quality and then implemented in VLSI based FELICS algorithm. In FELICS algorithm, which consists of simplified adjusted binary code for Image compression and these compression image is converted in pixel and then implemented in VLSI domain. This parameter is used to achieve high processing speed and minimize the area and power. The simplified adjusted binary code reduces the number of arithmetic operation and achieved high processing speed. The color difference preprocessing is also proposed to improve coding efficiency with simple arithmetic operation. Although VLSI based FELICS Algorithm provides effective solution for hardware architecture design for regular pipelining data flow parallelism with four stages. With two level parallelisms, consecutive pixels can be classified into even and odd samples and the individual hardware engine is dedicated for each one. This method can be further enhanced by multilevel parallelisms.

Keywords: Image compression, Pixel, Compression Ratio, Adjusted Binary code, Golumb Rice code, High Definition display, VLSI Implementation.

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1789 Fast Cosine Transform to Increase Speed-up and Efficiency of Karhunen-Loève Transform for Lossy Image Compression

Authors: Mario Mastriani, Juliana Gambini

Abstract:

In this work, we present a comparison between two techniques of image compression. In the first case, the image is divided in blocks which are collected according to zig-zag scan. In the second one, we apply the Fast Cosine Transform to the image, and then the transformed image is divided in blocks which are collected according to zig-zag scan too. Later, in both cases, the Karhunen-Loève transform is applied to mentioned blocks. On the other hand, we present three new metrics based on eigenvalues for a better comparative evaluation of the techniques. Simulations show that the combined version is the best, with minor Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Mean Squared Error (MSE), higher Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and better image quality. Finally, new technique was far superior to JPEG and JPEG2000.

Keywords: Fast Cosine Transform, image compression, JPEG, JPEG2000, Karhunen-Loève Transform, zig-zag scan.

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1788 A Perceptual Image Coding method of High Compression Rate

Authors: Fahmi Kammoun, Mohamed Salim Bouhlel

Abstract:

In the framework of the image compression by Wavelet Transforms, we propose a perceptual method by incorporating Human Visual System (HVS) characteristics in the quantization stage. Indeed, human eyes haven-t an equal sensitivity across the frequency bandwidth. Therefore, the clarity of the reconstructed images can be improved by weighting the quantization according to the Contrast Sensitivity Function (CSF). The visual artifact at low bit rate is minimized. To evaluate our method, we use the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and a new evaluating criteria witch takes into account visual criteria. The experimental results illustrate that our technique shows improvement on image quality at the same compression ratio.

Keywords: Contrast Sensitivity Function, Human Visual System, Image compression, Wavelet transforms.

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1787 Effectiveness of Contourlet vs Wavelet Transform on Medical Image Compression: a Comparative Study

Authors: Negar Riazifar, Mehran Yazdi

Abstract:

Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) has demonstrated far superior to previous Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and standard JPEG in natural as well as medical image compression. Due to its localization properties both in special and transform domain, the quantization error introduced in DWT does not propagate globally as in DCT. Moreover, DWT is a global approach that avoids block artifacts as in the JPEG. However, recent reports on natural image compression have shown the superior performance of contourlet transform, a new extension to the wavelet transform in two dimensions using nonseparable and directional filter banks, compared to DWT. It is mostly due to the optimality of contourlet in representing the edges when they are smooth curves. In this work, we investigate this fact for medical images, especially for CT images, which has not been reported yet. To do that, we propose a compression scheme in transform domain and compare the performance of both DWT and contourlet transform in PSNR for different compression ratios (CR) using this scheme. The results obtained using different type of computed tomography images show that the DWT has still good performance at lower CR but contourlet transform performs better at higher CR.

Keywords: Computed Tomography (CT), DWT, Discrete Contourlet Transform, Image Compression.

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1786 Efficient HAAR Wavelet Transform with Embedded Zerotrees of Wavelet Compression for Color Images

Authors: S. Piramu Kailasam

Abstract:

This study is expected to compress true color image with compression algorithms in color spaces to provide high compression rates. The need of high compression ratio is to improve storage space. Alternative aim is to rank compression algorithms in a suitable color space. The dataset is sequence of true color images with size 128 x 128. HAAR Wavelet is one of the famous wavelet transforms, has great potential and maintains image quality of color images. HAAR wavelet Transform using Set Partitioning in Hierarchical Trees (SPIHT) algorithm with different color spaces framework is applied to compress sequence of images with angles. Embedded Zerotrees of Wavelet (EZW) is a powerful standard method to sequence data. Hence the proposed compression frame work of HAAR wavelet, xyz color space, morphological gradient and applied image with EZW compression, obtained improvement to other methods, in terms of Compression Ratio, Mean Square Error, Peak Signal Noise Ratio and Bits Per Pixel quality measures.

Keywords: Color Spaces, HAAR Wavelet, Morphological Gradient, Embedded Zerotrees Wavelet Compression.

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