Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1641

Search results for: Three step search.

1641 Elitist Self-Adaptive Step-Size Search in Optimum Sizing of Steel Structures

Authors: Oğuzhan Hasançebi, Saeid Kazemzadeh Azad

Abstract:

This paper covers application of an elitist selfadaptive
step-size search (ESASS) to optimum design of steel
skeletal structures. In the ESASS two approaches are considered for
improving the convergence accuracy as well as the computational
efficiency of the original technique namely the so called selfadaptive
step-size search (SASS). Firstly, an additional randomness
is incorporated into the sampling step of the technique to preserve
exploration capability of the algorithm during the optimization.
Moreover, an adaptive sampling scheme is introduced to improve the
quality of final solutions. Secondly, computational efficiency of the
technique is accelerated via avoiding unnecessary analyses during the
optimization process using an upper bound strategy. The numerical
results demonstrate the usefulness of the ESASS in the sizing
optimization problems of steel truss and frame structures.

Keywords: Structural design optimization, optimal sizing, metaheuristics, self-adaptive step-size search, steel trusses, steel frames.}

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1640 Motion Area Estimated Motion Estimation with Triplet Search Patterns for H.264/AVC

Authors: T. Song, T. Shimamoto

Abstract:

In this paper a fast motion estimation method for H.264/AVC named Triplet Search Motion Estimation (TS-ME) is proposed. Similar to some of the traditional fast motion estimation methods and their improved proposals which restrict the search points only to some selected candidates to decrease the computation complexity, proposed algorithm separate the motion search process to several steps but with some new features. First, proposed algorithm try to search the real motion area using proposed triplet patterns instead of some selected search points to avoid dropping into the local minimum. Then, in the localized motion area a novel 3-step motion search algorithm is performed. Proposed search patterns are categorized into three rings on the basis of the distance from the search center. These three rings are adaptively selected by referencing the surrounding motion vectors to early terminate the motion search process. On the other hand, computation reduction for sub pixel motion search is also discussed considering the appearance probability of the sub pixel motion vector. From the simulation results, motion estimation speed improved by a factor of up to 38 when using proposed algorithm than that of the reference software of H.264/AVC with ignorable picture quality loss.

Keywords: Motion estimation, VLSI, image processing, search patterns

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1639 Efficient Block Matching Algorithm for Motion Estimation

Authors: Zong Chen

Abstract:

Motion estimation is a key problem in video processing and computer vision. Optical flow motion estimation can achieve high estimation accuracy when motion vector is small. Three-step search algorithm can handle large motion vector but not very accurate. A joint algorithm was proposed in this paper to achieve high estimation accuracy disregarding whether the motion vector is small or large, and keep the computation cost much lower than full search.

Keywords: Motion estimation, Block Matching, Optical flow, Three step search.

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1638 Using Ontology Search in the Design of Class Diagram from Business Process Model

Authors: Wararat Rungworawut, Twittie Senivongse

Abstract:

Business process model describes process flow of a business and can be seen as the requirement for developing a software application. This paper discusses a BPM2CD guideline which complements the Model Driven Architecture concept by suggesting how to create a platform-independent software model in the form of a UML class diagram from a business process model. An important step is the identification of UML classes from the business process model. A technique for object-oriented analysis called domain analysis is borrowed and key concepts in the business process model will be discovered and proposed as candidate classes for the class diagram. The paper enhances this step by using ontology search to help identify important classes for the business domain. As ontology is a source of knowledge for a particular domain which itself can link to ontologies of related domains, the search can give a refined set of candidate classes for the resulting class diagram.

Keywords: Business Process Model, Model DrivenArchitecture, Ontology, UML Class Diagram.

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1637 Matching Current Search with Future Postings

Authors: Kim Nee Goh, Viknesh Kumar Naleyah

Abstract:

Online trading is an alternative to conventional shopping method. People trade goods which are new or pre-owned before. However, there are times when a user is not able to search the items wanted online. This is because the items may not be posted as yet, thus ending the search. Conventional search mechanism only works by searching and matching search criteria (requirement) with data available in a particular database. This research aims to match current search requirements with future postings. This would involve the time factor in the conventional search method. A Car Matching Alert System (CMAS) prototype was developed to test the matching algorithm. When a buyer-s search returns no result, the system saves the search and the buyer will be alerted if there is a match found based on future postings. The algorithm developed is useful and as it can be applied in other search context.

Keywords: Matching algorithm, online trading, search, future postings, car matching

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1636 New Enhanced Hexagon-Based Search Using Point-Oriented Inner Search for Fast Block Motion Estimation

Authors: Lai-Man Po, Chi-Wang Ting, Ka-Ho Ng

Abstract:

Recently, an enhanced hexagon-based search (EHS) algorithm was proposed to speedup the original hexagon-based search (HS) by exploiting the group-distortion information of some evaluated points. In this paper, a second version of the EHS is proposed with a new point-oriented inner search technique which can further speedup the HS in both large and small motion environments. Experimental results show that the enhanced hexagon-based search version-2 (EHS2) is faster than the HS up to 34% with negligible PSNR degradation.

Keywords: Inner search, fast motion estimation, block-matching, hexagon search

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1635 Solving Process Planning, Weighted Earliest Due Date Scheduling and Weighted Due Date Assignment Using Simulated Annealing and Evolutionary Strategies

Authors: Halil Ibrahim Demir, Abdullah Hulusi Kokcam, Fuat Simsir, Özer Uygun

Abstract:

Traditionally, three important manufacturing functions which are process planning, scheduling and due-date assignment are performed sequentially and separately. Although there are numerous works on the integration of process planning and scheduling and plenty of works focusing on scheduling with due date assignment, there are only a few works on integrated process planning, scheduling and due-date assignment. Although due-dates are determined without taking into account of weights of the customers in the literature, here weighted due-date assignment is employed to get better performance. Jobs are scheduled according to weighted earliest due date dispatching rule and due dates are determined according to some popular due date assignment methods by taking into account of the weights of each job. Simulated Annealing, Evolutionary Strategies, Random Search, hybrid of Random Search and Simulated Annealing, and hybrid of Random Search and Evolutionary Strategies, are applied as solution techniques. Three important manufacturing functions are integrated step-by-step and higher integration levels are found better. Search meta-heuristics are found to be very useful while improving performance measure.

Keywords: Evolutionary strategies, hybrid searches, process planning, simulated annealing, weighted due-date assignment, weighted scheduling.

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1634 Personalization of Web Search Using Web Page Clustering Technique

Authors: Amol Bapuso Rajmane, Pradeep M. Patil, Prakash J. Kulkarni

Abstract:

The Information Retrieval community is facing the problem of effective representation of Web search results. When we organize web search results into clusters it becomes easy to the users to quickly browse through search results. The traditional search engines organize search results into clusters for ambiguous queries, representing each cluster for each meaning of the query. The clusters are obtained according to the topical similarity of the retrieved search results, but it is possible for results to be totally dissimilar and still correspond to the same meaning of the query. People search is also one of the most common tasks on the Web nowadays, but when a particular person’s name is queried the search engines return web pages which are related to different persons who have the same queried name. By placing the burden on the user of disambiguating and collecting pages relevant to a particular person, in this paper, we have developed an approach that clusters web pages based on the association of the web pages to the different people and clusters that are based on generic entity search.

Keywords: Entity resolution, information retrieval, graph based disambiguation, web people search, clustering.

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1633 In Search of Excellence – Google vs Baidu

Authors: Linda, Sau-ling LAI

Abstract:

This paper compares the search engine marketing strategies adopted in China and the Western countries through two illustrative cases, namely, Google and Baidu. Marketers in the West use search engine optimization (SEO) to rank their sites higher for queries in Google. Baidu, however, offers paid search placement, or the selling of engine results for particular keywords to the higher bidders. Whereas Google has been providing innovative services ranging from Google Map to Google Blog, Baidu remains focused on search services – the one that it does best. The challenges and opportunities of the Chinese Internet market offered to global entrepreneurs are also discussed in the paper

Keywords: Search Engine, Web analytics, Google, Baidu

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1632 A Novel Approach to Improve Users Search Goal in Web Usage Mining

Authors: R. Lokeshkumar, P. Sengottuvelan

Abstract:

Web mining is to discover and extract useful Information. Different users may have different search goals when they search by giving queries and submitting it to a search engine. The inference and analysis of user search goals can be very useful for providing an experience result for a user search query. In this project, we propose a novel approach to infer user search goals by analyzing search web logs. First, we propose a novel approach to infer user search goals by analyzing search engine query logs, the feedback sessions are constructed from user click-through logs and it efficiently reflect the information needed for users. Second we propose a preprocessing technique to clean the unnecessary data’s from web log file (feedback session). Third we propose a technique to generate pseudo-documents to representation of feedback sessions for clustering. Finally we implement k-medoids clustering algorithm to discover different user search goals and to provide a more optimal result for a search query based on feedback sessions for the user.

Keywords: Data Preprocessing, Session Identification, Web log mining, Web Personalization.

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1631 A Context-Sensitive Algorithm for Media Similarity Search

Authors: Guang-Ho Cha

Abstract:

This paper presents a context-sensitive media similarity search algorithm. One of the central problems regarding media search is the semantic gap between the low-level features computed automatically from media data and the human interpretation of them. This is because the notion of similarity is usually based on high-level abstraction but the low-level features do not sometimes reflect the human perception. Many media search algorithms have used the Minkowski metric to measure similarity between image pairs. However those functions cannot adequately capture the aspects of the characteristics of the human visual system as well as the nonlinear relationships in contextual information given by images in a collection. Our search algorithm tackles this problem by employing a similarity measure and a ranking strategy that reflect the nonlinearity of human perception and contextual information in a dataset. Similarity search in an image database based on this contextual information shows encouraging experimental results.

Keywords: Context-sensitive search, image search, media search, similarity ranking, similarity search.

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1630 Joint Adaptive Block Matching Search (JABMS) Algorithm

Authors: V.K.Ananthashayana, Pushpa.M.K

Abstract:

In this paper a new Joint Adaptive Block Matching Search (JABMS) algorithm is proposed to generate motion vector and search a best match macro block by classifying the motion vector movement based on prediction error. Diamond Search (DS) algorithm generates high estimation accuracy when motion vector is small and Adaptive Rood Pattern Search (ARPS) algorithm can handle large motion vector but is not very accurate. The proposed JABMS algorithm which is capable of considering both small and large motions gives improved estimation accuracy and the computational cost is reduced by 15.2 times compared with Exhaustive Search (ES) algorithm and is 1.3 times less compared with Diamond search algorithm.

Keywords: Adaptive rood pattern search, Block matching, Diamond search, Joint Adaptive search, Motion estimation.

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1629 Highly Accurate Target Motion Compensation Using Entropy Function Minimization

Authors: Amin Aghatabar Roodbary, Mohammad Hassan Bastani

Abstract:

One of the defects of stepped frequency radar systems is their sensitivity to target motion. In such systems, target motion causes range cell shift, false peaks, Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) reduction and range profile spreading because of power spectrum interference of each range cell in adjacent range cells which induces distortion in High Resolution Range Profile (HRRP) and disrupt target recognition process. Thus Target Motion Parameters (TMPs) effects compensation should be employed. In this paper, such a method for estimating TMPs (velocity and acceleration) and consequently eliminating or suppressing the unwanted effects on HRRP based on entropy minimization has been proposed. This method is carried out in two major steps: in the first step, a discrete search method has been utilized over the whole acceleration-velocity lattice network, in a specific interval seeking to find a less-accurate minimum point of the entropy function. Then in the second step, a 1-D search over velocity is done in locus of the minimum for several constant acceleration lines, in order to enhance the accuracy of the minimum point found in the first step. The provided simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Keywords: ATR, HRRP, motion compensation, SFW, TMP.

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1628 EnArgus: A Knowledge-Based Search Application for Energy Research Projects

Authors: Frederike Ohrem, Lukas Sikorski, Bastian Haarmann

Abstract:

Often the users of a semantic search application are facing the problem that they do not find appropriate terms for their search. This holds especially if the data to be searched is from a technical field in which the user does not have expertise. In order to support the user finding the results he seeks, we developed a domain-specific ontology and implemented it into a search application. The ontology serves as a knowledge base, suggesting technical terms to the user which he can add to his query. In this paper, we present the search application and the underlying ontology as well as the project EnArgus in which the application was developed.

Keywords: Information system, knowledge representation, ontology, semantic search.

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1627 A hybrid Tabu Search Algorithm to Cell Formation Problem and its Variants

Authors: Tai-Hsi Wu, Jinn-Yi Yeh, Chin-Chih Chang

Abstract:

Cell formation is the first step in the design of cellular manufacturing systems. In this study, a general purpose computational scheme employing a hybrid tabu search algorithm as the core is proposed to solve the cell formation problem and its variants. In the proposed scheme, great flexibilities are left to the users. The core solution searching algorithm embedded in the scheme can be easily changed to any other meta-heuristic algorithms, such as the simulated annealing, genetic algorithm, etc., based on the characteristics of the problems to be solved or the preferences the users might have. In addition, several counters are designed to control the timing of conducting intensified solution searching and diversified solution searching strategies interactively.

Keywords: Cell formation problem, Tabu search

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1626 Choosing Search Algorithms in Bayesian Optimization Algorithm

Authors: Hao Wu, Jonathan L. Shapiro

Abstract:

The Bayesian Optimization Algorithm (BOA) is an algorithm based on the estimation of distributions. It uses techniques from modeling data by Bayesian networks to estimating the joint distribution of promising solutions. To obtain the structure of Bayesian network, different search algorithms can be used. The key point that BOA addresses is whether the constructed Bayesian network could generate new and useful solutions (strings), which could lead the algorithm in the right direction to solve the problem. Undoubtedly, this ability is a crucial factor of the efficiency of BOA. Varied search algorithms can be used in BOA, but their performances are different. For choosing better ones, certain suitable method to present their ability difference is needed. In this paper, a greedy search algorithm and a stochastic search algorithm are used in BOA to solve certain optimization problem. A method using Kullback-Leibler (KL) Divergence to reflect their difference is described.

Keywords: Bayesian optimization algorithm, greedy search, KL divergence, stochastic search.

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1625 An Improved Fast Search Method Using Histogram Features for DNA Sequence Database

Authors: Qiu Chen, Feifei Lee, Koji Kotani, Tadahiro Ohmi

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose an efficient hierarchical DNA sequence search method to improve the search speed while the accuracy is being kept constant. For a given query DNA sequence, firstly, a fast local search method using histogram features is used as a filtering mechanism before scanning the sequences in the database. An overlapping processing is newly added to improve the robustness of the algorithm. A large number of DNA sequences with low similarity will be excluded for latter searching. The Smith-Waterman algorithm is then applied to each remainder sequences. Experimental results using GenBank sequence data show the proposed method combining histogram information and Smith-Waterman algorithm is more efficient for DNA sequence search.

Keywords: Fast search, DNA sequence, Histogram feature, Smith-Waterman algorithm, Local search

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1624 An Ontology Based Question Answering System on Software Test Document Domain

Authors: Meltem Serhatli, Ferda N. Alpaslan

Abstract:

Processing the data by computers and performing reasoning tasks is an important aim in Computer Science. Semantic Web is one step towards it. The use of ontologies to enhance the information by semantically is the current trend. Huge amount of domain specific, unstructured on-line data needs to be expressed in machine understandable and semantically searchable format. Currently users are often forced to search manually in the results returned by the keyword-based search services. They also want to use their native languages to express what they search. In this paper, an ontology-based automated question answering system on software test documents domain is presented. The system allows users to enter a question about the domain by means of natural language and returns exact answer of the questions. Conversion of the natural language question into the ontology based query is the challenging part of the system. To be able to achieve this, a new algorithm regarding free text to ontology based search engine query conversion is proposed. The algorithm is based on investigation of suitable question type and parsing the words of the question sentence.

Keywords: Description Logics, ontology, question answering, reasoning.

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1623 Effect of Size of the Step in the Response Surface Methodology using Nonlinear Test Functions

Authors: Jesús Everardo Olguín Tiznado, Rafael García Martínez, Claudia Camargo Wilson, Juan Andrés López Barreras, Everardo Inzunza González, Javier Ordorica Villalvazo

Abstract:

The response surface methodology (RSM) is a collection of mathematical and statistical techniques useful in the modeling and analysis of problems in which the dependent variable receives the influence of several independent variables, in order to determine which are the conditions under which should operate these variables to optimize a production process. The RSM estimated a regression model of first order, and sets the search direction using the method of maximum / minimum slope up / down MMS U/D. However, this method selects the step size intuitively, which can affect the efficiency of the RSM. This paper assesses how the step size affects the efficiency of this methodology. The numerical examples are carried out through Monte Carlo experiments, evaluating three response variables: efficiency gain function, the optimum distance and the number of iterations. The results in the simulation experiments showed that in response variables efficiency and gain function at the optimum distance were not affected by the step size, while the number of iterations is found that the efficiency if it is affected by the size of the step and function type of test used.

Keywords: RSM, dependent variable, independent variables, efficiency, simulation

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1622 High Speed Bitwise Search for Digital Forensic System

Authors: Hyungkeun Jee, Jooyoung Lee, Dowon Hong

Abstract:

The most common forensic activity is searching a hard disk for string of data. Nowadays, investigators and analysts are increasingly experiencing large, even terabyte sized data sets when conducting digital investigations. Therefore consecutive searching can take weeks to complete successfully. There are two primary search methods: index-based search and bitwise search. Index-based searching is very fast after the initial indexing but initial indexing takes a long time. In this paper, we discuss a high speed bitwise search model for large-scale digital forensic investigations. We used pattern matching board, which is generally used for network security, to search for string and complex regular expressions. Our results indicate that in many cases, the use of pattern matching board can substantially increase the performance of digital forensic search tools.

Keywords: Digital forensics, search, regular expression.

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1621 Interactive, Topic-Oriented Search Support by a Centroid-Based Text Categorisation

Authors: Mario Kubek, Herwig Unger

Abstract:

Centroid terms are single words that semantically and topically characterise text documents and so may serve as their very compact representation in automatic text processing. In the present paper, centroids are used to measure the relevance of text documents with respect to a given search query. Thus, a new graphbased paradigm for searching texts in large corpora is proposed and evaluated against keyword-based methods. The first, promising experimental results demonstrate the usefulness of the centroid-based search procedure. It is shown that especially the routing of search queries in interactive and decentralised search systems can be greatly improved by applying this approach. A detailed discussion on further fields of its application completes this contribution.

Keywords: Search algorithm, centroid, query, keyword, cooccurrence, categorisation.

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1620 Cross-Industry Innovations–Systematic Identification of Ideas for Radical Problem Solving

Authors: Niklas Echterhoff, Benjamin Amshoff, Jürgen Gausemeier

Abstract:

Creativity is often based on an unorthodox recombination of knowledge; in fact: 80% of all innovations use given knowledge and put it into a new combination. Cross-industry innovations follow this way of thinking and bring together problems and solution ideas from different industries. Therefore analogies and search strategies have to be developed. Taking this path, the questions where to search, what to search and how to search have to be answered. Afterwards, the gathered information can be used within a planned search process. Identified solution ideas have to be assessed and analyzed in detail for the success promising adaption planning.

Keywords: analogy building, cross-industry innovations, knowledge transfer, solution adaption.

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1619 On the Interactive Search with Web Documents

Authors: Mario Kubek, Herwig Unger

Abstract:

Due to the large amount of information in the World Wide Web (WWW, web) and the lengthy and usually linearly ordered result lists of web search engines that do not indicate semantic relationships between their entries, the search for topically similar and related documents can become a tedious task. Especially, the process of formulating queries with proper terms representing specific information needs requires much effort from the user. This problem gets even bigger when the user's knowledge on a subject and its technical terms is not sufficient enough to do so. This article presents the new and interactive search application DocAnalyser that addresses this problem by enabling users to find similar and related web documents based on automatic query formulation and state-ofthe- art search word extraction. Additionally, this tool can be used to track topics across semantically connected web documents.

Keywords: DocAnalyser, interactive web search, search word extraction, query formulation, source topic detection, topic tracking.

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1618 Feature Subset Selection Using Ant Colony Optimization

Authors: Ahmed Al-Ani

Abstract:

Feature selection is an important step in many pattern classification problems. It is applied to select a subset of features, from a much larger set, such that the selected subset is sufficient to perform the classification task. Due to its importance, the problem of feature selection has been investigated by many researchers. In this paper, a novel feature subset search procedure that utilizes the Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is presented. The ACO is a metaheuristic inspired by the behavior of real ants in their search for the shortest paths to food sources. It looks for optimal solutions by considering both local heuristics and previous knowledge. When applied to two different classification problems, the proposed algorithm achieved very promising results.

Keywords: Ant Colony Optimization, ant systems, feature selection, pattern recognition.

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1617 A Modified Spiral Search Algorithm and Its Embedded System Architecture Design

Authors: Nikolaos Kroupis, Minas Dasygenis, Dimitrios Soudris, Antonios Thanailakis

Abstract:

One of the most growing areas in the embedded community is multimedia devices. Multimedia devices incorporate a number of complicated functions for their operation, like motion estimation. A multitude of different implementations have been proposed to reduce motion estimation complexity, such as spiral search. We have studied the implementations of spiral search and identified areas of improvement. We propose a modified spiral search algorithm, with lower computational complexity compared to the original spiral search. We have implemented our algorithm on an embedded ARM based architecture, with custom memory hierarchy. The resulting system yields energy consumption reduction up to 64% and performance increase up to 77%, with a small penalty of 2.3 dB, in average, of video quality compared with the original spiral search algorithm.

Keywords: Spiral Search, Motion Estimation, Embedded Systems, Low Power

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1616 A Hybrid Search Algorithm for Solving Constraint Satisfaction Problems

Authors: Abdel-Reza Hatamlou, Mohammad Reza Meybodi

Abstract:

In this paper we present a hybrid search algorithm for solving constraint satisfaction and optimization problems. This algorithm combines ideas of two basic approaches: complete and incomplete algorithms which also known as systematic search and local search algorithms. Different characteristics of systematic search and local search methods are complementary. Therefore we have tried to get the advantages of both approaches in the presented algorithm. The major advantage of presented algorithm is finding partial sound solution for complicated problems which their complete solution could not be found in a reasonable time. This algorithm results are compared with other algorithms using the well known n-queens problem.

Keywords: Constraint Satisfaction Problem, Hybrid SearchAlgorithm.

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1615 An Improved Learning Algorithm based on the Conjugate Gradient Method for Back Propagation Neural Networks

Authors: N. M. Nawi, M. R. Ransing, R. S. Ransing

Abstract:

The conjugate gradient optimization algorithm usually used for nonlinear least squares is presented and is combined with the modified back propagation algorithm yielding a new fast training multilayer perceptron (MLP) algorithm (CGFR/AG). The approaches presented in the paper consist of three steps: (1) Modification on standard back propagation algorithm by introducing gain variation term of the activation function, (2) Calculating the gradient descent on error with respect to the weights and gains values and (3) the determination of the new search direction by exploiting the information calculated by gradient descent in step (2) as well as the previous search direction. The proposed method improved the training efficiency of back propagation algorithm by adaptively modifying the initial search direction. Performance of the proposed method is demonstrated by comparing to the conjugate gradient algorithm from neural network toolbox for the chosen benchmark. The results show that the number of iterations required by the proposed method to converge is less than 20% of what is required by the standard conjugate gradient and neural network toolbox algorithm.

Keywords: Back-propagation, activation function, conjugategradient, search direction, gain variation.

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1614 Classifier Combination Approach in Motion Imagery Signals Processing for Brain Computer Interface

Authors: Homayoon Zarshenas, Mahdi Bamdad, Hadi Grailu, Akbar A. Shakoori

Abstract:

In this study we focus on improvement performance of a cue based Motor Imagery Brain Computer Interface (BCI). For this purpose, data fusion approach is used on results of different classifiers to make the best decision. At first step Distinction Sensitive Learning Vector Quantization method is used as a feature selection method to determine most informative frequencies in recorded signals and its performance is evaluated by frequency search method. Then informative features are extracted by packet wavelet transform. In next step 5 different types of classification methods are applied. The methodologies are tested on BCI Competition II dataset III, the best obtained accuracy is 85% and the best kappa value is 0.8. At final step ordered weighted averaging (OWA) method is used to provide a proper aggregation classifiers outputs. Using OWA enhanced system accuracy to 95% and kappa value to 0.9. Applying OWA just uses 50 milliseconds for performing calculation.

Keywords: BCI, EEG, Classifier, Fuzzy operator, OWA.

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1613 An Improved Conjugate Gradient Based Learning Algorithm for Back Propagation Neural Networks

Authors: N. M. Nawi, R. S. Ransing, M. R. Ransing

Abstract:

The conjugate gradient optimization algorithm is combined with the modified back propagation algorithm to yield a computationally efficient algorithm for training multilayer perceptron (MLP) networks (CGFR/AG). The computational efficiency is enhanced by adaptively modifying initial search direction as described in the following steps: (1) Modification on standard back propagation algorithm by introducing a gain variation term in the activation function, (2) Calculation of the gradient descent of error with respect to the weights and gains values and (3) the determination of a new search direction by using information calculated in step (2). The performance of the proposed method is demonstrated by comparing accuracy and computation time with the conjugate gradient algorithm used in MATLAB neural network toolbox. The results show that the computational efficiency of the proposed method was better than the standard conjugate gradient algorithm.

Keywords: Adaptive gain variation, back-propagation, activation function, conjugate gradient, search direction.

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1612 Steepest Descent Method with New Step Sizes

Authors: Bib Paruhum Silalahi, Djihad Wungguli, Sugi Guritman

Abstract:

Steepest descent method is a simple gradient method for optimization. This method has a slow convergence in heading to the optimal solution, which occurs because of the zigzag form of the steps. Barzilai and Borwein modified this algorithm so that it performs well for problems with large dimensions. Barzilai and Borwein method results have sparked a lot of research on the method of steepest descent, including alternate minimization gradient method and Yuan method. Inspired by previous works, we modified the step size of the steepest descent method. We then compare the modification results against the Barzilai and Borwein method, alternate minimization gradient method and Yuan method for quadratic function cases in terms of the iterations number and the running time. The average results indicate that the steepest descent method with the new step sizes provide good results for small dimensions and able to compete with the results of Barzilai and Borwein method and the alternate minimization gradient method for large dimensions. The new step sizes have faster convergence compared to the other methods, especially for cases with large dimensions.

Keywords: Convergence, iteration, line search, running time, steepest descent, unconstrained optimization.

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