Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 85

Search results for: quantization

85 Multi Switched Split Vector Quantizer

Authors: M. Satya Sai Ram, P. Siddaiah, M. Madhavi Latha

Abstract:

Vector quantization is a powerful tool for speech coding applications. This paper deals with LPC Coding of speech signals which uses a new technique called Multi Switched Split Vector Quantization, This is a hybrid of two product code vector quantization techniques namely the Multi stage vector quantization technique, and Switched split vector quantization technique,. Multi Switched Split Vector Quantization technique quantizes the linear predictive coefficients in terms of line spectral frequencies. From results it is proved that Multi Switched Split Vector Quantization provides better trade off between bitrate and spectral distortion performance, computational complexity and memory requirements when compared to Switched Split Vector Quantization, Multi stage vector quantization, and Split Vector Quantization techniques. By employing the switching technique at each stage of the vector quantizer the spectral distortion, computational complexity and memory requirements were greatly reduced. Spectral distortion was measured in dB, Computational complexity was measured in floating point operations (flops), and memory requirements was measured in (floats).

Keywords: Unconstrained vector quantization, Linear predictiveCoding, Split vector quantization, Multi stage vector quantization, Switched Split vector quantization, Line Spectral Frequencies.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1550
84 Multi Switched Split Vector Quantization of Narrowband Speech Signals

Authors: M. Satya Sai Ram, P. Siddaiah, M. Madhavi Latha

Abstract:

Vector quantization is a powerful tool for speech coding applications. This paper deals with LPC Coding of speech signals which uses a new technique called Multi Switched Split Vector Quantization (MSSVQ), which is a hybrid of Multi, switched, split vector quantization techniques. The spectral distortion performance, computational complexity, and memory requirements of MSSVQ are compared to split vector quantization (SVQ), multi stage vector quantization(MSVQ) and switched split vector quantization (SSVQ) techniques. It has been proved from results that MSSVQ has better spectral distortion performance, lower computational complexity and lower memory requirements when compared to all the above mentioned product code vector quantization techniques. Computational complexity is measured in floating point operations (flops), and memory requirements is measured in (floats).

Keywords: Linear predictive Coding, Multi stage vectorquantization, Switched Split vector quantization, Split vectorquantization, Line Spectral Frequencies (LSF).

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1481
83 Image Compression Using Hybrid Vector Quantization

Authors: S.Esakkirajan, T. Veerakumar, V. Senthil Murugan, P.Navaneethan

Abstract:

In this paper, image compression using hybrid vector quantization scheme such as Multistage Vector Quantization (MSVQ) and Pyramid Vector Quantization (PVQ) are introduced. A combined MSVQ and PVQ are utilized to take advantages provided by both of them. In the wavelet decomposition of the image, most of the information often resides in the lowest frequency subband. MSVQ is applied to significant low frequency coefficients. PVQ is utilized to quantize the coefficients of other high frequency subbands. The wavelet coefficients are derived using lifting scheme. The main aim of the proposed scheme is to achieve high compression ratio without much compromise in the image quality. The results are compared with the existing image compression scheme using MSVQ.

Keywords: Lifting Scheme, Multistage Vector Quantization and Pyramid Vector Quantization.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1770
82 Attitude Stabilization of Satellites Using Random Dither Quantization

Authors: Attitude Stabilization of Satellites Using Random Dither Quantization

Abstract:

Recently, the effectiveness of random dither quantization method for linear feedback control systems has been shown in several papers. However, the random dither quantization method has not yet been applied to nonlinear feedback control systems. The objective of this paper is to verify the effectiveness of random dither quantization method for nonlinear feedback control systems. For this purpose, we consider the attitude stabilization problem of satellites using discrete-level actuators. Namely, this paper provides a control method based on the random dither quantization method for stabilizing the attitude of satellites using discrete-level actuators.

Keywords: Quantized control, nonlinear systems, random dither quantization.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 704
81 A Hybrid Approach for Color Image Quantization Using K-means and Firefly Algorithms

Authors: Parisut Jitpakdee, Pakinee Aimmanee, Bunyarit Uyyanonvara

Abstract:

Color Image quantization (CQ) is an important problem in computer graphics, image and processing. The aim of quantization is to reduce colors in an image with minimum distortion. Clustering is a widely used technique for color quantization; all colors in an image are grouped to small clusters. In this paper, we proposed a new hybrid approach for color quantization using firefly algorithm (FA) and K-means algorithm. Firefly algorithm is a swarmbased algorithm that can be used for solving optimization problems. The proposed method can overcome the drawbacks of both algorithms such as the local optima converge problem in K-means and the early converge of firefly algorithm. Experiments on three commonly used images and the comparison results shows that the proposed algorithm surpasses both the base-line technique k-means clustering and original firefly algorithm.

Keywords: Clustering, Color quantization, Firefly algorithm, Kmeans.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2061
80 Speech Data Compression using Vector Quantization

Authors: H. B. Kekre, Tanuja K. Sarode

Abstract:

Mostly transforms are used for speech data compressions which are lossy algorithms. Such algorithms are tolerable for speech data compression since the loss in quality is not perceived by the human ear. However the vector quantization (VQ) has a potential to give more data compression maintaining the same quality. In this paper we propose speech data compression algorithm using vector quantization technique. We have used VQ algorithms LBG, KPE and FCG. The results table shows computational complexity of these three algorithms. Here we have introduced a new performance parameter Average Fractional Change in Speech Sample (AFCSS). Our FCG algorithm gives far better performance considering mean absolute error, AFCSS and complexity as compared to others.

Keywords: Vector Quantization, Data Compression, Encoding, , Speech coding.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2169
79 Narrowband Speech Hiding using Vector Quantization

Authors: Driss Guerchi, Fatiha Djebbar

Abstract:

In this work we introduce an efficient method to limit the impact of the hiding process on the quality of the cover speech. Vector quantization of the speech spectral information reduces drastically the number of the secret speech parameters to be embedded in the cover signal. Compared to scalar hiding, vector quantization hiding technique provides a stego signal that is indistinguishable from the cover speech. The objective and subjective performance measures reveal that the current hiding technique attracts no suspicion about the presence of the secret message in the stego speech, while being able to recover an intelligible copy of the secret message at the receiver side.

Keywords: Speech steganography, LSF vector quantization, fast Fourier transform

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1285
78 Numerical Simulations on Feasibility of Stochastic Model Predictive Control for Linear Discrete-Time Systems with Random Dither Quantization

Authors: Taiki Baba, Tomoaki Hashimoto

Abstract:

The random dither quantization method enables us to achieve much better performance than the simple uniform quantization method for the design of quantized control systems. Motivated by this fact, the stochastic model predictive control method in which a performance index is minimized subject to probabilistic constraints imposed on the state variables of systems has been proposed for linear feedback control systems with random dither quantization. In other words, a method for solving optimal control problems subject to probabilistic state constraints for linear discrete-time control systems with random dither quantization has been already established. To our best knowledge, however, the feasibility of such a kind of optimal control problems has not yet been studied. Our objective in this paper is to investigate the feasibility of stochastic model predictive control problems for linear discrete-time control systems with random dither quantization. To this end, we provide the results of numerical simulations that verify the feasibility of stochastic model predictive control problems for linear discrete-time control systems with random dither quantization.

Keywords: Model predictive control, stochastic systems, probabilistic constraints, random dither quantization.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 738
77 Fast Adjustable Threshold for Uniform Neural Network Quantization

Authors: Alexander Goncharenko, Andrey Denisov, Sergey Alyamkin, Evgeny Terentev

Abstract:

The neural network quantization is highly desired procedure to perform before running neural networks on mobile devices. Quantization without fine-tuning leads to accuracy drop of the model, whereas commonly used training with quantization is done on the full set of the labeled data and therefore is both time- and resource-consuming. Real life applications require simplification and acceleration of quantization procedure that will maintain accuracy of full-precision neural network, especially for modern mobile neural network architectures like Mobilenet-v1, MobileNet-v2 and MNAS. Here we present a method to significantly optimize training with quantization procedure by introducing the trained scale factors for discretization thresholds that are separate for each filter. Using the proposed technique, we quantize the modern mobile architectures of neural networks with the set of train data of only ∼ 10% of the total ImageNet 2012 sample. Such reduction of train dataset size and small number of trainable parameters allow to fine-tune the network for several hours while maintaining the high accuracy of quantized model (accuracy drop was less than 0.5%). Ready-for-use models and code are available in the GitHub repository.

Keywords: Distillation, machine learning, neural networks, quantization.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 511
76 A New Vector Quantization Front-End Process for Discrete HMM Speech Recognition System

Authors: M. Debyeche, J.P Haton, A. Houacine

Abstract:

The paper presents a complete discrete statistical framework, based on a novel vector quantization (VQ) front-end process. This new VQ approach performs an optimal distribution of VQ codebook components on HMM states. This technique that we named the distributed vector quantization (DVQ) of hidden Markov models, succeeds in unifying acoustic micro-structure and phonetic macro-structure, when the estimation of HMM parameters is performed. The DVQ technique is implemented through two variants. The first variant uses the K-means algorithm (K-means- DVQ) to optimize the VQ, while the second variant exploits the benefits of the classification behavior of neural networks (NN-DVQ) for the same purpose. The proposed variants are compared with the HMM-based baseline system by experiments of specific Arabic consonants recognition. The results show that the distributed vector quantization technique increase the performance of the discrete HMM system.

Keywords: Hidden Markov Model, Vector Quantization, Neural Network, Speech Recognition, Arabic Language

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1849
75 Fingerprint Compression Using Contourlet Transform and Multistage Vector Quantization

Authors: S. Esakkirajan, T. Veerakumar, V. Senthil Murugan, R. Sudhakar

Abstract:

This paper presents a new fingerprint coding technique based on contourlet transform and multistage vector quantization. Wavelets have shown their ability in representing natural images that contain smooth areas separated with edges. However, wavelets cannot efficiently take advantage of the fact that the edges usually found in fingerprints are smooth curves. This issue is addressed by directional transforms, known as contourlets, which have the property of preserving edges. The contourlet transform is a new extension to the wavelet transform in two dimensions using nonseparable and directional filter banks. The computation and storage requirements are the major difficulty in implementing a vector quantizer. In the full-search algorithm, the computation and storage complexity is an exponential function of the number of bits used in quantizing each frame of spectral information. The storage requirement in multistage vector quantization is less when compared to full search vector quantization. The coefficients of contourlet transform are quantized by multistage vector quantization. The quantized coefficients are encoded by Huffman coding. The results obtained are tabulated and compared with the existing wavelet based ones.

Keywords: Contourlet Transform, Directional Filter bank, Laplacian Pyramid, Multistage Vector Quantization

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1790
74 Optimization of Quantization in Higher Order Modulations for LDPC-Coded Systems

Authors: M.Sushanth Babu, P.Krishna, U.Venu, M.Ranjith

Abstract:

In this paper, we evaluate the choice of suitable quantization characteristics for both the decoder messages and the received samples in Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) coded systems using M-QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation) schemes. The analysis involves the demapper block that provides initial likelihood values for the decoder, by relating its quantization strategy of the decoder. A mapping strategy refers to the grouping of bits within a codeword, where each m-bit group is used to select a 2m-ary signal in accordance with the signal labels. Further we evaluate the system with mapping strategies like Consecutive-Bit (CB) and Bit-Reliability (BR). A new demapper version, based on approximate expressions, is also presented to yield a low complexity hardware implementation.

Keywords: Low Density parity Check, Mapping, Demapping, Quantization, Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1590
73 Binary Phase-Only Filter Watermarking with Quantized Embedding

Authors: Hu Haibo, Liu Yi, He Ming

Abstract:

The binary phase-only filter digital watermarking embeds the phase information of the discrete Fourier transform of the image into the corresponding magnitudes for better image authentication. The paper proposed an approach of how to implement watermark embedding by quantizing the magnitude, with discussing how to regulate the quantization steps based on the frequencies of the magnitude coefficients of the embedded watermark, and how to embed the watermark at low frequency quantization. The theoretical analysis and simulation results show that algorithm flexibility, security, watermark imperceptibility and detection performance of the binary phase-only filter digital watermarking can be effectively improved with quantization based watermark embedding, and the robustness against JPEG compression will also be increased to some extent.

Keywords: binary phase-only filter, discrete Fourier transform, digital watermarking, image authentication, quantization.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1386
72 Improved Posterized Color Images based on Color Quantization and Contrast Enhancement

Authors: Oh-Yeol Kwon, Sung-Il Chien

Abstract:

A conventional image posterization method occasionally fails to preserve the shape and color of objects due to the uneffective color reduction. This paper proposes a new image posterizartion method by using modified color quantization for preserving the shape and color of objects and color contrast enhancement for improving lightness contrast and saturation. Experiment results show that our proposed method can provide visually more satisfactory posterization result than that of the conventional method.

Keywords: Color contrast enhancement, color quantization, color segmentation, image posterization

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2509
71 A Multipurpose Audio Watermarking Algorithm Based on Vector Quantization in DCT Domain

Authors: Jixin Liu, Zheming Lu

Abstract:

In this paper, a novel multipurpose audio watermarking algorithm is proposed based on Vector Quantization (VQ) in Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) domain using the codeword labeling and index-bit constrained method. By using this algorithm, it can fulfill the requirements of both the copyright protection and content integrity authentication at the same time for the multimedia artworks. The robust watermark is embedded in the middle frequency coefficients of the DCT transform during the labeled codeword vector quantization procedure. The fragile watermark is embedded into the indices of the high frequency coefficients of the DCT transform by using the constrained index vector quantization method for the purpose of integrity authentication of the original audio signals. Both the robust and the fragile watermarks can be extracted without the original audio signals, and the simulation results show that our algorithm is effective with regard to the transparency, robustness and the authentication requirements

Keywords: Copyright Protection, Discrete Cosine Transform, Integrity Authentication, Multipurpose Audio Watermarking, Vector Quantization.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1836
70 Modified Vector Quantization Method for Image Compression

Authors: K.Somasundaram, S.Domnic

Abstract:

A low bit rate still image compression scheme by compressing the indices of Vector Quantization (VQ) and generating residual codebook is proposed. The indices of VQ are compressed by exploiting correlation among image blocks, which reduces the bit per index. A residual codebook similar to VQ codebook is generated that represents the distortion produced in VQ. Using this residual codebook the distortion in the reconstructed image is removed, thereby increasing the image quality. Our scheme combines these two methods. Experimental results on standard image Lena show that our scheme can give a reconstructed image with a PSNR value of 31.6 db at 0.396 bits per pixel. Our scheme is also faster than the existing VQ variants.

Keywords: Image compression, Vector Quantization, Residual Codebook.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1263
69 Color Image Segmentation Using Kekre-s Algorithm for Vector Quantization

Authors: H. B. Kekre, Tanuja K. Sarode, Bhakti Raul

Abstract:

In this paper we propose segmentation approach based on Vector Quantization technique. Here we have used Kekre-s fast codebook generation algorithm for segmenting low-altitude aerial image. This is used as a preprocessing step to form segmented homogeneous regions. Further to merge adjacent regions color similarity and volume difference criteria is used. Experiments performed with real aerial images of varied nature demonstrate that this approach does not result in over segmentation or under segmentation. The vector quantization seems to give far better results as compared to conventional on-the-fly watershed algorithm.

Keywords: Image Segmentation, , Codebook, Codevector, data compression, Encoding

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1999
68 On the Quantizer Design for Base Station Cooperation Systems with SC-FDE Techniques

Authors: K. Firsanov, S. Gritsutenko, R. Dinis

Abstract:

By employing BS (Base Station) cooperation we can increase substantially the spectral efficiency and capacity of cellular systems. The signals received at each BS are sent to a central unit that performs the separation of the different MT (Mobile Terminal) using the same physical channel. However, we need accurate sampling and quantization of those signals so as to reduce the backhaul communication requirements. In this paper we consider the optimization of the quantizers for BS cooperation systems. Four different quantizer types are analyzed and optimized to allow better SQNR (Signal-to-Quantization Noise Ratio) and BER (Bit Error Rate) performance.

Keywords: Base Stations cooperation scheme, Bit Error Rate (BER), Quantizer, Signal to Quantization Noise Ratio (SQNR), SCFDE.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1630
67 A High Quality Speech Coder at 600 bps

Authors: Yong Zhang, Ruimin Hu

Abstract:

This paper presents a vocoder to obtain high quality synthetic speech at 600 bps. To reduce the bit rate, the algorithm is based on a sinusoidally excited linear prediction model which extracts few coding parameters, and three consecutive frames are grouped into a superframe and jointly vector quantization is used to obtain high coding efficiency. The inter-frame redundancy is exploited with distinct quantization schemes for different unvoiced/voiced frame combinations in the superframe. Experimental results show that the quality of the proposed coder is better than that of 2.4kbps LPC10e and achieves approximately the same as that of 2.4kbps MELP and with high robustness.

Keywords: Speech coding, Vector quantization, linear predicition, Mixed sinusoidal excitation

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2009
66 Stochastic Model Predictive Control for Linear Discrete-Time Systems with Random Dither Quantization

Authors: Tomoaki Hashimoto

Abstract:

Recently, feedback control systems using random dither quantizers have been proposed for linear discrete-time systems. However, the constraints imposed on state and control variables have not yet been taken into account for the design of feedback control systems with random dither quantization. Model predictive control is a kind of optimal feedback control in which control performance over a finite future is optimized with a performance index that has a moving initial and terminal time. An important advantage of model predictive control is its ability to handle constraints imposed on state and control variables. Based on the model predictive control approach, the objective of this paper is to present a control method that satisfies probabilistic state constraints for linear discrete-time feedback control systems with random dither quantization. In other words, this paper provides a method for solving the optimal control problems subject to probabilistic state constraints for linear discrete-time feedback control systems with random dither quantization.

Keywords: Optimal control, stochastic systems, discrete-time systems, probabilistic constraints, random dither quantization.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 925
65 Optimized Vector Quantization for Bayer Color Filter Array

Authors: M. Lakshmi, J. Senthil Kumar

Abstract:

Digital cameras to reduce cost, use an image sensor to capture color images. Color Filter Array (CFA) in digital cameras permits only one of the three primary (red-green-blue) colors to be sensed in a pixel and interpolates the two missing components through a method named demosaicking. Captured data is interpolated into a full color image and compressed in applications. Color interpolation before compression leads to data redundancy. This paper proposes a new Vector Quantization (VQ) technique to construct a VQ codebook with Differential Evolution (DE) Algorithm. The new technique is compared to conventional Linde- Buzo-Gray (LBG) method.

Keywords: Color Filter Array (CFA), Biorthogonal Wavelet, Vector Quantization (VQ), Differential Evolution (DE).

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1743
64 Speech Coding and Recognition

Authors: M. Satya Sai Ram, P. Siddaiah, M. Madhavi Latha

Abstract:

This paper investigates the performance of a speech recognizer in an interactive voice response system for various coded speech signals, coded by using a vector quantization technique namely Multi Switched Split Vector Quantization Technique. The process of recognizing the coded output can be used in Voice banking application. The recognition technique used for the recognition of the coded speech signals is the Hidden Markov Model technique. The spectral distortion performance, computational complexity, and memory requirements of Multi Switched Split Vector Quantization Technique and the performance of the speech recognizer at various bit rates have been computed. From results it is found that the speech recognizer is showing better performance at 24 bits/frame and it is found that the percentage of recognition is being varied from 100% to 93.33% for various bit rates.

Keywords: Linear predictive coding, Speech Recognition, Voice banking, Multi Switched Split Vector Quantization, Hidden Markov Model, Linear Predictive Coefficients.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1653
63 Stabilization of Rotational Motion of Spacecrafts Using Quantized Two Torque Inputs Based on Random Dither

Authors: Yusuke Kuramitsu, Tomoaki Hashimoto, Hirokazu Tahara

Abstract:

The control problem of underactuated spacecrafts has attracted a considerable amount of interest. The control method for a spacecraft equipped with less than three control torques is useful when one of the three control torques had failed. On the other hand, the quantized control of systems is one of the important research topics in recent years. The random dither quantization method that transforms a given continuous signal to a discrete signal by adding artificial random noise to the continuous signal before quantization has also attracted a considerable amount of interest. The objective of this study is to develop the control method based on random dither quantization method for stabilizing the rotational motion of a rigid spacecraft with two control inputs. In this paper, the effectiveness of random dither quantization control method for the stabilization of rotational motion of spacecrafts with two torque inputs is verified by numerical simulations.

Keywords: Spacecraft control, quantized control, nonlinear control, random dither method.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 528
62 Intra Prediction using Weighted Average of Pixel Values According to Prediction Direction

Authors: Kibaek Kim, Dongjin Jung, Jinik Jang, Jechang Jeong

Abstract:

In this paper, we proposed a method to reduce quantization error. In order to reduce quantization error, low pass filtering is applied on neighboring samples of current block in H.264/AVC. However, it has a weak point that low pass filtering is performed regardless of prediction direction. Since it doesn-t consider prediction direction, it may not reduce quantization error effectively. Proposed method considers prediction direction for low pass filtering and uses a threshold condition for reducing flag bit. We compare our experimental result with conventional method in H.264/AVC and we can achieve the average bit-rate reduction of 1.534% by applying the proposed method. Bit-rate reduction between 0.580% and 3.567% are shown for experimental results.

Keywords: Coding efficiency, H.264/AVC, Intra prediction, Low pass filter

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1561
61 Voltage Problem Location Classification Using Performance of Least Squares Support Vector Machine LS-SVM and Learning Vector Quantization LVQ

Authors: Khaled Abduesslam. M, Mohammed Ali, Basher H Alsdai, Muhammad Nizam, Inayati

Abstract:

This paper presents the voltage problem location classification using performance of Least Squares Support Vector Machine (LS-SVM) and Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) in electrical power system for proper voltage problem location implemented by IEEE 39 bus New- England. The data was collected from the time domain simulation by using Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT). Outputs from simulation data such as voltage, phase angle, real power and reactive power were taken as input to estimate voltage stability at particular buses based on Power Transfer Stability Index (PTSI).The simulation data was carried out on the IEEE 39 bus test system by considering load bus increased on the system. To verify of the proposed LS-SVM its performance was compared to Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ). The results showed that LS-SVM is faster and better as compared to LVQ. The results also demonstrated that the LS-SVM was estimated by 0% misclassification whereas LVQ had 7.69% misclassification.

Keywords: IEEE 39 bus, Least Squares Support Vector Machine, Learning Vector Quantization, Voltage Collapse.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2237
60 Image Compression Using Multiwavelet and Multi-Stage Vector Quantization

Authors: S. Esakkirajan, T. Veerakumar, V. Senthil Murugan, P. Navaneethan

Abstract:

The existing image coding standards generally degrades at low bit-rates because of the underlying block based Discrete Cosine Transform scheme. Over the past decade, the success of wavelets in solving many different problems has contributed to its unprecedented popularity. Due to implementation constraints scalar wavelets do not posses all the properties such as orthogonality, short support, linear phase symmetry, and a high order of approximation through vanishing moments simultaneously, which are very much essential for signal processing. New class of wavelets called 'Multiwavelets' which posses more than one scaling function overcomes this problem. This paper presents a new image coding scheme based on non linear approximation of multiwavelet coefficients along with multistage vector quantization. The performance of the proposed scheme is compared with the results obtained from scalar wavelets.

Keywords: Image compression, Multiwavelets, Multi-stagevector quantization.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1746
59 Weight Functions for Signal Reconstruction Based On Level Crossings

Authors: Nagesha, G. Hemantha Kumar

Abstract:

Although the level crossing concept has been the subject of intensive investigation over the last few years, certain problems of great interest remain unsolved. One of these concern is distribution of threshold levels. This paper presents a new threshold level allocation schemes for level crossing based on nonuniform sampling. Intuitively, it is more reasonable if the information rich regions of the signal are sampled finer and those with sparse information are sampled coarser. To achieve this objective, we propose non-linear quantization functions which dynamically assign the number of quantization levels depending on the importance of the given amplitude range. Two new approaches to determine the importance of the given amplitude segment are presented. The proposed methods are based on exponential and logarithmic functions. Various aspects of proposed techniques are discussed and experimentally validated. Its efficacy is investigated by comparison with uniform sampling.

Keywords: speech signals, sampling, signal reconstruction, asynchronousdelta modulation, non-linear quantization.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1185
58 Coding of DWT Coefficients using Run-length Coding and Huffman Coding for the Purpose of Color Image Compression

Authors: Varun Setia, Vinod Kumar

Abstract:

In present paper we proposed a simple and effective method to compress an image. Here we found success in size reduction of an image without much compromising with it-s quality. Here we used Haar Wavelet Transform to transform our original image and after quantization and thresholding of DWT coefficients Run length coding and Huffman coding schemes have been used to encode the image. DWT is base for quite populate JPEG 2000 technique.

Keywords: Lossy compression, DWT, quantization, Run length coding, Huffman coding, JPEG2000.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2714
57 An Artificial Intelligent Technique for Robust Digital Watermarking in Multiwavelet Domain

Authors: P. Kumsawat, K. Pasitwilitham, K. Attakitmongcol, A. Srikaew

Abstract:

In this paper, an artificial intelligent technique for robust digital image watermarking in multiwavelet domain is proposed. The embedding technique is based on the quantization index modulation technique and the watermark extraction process does not require the original image. We have developed an optimization technique using the genetic algorithms to search for optimal quantization steps to improve the quality of watermarked image and robustness of the watermark. In addition, we construct a prediction model based on image moments and back propagation neural network to correct an attacked image geometrically before the watermark extraction process begins. The experimental results show that the proposed watermarking algorithm yields watermarked image with good imperceptibility and very robust watermark against various image processing attacks.

Keywords: Watermarking, Multiwavelet, Quantization index modulation, Genetic algorithms, Neural networks.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1963
56 Face Recognition Based On Vector Quantization Using Fuzzy Neuro Clustering

Authors: Elizabeth B. Varghese, M. Wilscy

Abstract:

A face recognition system is a computer application for automatically identifying or verifying a person from a digital image or a video frame. A lot of algorithms have been proposed for face recognition. Vector Quantization (VQ) based face recognition is a novel approach for face recognition. Here a new codebook generation for VQ based face recognition using Integrated Adaptive Fuzzy Clustering (IAFC) is proposed. IAFC is a fuzzy neural network which incorporates a fuzzy learning rule into a competitive neural network. The performance of proposed algorithm is demonstrated by using publicly available AT&T database, Yale database, Indian Face database and a small face database, DCSKU database created in our lab. In all the databases the proposed approach got a higher recognition rate than most of the existing methods. In terms of Equal Error Rate (ERR) also the proposed codebook is better than the existing methods.

Keywords: Face Recognition, Vector Quantization, Integrated Adaptive Fuzzy Clustering, Self Organization Map.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2082