Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 66

Search results for: symmetry

66 The Effect of Symmetry on the Perception of Happiness and Boredom in Design Products

Authors: Michele Sinico

Abstract:

The present research investigates the effect of symmetry on the perception of happiness and boredom in design products. Three experiments were carried out in order to verify the degree of the visual expressive value on different models of bookcases, wall clocks, and chairs. 60 participants directly indicated the degree of happiness and boredom using 7-point rating scales. The findings show that the participants acknowledged a different value of expressive quality in the different product models. Results show also that symmetry is not a significant constraint for an emotional design project.

Keywords: Product experience, emotional design, symmetry, expressive qualities.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 453
65 Improved Wavelet Neural Networks for Early Cancer Diagnosis Using Clustering Algorithms

Authors: Zarita Zainuddin, Ong Pauline

Abstract:

Wavelet neural networks (WNNs) have emerged as a vital alternative to the vastly studied multilayer perceptrons (MLPs) since its first implementation. In this paper, we applied various clustering algorithms, namely, K-means (KM), Fuzzy C-means (FCM), symmetry-based K-means (SBKM), symmetry-based Fuzzy C-means (SBFCM) and modified point symmetry-based K-means (MPKM) clustering algorithms in choosing the translation parameter of a WNN. These modified WNNs are further applied to the heterogeneous cancer classification using benchmark microarray data and were compared against the conventional WNN with random initialization method. Experimental results showed that a WNN classifier with the MPKM algorithm is more precise than the conventional WNN as well as the WNNs with other clustering algorithms.

Keywords: Clustering, microarray, symmetry, wavelet neural networks.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1348
64 Similarity Based Membership of Elements to Uncertain Concept in Information System

Authors: M. Kamel El-Sayed

Abstract:

The process of determining the degree of membership for an element to an uncertain concept has been found in many ways, using equivalence and symmetry relations in information systems. In the case of similarity, these methods did not take into account the degree of symmetry between elements. In this paper, we use a new definition for finding the membership based on the degree of symmetry. We provide an example to clarify the suggested methods and compare it with previous methods. This method opens the door to more accurate decisions in information systems.

Keywords: Information system, uncertain concept, membership function, similarity relation, degree of similarity.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 577
63 Application of Method of Symmetries at a Calculation and Planning of Circular Plate with Variable Thickness

Authors: Kirill Trapezon, Alexandr Trapezon

Abstract:

A problem is formulated for the natural oscillations of a circular plate of linearly variable thickness on the basis of the symmetry method. The equations of natural frequencies and forms for a plate are obtained, providing that it is rigidly fixed along the inner contour. The first three eigenfrequencies are calculated, and the eigenmodes of the oscillations of the acoustic element are constructed. An algorithm for applying the symmetry method and the factorization method for solving problems in the theory of oscillations for plates of variable thickness is shown. The effectiveness of the approach is demonstrated on the basis of comparison of known results and those obtained in the article. It is shown that the results are more accurate and reliable.

Keywords: Vibrations, plate, thickness, symmetry, factorization, approximation.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 504
62 Effective Class of Discreet Programing Problems

Authors: Kaziyev G. Z., Nabiyeva G. S., Kalizhanova A.U.

Abstract:

We consider herein a concise view of discreet programming models and methods. There has been conducted the models and methods analysis. On the basis of discreet programming models there has been elaborated and offered a new class of problems, i.e. block-symmetry models and methods of applied tasks statements and solutions.

Keywords: Discreet programming, block-symmetry, analysis methods, information systems development.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1100
61 Lattice Dynamics of (ND4Br)x(KBr)1-x Mixed Crystals

Authors: Alpana Tiwari, N. K. Gaur

Abstract:

We have incorporated the translational rotational (TR) coupling effects in the framework of three body force shell model (TSM) to develop an extended TSM (ETSM). The dynamical matrix of ETSM has been applied to compute the phonon frequencies of orientationally disordered mixed crystal (ND4Br)x(KBr)1-x in (q00), (qq0) and (qqq) symmetry directions for compositions 0.10≤x≤0.50 at T=300K.These frequencies are plotted as a function of wave vector k. An unusual acoustic mode softening is found along symmetry directions (q00) and (qq0) as a result of translation-rotation coupling.

Keywords: Orientational glass, phonons, TR-coupling.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 997
60 Dominant Correlation Effects in Atomic Spectra

Authors: Hubert Klar

Abstract:

High double excitation of two-electron atoms has been investigated using hyperpherical coordinates within a modified adiabatic expansion technique. This modification creates a novel fictitious force leading to a spontaneous exchange symmetry breaking at high double excitation. The Pauli principle must therefore be regarded as approximation valid only at low excitation energy. Threshold electron scattering from high Rydberg states shows an unexpected time reversal symmetry breaking. At threshold for double escape we discover a broad (few eV) Cooper pair.

Keywords: Correlation, resonances, threshold ionization, Cooper pair.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1398
59 In-Plane Responses of Axially Moving Plates Subjected to Arbitrary Edge Excitations

Authors: T. H. Young, Y. S. Ciou

Abstract:

The free and forced in-plane vibrations of axially moving plates are investigated in this work. The plate possesses an internal damping of which the constitutive relation obeys the Kelvin-Voigt model, and the excitations are arbitrarily distributed on two opposite edges. First, the equations of motion and the boundary conditions of the axially moving plate are derived. Then, the extended Ritz method is used to obtain discretized system equations. Finally, numerical results for the natural frequencies and the mode shapes of the in-plane vibration and the in-plane response of the moving plate subjected to arbitrary edge excitations are presented. It is observed that the symmetry class of the mode shapes of the in-plane vibration disperses gradually as the moving speed gets higher, and the u- and v-components of the mode shapes belong to different symmetry class. In addition, large response amplitudes having shapes similar to the mode shapes of the plate can be excited by the edge excitations at the resonant frequencies and with the same symmetry class of distribution as the u-components.

Keywords: Arbitrary edge excitations, axially moving plates, in-plane vibration, extended Ritz method.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1531
58 Symmetry Breaking and the Emergence of Branching Structures in Morphogenesis: Minimal Conditions and Mechanical Interactions between Cells

Authors: M. Margarida Costa, Jorge Simão

Abstract:

The minimal condition for symmetry breaking in morphogenesis of cellular population was investigated using cellular automata based on reaction-diffusion dynamics. In particular, the study looked for the possibility of the emergence of branching structures due to mechanical interactions. The model used two types of cells an external gradient. The results showed that the external gradient influenced movement of cell type-I, also revealed that clusters formed by cells type-II worked as barrier to movement of cells type-I.

Keywords: Morphogenesis, branching structures, symmetrybreaking.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1002
57 The Effect of Dynamic Eccentricity on Induction Machine Stator Currents (Part A)

Authors: Saleh S. Hamad Elawgali

Abstract:

Current spectrums of a high power induction machine was calculated for the cases of full symmetry, static and dynamic eccentricity. The calculations involve integration of 93 electrical plus four mechanical ordinary differential equations. Electrical equations account for variable inductances affected by slotting and eccentricities. The calculations were followed by Fourier analysis of the stator currents in steady state operation. The paper presents the stator current spectrums in full symmetry, static and dynamic eccentricity cases, and demonstrates the harmonics present in each case. The effect of dynamic eccentricity is demonstrating via comparing the current spectrums related to dynamic eccentricity cases with the full symmetry one. The paper includes one case study, refers to dynamic eccentricity, to present the spectrum of the measured current and demonstrate the existence of the harmonics related to dynamic eccentricity. The zooms of current spectrums around the main slot harmonic zone are included to simplify the comparison and prove the existence of the dynamic eccentricity harmonics in both calculated and measured current spectrums.

Keywords: Current spectrum, diagnostics, harmonics, Induction machine

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1981
56 Group Invariant Solutions for Radial Jet Having Finite Fluid Velocity at Orifice

Authors: I. Naeem, R. Naz

Abstract:

The group invariant solution for Prandtl-s boundary layer equations for an incompressible fluid governing the flow in radial free, wall and liquid jets having finite fluid velocity at the orifice are investigated. For each jet a symmetry is associated with the conserved vector that was used to derive the conserved quantity for the jet elsewhere. This symmetry is then used to construct the group invariant solution for the third-order partial differential equation for the stream function. The general form of the group invariant solution for radial jet flows is derived. The general form of group invariant solution and the general form of the similarity solution which was obtained elsewhere are the same.

Keywords: Two-dimensional jets, radial jets, group invariant solution.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1177
55 Finite Element Analysis of Sheet Metal Airbending Using Hyperform LS-DYNA

Authors: Himanshu V. Gajjar, Anish H. Gandhi, Harit K. Raval

Abstract:

Air bending is one of the important metal forming processes, because of its simplicity and large field application. Accuracy of analytical and empirical models reported for the analysis of bending processes is governed by simplifying assumption and do not consider the effect of dynamic parameters. Number of researches is reported on the finite element analysis (FEA) of V-bending, Ubending, and air V-bending processes. FEA of bending is found to be very sensitive to many physical and numerical parameters. FE models must be computationally efficient for practical use. Reported work shows the 3D FEA of air bending process using Hyperform LSDYNA and its comparison with, published 3D FEA results of air bending in Ansys LS-DYNA and experimental results. Observing the planer symmetry and based on the assumption of plane strain condition, air bending problem was modeled in 2D with symmetric boundary condition in width. Stress-strain results of 2D FEA were compared with 3D FEA results and experiments. Simplification of air bending problem from 3D to 2D resulted into tremendous reduction in the solution time with only marginal effect on stressstrain results. FE model simplification by studying the problem symmetry is more efficient and practical approach for solution of more complex large dimensions slow forming processes.

Keywords: Air V-bending, Finite element analysis, HyperformLS-DYNA, Planner symmetry.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2957
54 PointNetLK-OBB: A Point Cloud Registration Algorithm with High Accuracy

Authors: Wenhao Lan, Ning Li, Qiang Tong

Abstract:

To improve the registration accuracy of a source point cloud and template point cloud when the initial relative deflection angle is too large, a PointNetLK algorithm combined with an oriented bounding box (PointNetLK-OBB) is proposed. In this algorithm, the OBB of a 3D point cloud is used to represent the macro feature of source and template point clouds. Under the guidance of the iterative closest point algorithm, the OBB of the source and template point clouds is aligned, and a mirror symmetry effect is produced between them. According to the fitting degree of the source and template point clouds, the mirror symmetry plane is detected, and the optimal rotation and translation of the source point cloud is obtained to complete the 3D point cloud registration task. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, a comparative experiment was performed using the publicly available ModelNet40 dataset. The experimental results demonstrate that, compared with PointNetLK, PointNetLK-OBB improves the registration accuracy of the source and template point clouds when the initial relative deflection angle is too large, and the sensitivity of the initial relative position between the source point cloud and template point cloud is reduced. The primary contribution of this paper is the use of PointNetLK to avoid the non-convex problem of traditional point cloud registration and leveraging the regularity of the OBB to avoid the local optimization problem in the PointNetLK context.

Keywords: Mirror symmetry, oriented bounding box, point cloud registration, PointNetLK-OBB.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 96
53 Substructure Method for Thermal-Stress Analysis of Liquid-Propellant Rocket Engine Combustion Chamber

Authors: Olga V. Korotkaya

Abstract:

This article is devoted to an important problem of calculation of deflected mode of the combustion chamber and the nozzle end of a new liquid-propellant rocket cruise engine. A special attention is given to the methodology of calculation. Three operating modes are considered. The analysis has been conducted in ANSYS software. The methods of conducted research are mathematical modeling, substructure method, cyclic symmetry, finite element method. The calculation has been carried out to order of S.P. Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation «Energia». The main results are practical. Proposed methodology and created models would be able to use for a wide range of strength problems.

Keywords: Combustion chamber, cyclic symmetry, finite element method, liquid-propellant rocket engine, nozzle end, substructure.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2711
52 An Improved Variable Tolerance RSM with a Proportion Threshold

Authors: Chen Wu, Youquan Xu, Dandan Li, Ronghua Yang, Lijuan Wang

Abstract:

In rough set models, tolerance relation, similarity relation and limited tolerance relation solve different situation problems for incomplete information systems in which there exists a phenomenon of missing value. If two objects have the same few known attributes and more unknown attributes, they cannot distinguish them well. In order to solve this problem, we presented two improved limited and variable precision rough set models. One is symmetric, the other one is non-symmetric. They all use more stringent condition to separate two small probability equivalent objects into different classes. The two models are needed to engage further study in detail. In the present paper, we newly form object classes with a different respect comparing to the first suggested model. We overcome disadvantages of non-symmetry regarding to the second suggested model. We discuss relationships between or among several models and also make rule generation. The obtained results by applying the second model are more accurate and reasonable.

Keywords: Incomplete information system, rough set, symmetry, variable precision.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 622
51 A Comparison Study of a Symmetry Solution of Magneto-Elastico-Viscous Fluid along a Semi- Infinite Plate with Homotopy Perturbation Method and4th Order Runge–Kutta Method

Authors: Mohamed M. Mousa, Aidarkhan Kaltayev

Abstract:

The equations governing the flow of an electrically conducting, incompressible viscous fluid over an infinite flat plate in the presence of a magnetic field are investigated using the homotopy perturbation method (HPM) with Padé approximants (PA) and 4th order Runge–Kutta method (4RKM). Approximate analytical and numerical solutions for the velocity field and heat transfer are obtained and compared with each other, showing excellent agreement. The effects of the magnetic parameter and Prandtl number on velocity field, shear stress, temperature and heat transfer are discussed as well.

Keywords: Electrically conducting elastico-viscous fluid, symmetry solution, Homotopy perturbation method, Padé approximation, 4th order Runge–Kutta, Maple

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1172
50 Exploiting Global Self Similarity for Head-Shoulder Detection

Authors: Lae-Jeong Park, Jung-Ho Moon

Abstract:

People detection from images has a variety of applications such as video surveillance and driver assistance system, but is still a challenging task and more difficult in crowded environments such as shopping malls in which occlusion of lower parts of human body often occurs. Lack of the full-body information requires more effective features than common features such as HOG. In this paper, new features are introduced that exploits global self-symmetry (GSS) characteristic in head-shoulder patterns. The features encode the similarity or difference of color histograms and oriented gradient histograms between two vertically symmetric blocks. The domain-specific features are rapid to compute from the integral images in Viola-Jones cascade-of-rejecters framework. The proposed features are evaluated with our own head-shoulder dataset that, in part, consists of a well-known INRIA pedestrian dataset. Experimental results show that the GSS features are effective in reduction of false alarmsmarginally and the gradient GSS features are preferred more often than the color GSS ones in the feature selection.

Keywords: Pedestrian detection, cascade of rejecters, feature extraction, self-symmetry, HOG.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2130
49 Convective Heat Transfer Enhancement in an Enclosure with Fin Utilizing Nano Fluids

Authors: S. H. Anilkumar, Ghulam Jilani

Abstract:

The objective of the present work is to conduct investigations leading to a more complete explanation of single phase natural convective heat transfer in an enclosure with fin utilizing nano fluids. The nano fluid used, which is composed of Aluminum oxide nano particles in suspension of Ethylene glycol, is provided at various volume fractions. The study is carried out numerically for a range of Rayleigh numbers, fin heights and aspect ratio. The flow and temperature distributions are taken to be two-dimensional. Regions with the same velocity and temperature distributions are identified as symmetry of sections. One half of such a rectangular region is chosen as the computational domain taking into account the symmetry about the fin. Transport equations are modeled by a stream functionvorticity formulation and are solved numerically by finite-difference schemes. Comparisons with previously published works on the basis of special cases are done. Results are presented in the form of streamline, vector and isotherm plots as well as the variation of local Nusselt number along the fin under different conditions.

Keywords: Fin height, Nano fluid, natural convection, Rayleigh number.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1236
48 The Influence of Surface Roughness of Drawbead on Non-Symmetry Deep Drawing Cold Rolled Steel Sheet

Authors: A. Watanapa, S. Torsakul

Abstract:

This study was aimed to explain the influence of surface roughness of the drawbead on non-symmetry deep drawing cold rolled steel sheet to improve the drawability of cold rolled steel sheet. The variables used in this study included semi-circle drawbead with 3 levels of surface roughness which are 6.127 mm Ra, 0.963 mm Ra and 0.152 mm Ra and cold rolled steel sheet according to 3 grades of the JIS standards which are SPCC, SPCE and SPCD with the thickness of 1.0 mm and the blankholder force which is 50% of the drawing force and the depth of 50 mm. According to the test results, when there was the increase in the surface roughness of drawbead, there would be the increase in deep drawing force, especially the SPCC cold rolled steel sheet. This is similar to the increase in the equivalent strain and the wall thickness distribution when the surface roughness of the drawbead increased. It could be concluded that the surface roughness of drawbead has an influence on deep drawing cold rolled steel sheet, especially the drawing force, the equivalent strain and the wall thickness distribution.

Keywords: Drawbead, Deep Drawing, Drawing Force, Equivalent Strain, Surface roughness

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2178
47 Equatorial Symmetry of Chaotic Solutions in Boussinesq Convection in a Rotating Spherical Shell

Authors: Keiji Kimura, Shin-ichi Takehiro, Michio Yamada

Abstract:

We investigate properties of convective solutions of the Boussinesq thermal convection in a moderately rotating spherical shell allowing the inner and outer sphere rotation due to the viscous torque of the fluid. The ratio of the inner and outer radii of the spheres, the Prandtl number and the Taylor number are fixed to 0.4, 1 and 5002, respectively. The inertial moments of the inner and outer spheres are fixed to about 0.22 and 100, respectively. The Rayleigh number is varied from 2.6 × 104 to 3.4 × 104. In this parameter range, convective solutions transit from equatorially symmetric quasiperiodic ones to equatorially asymmetric chaotic ones as the Rayleigh number is increased. The transition route in the system allowing rotation of both the spheres is different from that in the co-rotating system, which means the inner and outer spheres rotate with the same constant angular velocity: the convective solutions transit as equatorially symmetric quasi-periodic solution → equatorially symmetric chaotic solution → equatorially asymmetric chaotic solution in the system allowing both the spheres rotation, while equatorially symmetric quasi-periodic solution → equatorially asymmetric quasiperiodic solution → equatorially asymmetric chaotic solution in the co-rotating system.

Keywords: thermal convection, numerical simulation, equatorial symmetry, quasi-periodic solution, chaotic solution

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1347
46 Describing the Fine Electronic Structure and Predicting Properties of Materials with ATOMIC MATTERS Computation System

Authors: Rafal Michalski, Jakub Zygadlo

Abstract:

We present the concept and scientific methods and algorithms of our computation system called ATOMIC MATTERS. This is the first presentation of the new computer package, that allows its user to describe physical properties of atomic localized electron systems subject to electromagnetic interactions. Our solution applies to situations where an unclosed electron 2p/3p/3d/4d/5d/4f/5f subshell interacts with an electrostatic potential of definable symmetry and external magnetic field. Our methods are based on Crystal Electric Field (CEF) approach, which takes into consideration the electrostatic ligands field as well as the magnetic Zeeman effect. The application allowed us to predict macroscopic properties of materials such as: Magnetic, spectral and calorimetric as a result of physical properties of their fine electronic structure. We emphasize the importance of symmetry of charge surroundings of atom/ion, spin-orbit interactions (spin-orbit coupling) and the use of complex number matrices in the definition of the Hamiltonian. Calculation methods, algorithms and convention recalculation tools collected in ATOMIC MATTERS were chosen to permit the prediction of magnetic and spectral properties of materials in isostructural series.

Keywords: Atomic matters, crystal electric field, spin-orbit coupling, localized states, electron subshell, fine electronic structure.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 921
45 Information Measures Based on Sampling Distributions

Authors: Om Parkash, A. K. Thukral, C. P. Gandhi

Abstract:

Information theory and Statistics play an important role in Biological Sciences when we use information measures for the study of diversity and equitability. In this communication, we develop the link among the three disciplines and prove that sampling distributions can be used to develop new information measures. Our study will be an interdisciplinary and will find its applications in Biological systems.

Keywords: Entropy, concavity, symmetry, arithmetic mean, diversity, equitability.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1146
44 Investigating Transformations in the Cartesian Plane Using Spreadsheets

Authors: D. Allison, A. Didenko, G. Miller

Abstract:

The link between coordinate transformations in the plane and their effects on the graph of a function can be difficult for students studying college level mathematics to comprehend. To solidify this conceptual link in the mind of a student Microsoft Excel can serve as a convenient graphing tool and pedagogical aid. The authors of this paper describe how various transformations and their related functional symmetry properties can be graphically displayed with an Excel spreadsheet.

Keywords: Mathematics education, Microsoft Excel spreadsheet, technology.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1703
43 Applications of Trigonometic Measures of Fuzzy Entropy to Geometry

Authors: Om Parkash, C.P.Gandhi

Abstract:

In the literature of fuzzy measures, there exist many well known parametric and non-parametric measures, each with its own merits and limitations. But our main emphasis is on applications of these measures to a variety of disciplines. To extend the scope of applications of these fuzzy measures to geometry, we need some special fuzzy measures. In this communication, we have introduced two new fuzzy measures involving trigonometric functions and simultaneously provided their applications to obtain the basic results already existing in the literature of geometry.

Keywords: Entropy, Uncertainty, Fuzzy Entropy, Concavity, Symmetry.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1245
42 Demonstration of a Low-Cost Monocycle Pulse for UWB Radio Transceiver

Authors: Richard Thai-Singama, Jean-Pierre Belin, Frédéric Du Burck, Marc Piette

Abstract:

This paper presents a simple and original method for the generation of short monocycle pulses based on the transient response of a passive band-pass filter. The recorded sub-nanosecond pulses show a good symmetry and a small ringing (13 % of the peak amplitude). Their spectral density covers the range 3.1 GHz to 10.6 GHz. The possibility to adapt the pulse spectral density to the indoor FCC frequency mask is demonstrated with a prototype working at a reduced frequency (FCC/1000). A detection technique is proposed.

Keywords: Impulse, Monocycle, Transient, UWB.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1598
41 The Analysis of Photoconductive Semiconductor Switch Operation in the Frequency of 10 GHz

Authors: Morteza Fathipour, Seyed Nasrolah Anousheh, Kaveh Ghiafeh Davoudi, Vala Fathipour

Abstract:

A device analysis of the photoconductive semiconductor switch is carried out to investigate distribution of electric field and carrier concentrations as well as the current density distribution. The operation of this device was then investigated as a switch operating in X band. It is shown that despite the presence of symmetry geometry, switch current density of the on-state steady state mode is distributed asymmetrically throughout the device.

Keywords: Band X, Gallium-Arsenide, Mixed mode, PCSS, Photoconductivity.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1493
40 Synthesis, Characterization and PL Properties of Cds Nanoparticles Confined within a Functionalized SBA-15 Mesoprous

Authors: Azam Anaraki Firooz, Ali Reza Mahjoub, Reza Donyaei Ziba

Abstract:

A simple and dexterous in situ method was introduced to load CdS nanocrystals into organofunctionalized mesoporous, which used an ion-exchange method. The products were extensively characterized by combined spectroscopic methods. X- ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) demonstrated both the maintenance of pore symmetry (space group p6mm) of SBA-15 and the presence of CdS nanocrystals with uniform sizes of about 6 - 8 nm inside the functionalized SBA-15 channels. These mesoporous silica-supported CdS composites showed room temperature photoluminescence properties with a blue shift, indicating the quantum size effect of nanocrystalline CdS.

Keywords: Semiconductors, luminescence, mesoporous material, CdS.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1363
39 BIBD-s for (13, 5, 5), (16, 6, 5) and (21, 6, 4) Possessing Possibly an Automorphism of Order 3

Authors: Ivica Martinjak, Mario-Osvin Pavcevic

Abstract:

When trying to enumerate all BIBD-s for given parameters, their natural solution space appears to be huge and grows extremely with the number of points of the design. Therefore, constructive enumerations are often carried out by assuming additional constraints on design-s structure, automorphisms being mostly used ones. It remains a hard task to construct designs with trivial automorphism group – those with no additional symmetry – although it is believed that most of the BIBD-s belong to that case. In this paper, very many new designs with parameters 2-(13, 5, 5), 2-(16, 6, 5) and 2-(21, 6, 4) are constructed, assuming an action of an automorphism of order 3. Even more, it was possible to construct millions of such designs with no non-trivial automorphisms.

Keywords: BIBD, incidence matrix, automorphism group, tactical decomposition, deterministic algorithm.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1077
38 Design a Low Voltage- Low Offset Class AB Op-Amp

Authors: B.Gholami, S.Gholami, A.Forouzantabar, Sh.Bazyari

Abstract:

A new design approach for three-stage operational amplifiers (op-amps) is proposed. It allows to actually implement a symmetrical push-pull class-AB amplifier output stage for wellestablished three-stage amplifiers using a feedforward transconductance stage. Compared with the conventional design practice, the proposed approach leads to a significant improvement of the symmetry between the positive and the negative op-amp step response, resulting in similar values of the positive/negative settling time. The new approach proves to be very useful in order to fully exploit the potentiality allowed by the op-amp in terms of speed performances. Design examples in a commercial 0.35-μm CMOS prove the effectiveness of theproposed strategy.

Keywords: Low-voltage op amp, design , optimum design

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3276
37 Approximation for Average Error Probability of BPSK in the Presence of Phase Error

Authors: Yeonsoo Jang, Dongweon Yoon, Ki Ho Kwon, Jaeyoon Lee, Wooju Lee

Abstract:

Phase error in communications systems degrades error performance. In this paper, we present a simple approximation for the average error probability of the binary phase shift keying (BPSK) in the presence of phase error having a uniform distribution on arbitrary intervals. For the simple approximation, we use symmetry and periodicity of a sinusoidal function. Approximate result for the average error probability is derived, and the performance is verified through comparison with simulation result.

Keywords: Average error probability, Phase shift keying, Phase error

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1749