Search results for: reduction
1497 Microkinetic Modelling of NO Reduction on Pt Catalysts
Authors: Vishnu S. Prasad, Preeti Aghalayam
The major harmful automobile exhausts are nitric oxide (NO) and unburned hydrocarbon (HC). Reduction of NO using unburned fuel HC as a reductant is the technique used in hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reduction (HC-SCR). In this work, we study the microkinetic modelling of NO reduction using propene as a reductant on Pt catalysts. The selectivity of NO reduction to N2O is detected in some ranges of operating conditions, whereas the effect of inlet O2% causes a number of changes in the feasible regimes of operation.
Keywords: Microkinetic modelling, NOx, Pt on alumina catalysts, selective catalytic reduction.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1198
1496 Optimal Risk Reduction in the Railway Industry by Using Dynamic Programming
Authors: Michael Todinov, Eberechi Weli
The paper suggests for the first time the use of dynamic programming techniques for optimal risk reduction in the railway industry. It is shown that by using the concept ‘amount of removed risk by a risk reduction option’, the problem related to optimal allocation of a fixed budget to achieve a maximum risk reduction in the railway industry can be reduced to an optimisation problem from dynamic programming. For n risk reduction options and size of the available risk reduction budget B (expressed as integer number), the worst-case running time of the proposed algorithm is O (n x (B+1)), which makes the proposed method a very efficient tool for solving the optimal risk reduction problem in the railway industry.
Keywords: Optimisation, railway risk reduction, budget constraints, dynamic programming.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2057
1495 Decontamination of Cr(VI) Polluted Wastewater by use of Low Cost Industrial Wastes
Authors: Marius Gheju, Rodica Pode
Abstract:The reduction of hexavalent chromium by scrap iron was investigated in continuous system, using long-term column experiments, for aqueous Cr(VI) solutions having low buffering capacities, over the Cr(VI) concentration range of 5 – 40 mg/L. The results showed that the initial Cr(VI) concentration significantly affects the reduction capacity of scrap iron. Maximum reduction capacity of scrap iron was observed at the beginning of the column experiments; the lower the Cr(VI) concentration, the greater the experiment duration with maximum scrap iron reduction capacity. However, due to passivation of active surface, scrap iron reduction capacity continuously decreased in time, especially after Cr(VI) breakthrough. The experimental results showed that highest reduction capacity recorded until Cr(VI) breakthrough was 22.8 mg Cr(VI)/g scrap iron, at CI = 5 mg/L, and decreased with increasing Cr(VI) concentration. In order to assure total reduction of greater Cr(VI) concentrations for a longer period of time, either the mass of scrap iron filling, or the hydraulic retention time should be increased.
Keywords: hexavalent chromium, heavy metals, scrap iron, reduction capacity, wastewater treatment.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1596
1494 Modeling Language for Machine Learning
Authors: Tsuyoshi Okita, Tatsuya Niwa
Abstract:For a given specific problem an efficient algorithm has been the matter of study. However, an alternative approach orthogonal to this approach comes out, which is called a reduction. In general for a given specific problem this reduction approach studies how to convert an original problem into subproblems. This paper proposes a formal modeling language to support this reduction approach. We show three examples from the wide area of learning problems. The benefit is a fast prototyping of algorithms for a given new problem.
Keywords: Formal language, statistical inference problem, reduction.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1490
1493 Application of a New Efficient Normal Parameter Reduction Algorithm of Soft Sets in Online Shopping
Authors: Xiuqin Ma, Hongwu Qin
A new efficient normal parameter reduction algorithm of soft set in decision making was proposed. However, up to the present, few documents have focused on real-life applications of this algorithm. Accordingly, we apply a New Efficient Normal Parameter Reduction algorithm into real-life datasets of online shopping, such as Blackberry Mobile Phone Dataset. Experimental results show that this algorithm is not only suitable but feasible for dealing with the online shopping.
Keywords: Normal parameter reduction, Online shopping, Parameter reduction, Soft sets.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1726
1492 A New Classification of Risk-Reduction Options to Improve the Risk-Reduction Readiness of the Railway Industry
Authors: Eberechi Weli, Michael Todinov
The gap between the selection of risk-reduction options in the railway industry and the task of their effective implementation results in compromised safety and substantial losses. An effective risk management must necessarily integrate the evaluation phases with the implementation phase. This paper proposes an essential categorisation of risk reduction measures that best addresses a standard railway industry portfolio. By categorising the risk reduction options into design, operational, procedural and technical options, it is guaranteed that the efforts of the implementation facilitators (people, processes and supporting systems) are systematically harmonised. The classification is based on an integration of fundamental principles of risk reduction in the railway industry with the systems engineering approach.
This paper argues that the use of a similar classification approach is an attribute of organisations possessing a superior level of risk-reduction readiness. The integration of the proposed rational classification structure provides a solid ground for effective risk reduction.
Keywords: Cost effectiveness, organisational readiness, risk reduction, railway, system engineering.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1687
1491 Carbothermic Reduction of Mechanically Activated Mixtures of Celestite and Carbon
Authors: N.Setoudeh, M. Ali Askari Zamani, N.J.Welham
Abstract:The effect of dry milling on the carbothermic reduction of celestite was investigated. Mixtures of celestite concentrate (98% SrSO4) and activated carbon (99% carbon) was milled for 1 and 24 hours in a planetary ball mill. Un-milled and milled mixtures and their products after carbothermic reduction were studied by a combination of XRD and TGA/DTA experiments. The thermogravimetric analyses and XRD results showed that by milling celestite-carbon mixtures for one hour, the formation temperature of strontium sulfide decreased from about 720°C (in un-milled sample) to about 600°C, after 24 hours milling it decreased to 530°C. It was concluded that milling induces increasingly thorough mixing of the reactants to reduction occurring at lower temperatures
Keywords: Activated carbon, Celestite, Ball milling, Carbothermic reduction, Strontium sulfide.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1997
1490 Analysis and Performance Evaluation of Noise-Reduction Transformer
Authors: Toshiaki Yanada, Kazumi Ishikawa
The present paper deals with the analysis and development of noise-reduction transformer that has a filter function for conductive noise transmission. Two types of prototype noise-reduction transformers with two different output voltages are proposed. To determine an optimum design for the noise-reduction transformer, noise attenuation characteristics are discussed based on the experiments and the equivalent circuit analysis. The analysis gives a relation between the circuit parameters and the noise attenuation. High performance step-down noise-reduction transformer for direct power supply to electronics equipment is developed. The input voltage of the transformer is 100 V and the output voltage is 5 V. Frequency characteristics of noise attenuation are discussed, and prevention of pulse noise transmission is demonstrated. Normal mode noise attenuation of this transformer is –80 dB, and common mode exceeds –90 dB. The step-down noise-reduction transformer eliminates pulse noise efficiently.
Keywords: conductive noise, EMC, EMI, noise attenuation, transformer.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1854
1489 Modeling of Coagulation Process for the Removal of Carbofuran in Aqueous Solution
Authors: Roli Saini, Pradeep Kumar
A coagulation/flocculation process was adopted for the reduction of carbamate insecticide (carbofuran) from aqueous solution. Ferric chloride (FeCl3) was used as a coagulant to treat the carbofuran. To exploit the reduction efficiency of pesticide concentration and COD, the jar-test experiments were carried out and process was optimized through response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of two independent factors; i.e., FeCl3 dosage and pH on the reduction efficiency were estimated by using central composite design (CCD). The initial COD of the 30 mg/L concentrated solution was found to be 510 mg/L. Results exposed that the maximum reduction occurred at an optimal condition of FeCl3 = 80 mg/L, and pH = 5.0, from which the reduction of concentration and COD 75.13% and 65.34%, respectively. The present study also predicted that the obtained regression equations could be helpful as the theoretical basis for the coagulation process of pesticide wastewater.
Keywords: Carbofuran, coagulation, optimization, response surface methodology.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 925
1488 Reduction of Rotor-Bearing-Support Finite Element Model through Substructuring
Authors: Abdur Rosyid, Mohamed El-Madany, Mohanad Alata
Due to simplicity and low cost, rotordynamic system is often modeled by using lumped parameters. Recently, finite elements have been used to model rotordynamic system as it offers higher accuracy. However, it involves high degrees of freedom. In some applications such as control design, this requires higher cost. For this reason, various model reduction methods have been proposed. This work demonstrates the quality of model reduction of rotor-bearing-support system through substructuring. The quality of the model reduction is evaluated by comparing some first natural frequencies, modal damping ratio, critical speeds, and response of both the full system and the reduced system. The simulation shows that the substructuring is proven adequate to reduce finite element rotor model in the frequency range of interest as long as the number and the location of master nodes are determined appropriately. However, the reduction is less accurate in an unstable or nearly-unstable system.
Keywords: Finite element model, rotordynamic system, model reduction, substructuring.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3928
1487 A Fast Cyclic Reduction Algorithm for A Quadratic Matrix Equation Arising from Overdamped Systems
Abstract:We are concerned with a class of quadratic matrix equations arising from the overdamped mass-spring system. By exploring the structure of coefficient matrices, we propose a fast cyclic reduction algorithm to calculate the extreme solutions of the equation. Numerical experiments show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the original cyclic reduction and the structure-preserving doubling algorithm.
Keywords: Fast algorithm, Cyclic reduction, Overdampedquadratic matrix equation, Structure-preserving doubling algorithmProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1201
1486 Design of Digital IIR filters with the Advantages of Model Order Reduction Technique
Authors: K.Ramesh, A.Nirmalkumar, G.Gurusamy
Abstract:In this paper, a new model order reduction phenomenon is introduced at the design stage of linear phase digital IIR filter. The complexity of a system can be reduced by adopting the model order reduction method in their design. In this paper a mixed method of model order reduction is proposed for linear IIR filter. The proposed method employs the advantages of factor division technique to derive the reduced order denominator polynomial and the reduced order numerator is obtained based on the resultant denominator polynomial. The order reduction technique is used to reduce the delay units at the design stage of IIR filter. The validity of the proposed method is illustrated with design example in frequency domain and stability is also examined with help of nyquist plot.
Keywords: Error index (J), Factor division method, IIR filter, Nyquist plot, Order reduction.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1669
1485 Recycling of Tungsten Alloy Swarf
Authors: A. A. Alhazza
Abstract:The recycling process of Tungsten alloy (Swarf) by oxidation reduction technique have been investigated. The reduced powder was pressed under a pressure 20Kg/cm2 and sintered at 1150°C in dry hydrogen atmosphere. The particle size of the recycled alloy powder was 1-3 μm and the shape was regular at a reduction temperature 800°C. The chemical composition of the recycled alloy is the same as the primary Swarf.
Keywords: Recycling, Swarf, Oxidation, Reduction.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1807
1484 Experimental Investigation on the Effect of CO2 and WAG Injection on Permeability Reduction Induced by Asphaltene Precipitation in Light Oil
Authors: Ali F. Alta'ee, Ong S. Hun, Sima Sh. Alian, Ismail M. Saaid
Abstract:Permeability reduction induced by asphaltene precipitation during gas injection is one of the serious problems in the oil industry. This problem can lead to formation damage and decrease the oil production rate. In this work, Malaysian light oil sample has been used to investigate the effect CO2 injection and Water Alternating Gas (WAG) injection on permeability reduction. In this work, dynamic core flooding experiments were conducted to study the effect of CO2 and WAG injection on the amount of asphaltene precipitated. Core properties after displacement were inspected for any permeability reduction to study the effect of asphaltene precipitation on rock properties. The results showed that WAG injection gave less asphaltene precipitation and formation damage compared to CO2 injection. The study suggested that WAG injection can be one of the important factors of managing asphaltene precipitation.
Keywords: Asphaltene Precipitation, Permeability Reduction, CO2 Injection, WAG Injection.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3315
1483 Model Order Reduction for Frequency Response and Effect of Order of Method for Matching Condition
Authors: Aref Ghafouri, Mohammad Javad Mollakazemi, Farhad Asadi
In this paper, model order reduction method is used for approximation in linear and nonlinearity aspects in some experimental data. This method can be used for obtaining offline reduced model for approximation of experimental data and can produce and follow the data and order of system and also it can match to experimental data in some frequency ratios. In this study, the method is compared in different experimental data and influence of choosing of order of the model reduction for obtaining the best and sufficient matching condition for following the data is investigated in format of imaginary and reality part of the frequency response curve and finally the effect and important parameter of number of order reduction in nonlinear experimental data is explained further.
Keywords: Frequency response, Order of model reduction, frequency matching condition.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1767
1482 The role of pH on Cr(VI) Reduction and Removal by Arthrobacter Viscosus
Authors: B. Silva, H. Figueiredo, I. C. Neves, T. Tavares
Abstract:Arthrobacter viscosus biomass was used for Cr(VI) biosorption. The effect of pH on Cr(VI) reduction and removal from aqueous solution was studied in the range of 1-4. The Cr(VI) removal involves both redox reaction and adsorption of metal ions on biomass surface. The removal rate of Cr(VI) was enhanced by very acid conditions, while higher solution pH values favored the removal of total chromium. The best removal efficiency and uptake were reached at pH 4, 72.5 % and 12.6 mgCr/gbiomass, respectively.
Keywords: Biosorption, chromium, pH, reduction.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1499
1481 The Multi-scenario Knapsack Problem: An Adaptive Search Algorithm
Authors: Mhand Hifi, Hedi Mhalla, Mustapha Michaphy
In this paper, we study the multi-scenario knapsack problem, a variant of the well-known NP-Hard single knapsack problem. We investigate the use of an adaptive algorithm for solving heuristically the problem. The used method combines two complementary phases: a size reduction phase and a dynamic 2- opt procedure one. First, the reduction phase applies a polynomial reduction strategy; that is used for reducing the size problem. Second, the adaptive search procedure is applied in order to attain a feasible solution Finally, the performances of two versions of the proposed algorithm are evaluated on a set of randomly generated instances.
Keywords: combinatorial optimization, max-min optimization, knapsack, heuristics, problem reductionProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1435
1480 MIMO System Order Reduction Using Real-Coded Genetic Algorithm
Authors: Swadhin Ku. Mishra, Sidhartha Panda, Simanchala Padhy, C. Ardil
In this paper, real-coded genetic algorithm (RCGA) optimization technique has been applied for large-scale linear dynamic multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) system. The method is based on error minimization technique where the integral square error between the transient responses of original and reduced order models has been minimized by RCGA. The reduction procedure is simple computer oriented and the approach is comparable in quality with the other well-known reduction techniques. Also, the proposed method guarantees stability of the reduced model if the original high-order MIMO system is stable. The proposed approach of MIMO system order reduction is illustrated with the help of an example and the results are compared with the recently published other well-known reduction techniques to show its superiority.
Keywords: Multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) system.Modelorder reduction. Integral squared error (ISE). Real-coded geneticalgorithmProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2142
1479 Removal of Hexavalent Chromium from Wastewater by Use of Scrap Iron
Authors: Marius Gheju, Rodica Pode
Hexavalent chromium is highly toxic to most living organisms and a known human carcinogen by the inhalation route of exposure. Therefore, treatment of Cr(VI) contaminated wastewater is essential before their discharge to the natural water bodies. Cr(VI) reduction to Cr(III) can be beneficial because a more mobile and more toxic chromium species is converted to a less mobile and less toxic form. Zero-valence-state metals, such as scrap iron, can serve as electron donors for reducing Cr(VI) to Cr(III). The influence of pH on scrap iron capacity to reduce Cr(VI) was investigated in this study. Maximum reduction capacity of scrap iron was observed at the beginning of the column experiments; the lower the pH, the greater the experiment duration with maximum scrap iron reduction capacity. The experimental results showed that highest maximum reduction capacity of scrap iron was 12.5 mg Cr(VI)/g scrap iron, at pH 2.0, and decreased with increasing pH up to 1.9 mg Cr(VI)/g scrap iron at pH = 7.3.
Keywords: hexavalent chromium, heavy metals, scrap iron, reduction capacity, wastewater treatment.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1925
1478 Vibration Reduction Module with Flexure Springs for Personal Tools
Authors: Donghyun Hwang, Soo-Hun Lee, Moon G. Lee
In the various working field, vibration may cause injurious to human body. Especially, in case of the vibration which is constantly and repeatedly transferred to the human. That gives serious physical problem, so called, Reynaud phenomenon. In this paper, we propose a vibration transmissibility reduction module with flexure mechanism for personal tools. At first, we select a target personal tool, grass cutter, and measure the level of vibration transmissibility on the hand. And then, we develop the concept design of the module that has stiffness for reduction the vibration transmissibility more than 20%, where the vibration transmissibility is measured with an accelerometer. In addition, the vibration reduction can be enhanced when the interior gap between inner and outer body is filled with silicone gel. This will be verified by the further experiment.
Keywords: Flexure spring, tool engineering, vibration damping.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1818
1477 The Study of Groundcover for Heat Reduction
Authors: Winai Mankhatitham
This research investigated groundcover on the roof (green roof) which can reduce the temperature and carbon monoxide. This study is divided into 3 main aspects: 1. Types of groundcover affecting heat reduction 2. The efficiency on heat reduction of 3 types of groundcover, i.e. lawn, arachis pintoi, and purslane 3. Database for designing green roof. This study has been designed as an experimental research by simulating the 3 types of groundcover in 3 trays placed in the green house for recording the temperature change for 24 hours. The results showed that the groundcover with the highest heat reduction efficiency was lawn. The dense of the lawn can protect the heat transfer to the soil. For the further study, there should be a comparative study of the thickness and the types of soil to get more information for the suitable types of groundcover and the soil for designing the energy saving green roof.
Keywords: Groundcover, Green Roof, Heat Reduction, Energy Saving.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1329
1476 Optimum Design of Heat Exchanger in Diesel Engine Cold EGR for Pollutants Reduction
Authors: Nasser Ghassembaglou, Armin Rahmatfam, Faramarz Ranjbar
Using cold EGR method with variable venturi and turbocharger has a very significant effect on reduction of NOX and grime simultaneously. EGR cooler is one of the most important parts in the cold EGR circuit. In this paper optimum design of cooler for working in different percentages of EGR and for determining optimum temperature of exhausted gases, growth of efficiency, reduction of weight, dimension, expenditures, sediment and also optimum performance by using gasoil which has significant amounts of brimstone are investigated and optimized.
Keywords: Cold EGR, NOX, Cooler.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3651
1475 Modeling Language for Constructing Solvers in Machine Learning: Reductionist Perspectives
Authors: Tsuyoshi Okita
For a given specific problem an efficient algorithm has been the matter of study. However, an alternative approach orthogonal to this approach comes out, which is called a reduction. In general for a given specific problem this reduction approach studies how to convert an original problem into subproblems. This paper proposes a formal modeling language to support this reduction approach in order to make a solver quickly. We show three examples from the wide area of learning problems. The benefit is a fast prototyping of algorithms for a given new problem. It is noted that our formal modeling language is not intend for providing an efficient notation for data mining application, but for facilitating a designer who develops solvers in machine learning.
Keywords: Formal language, statistical inference problem, reduction.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1212
1474 Hexavalent Chromium Pollution Abatement by use of Scrap Iron
Authors: Marius Gheju, Laura Cocheci
Abstract:In this study, the reduction of Cr(VI) by use of scrap iron, a cheap and locally available industrial waste, was investigated in continuous system. The greater scrap iron efficiency observed for the first two sections of the column filling indicate that most of the reduction process was carried out in the bottom half of the column filling. This was ascribed to a constant decrease of Cr(VI) concentration inside the filling, as the water front passes from the bottom to the top end of the column. While the bottom section of the column filling was heavily passivated with secondary mineral phases, the top section was less affected by the passivation process; therefore the column filling would likely ensure the reduction of Cr(VI) for time periods longer than 216 hours. The experimental results indicate that fixed beds columns packed with scrap iron could be successfully used for the first step of Cr(VI) polluted wastewater treatment. However, the mass of scrap iron filling should be carefully estimated since it significantly affects the Cr(VI) reduction efficiency.
Keywords: hexavalent chromium, heavy metals, scrap iron, reduction capacity, wastewater treatmentProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1710
1473 Reduction Conditions of Briquetted Solid Wastes Generated by the Integrated Iron and Steel Plant
Authors: Gökhan Polat, Dicle Kocaoğlu Yılmazer, Muhlis Nezihi Sarıdede
Iron oxides are the main input to produce iron in integrated iron and steel plants. During production of iron from iron oxides, some wastes with high iron content occur. These main wastes can be classified as basic oxygen furnace (BOF) sludge, flue dust and rolling scale. Recycling of these wastes has a great importance for both environmental effects and reduction of production costs. In this study, recycling experiments were performed on basic oxygen furnace sludge, flue dust and rolling scale which contain 53.8%, 54.3% and 70.2% iron respectively. These wastes were mixed together with coke as reducer and these mixtures are pressed to obtain cylindrical briquettes. These briquettes were pressed under various compacting forces from 1 ton to 6 tons. Also, both stoichiometric and twice the stoichiometric cokes were added to investigate effect of coke amount on reduction properties of the waste mixtures. Then, these briquettes were reduced at 1000°C and 1100°C during 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 min in a muffle furnace. According to the results of reduction experiments, the effect of compacting force, temperature and time on reduction ratio of the wastes were determined. It is found that 1 ton compacting force, 150 min reduction time and 1100°C are the optimum conditions to obtain reduction ratio higher than 75%.
Keywords: Iron oxide wastes, reduction, coke, recycling.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1200
1472 Amino Acid Coated Silver Nanoparticles: A Green Catalyst for Methylene Blue Reduction
Authors: Abhishek Chandra, Man Singh
Abstract:Highly stable and homogeneously dispersed amino acid coated silver nanoparticles (ANP) of ≈ 10 nm diameter, ranging from 420 to 430 nm are prepared on AgNO3 solution addition to gum of Azadirachta indica solution at 373.15 K. The amino acids were selected based on their polarity. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis, FTIR spectroscopy, HR-TEM, XRD, SEM and 1H-NMR. The coated nanoparticles were used as catalyst for the reduction of methylene blue dye in presence of Sn(II) in aqueous, anionic and cationic micellar media. The rate of reduction of dye was determined by measuring the absorbance at 660 nm, spectrophotometrically and followed the order: Kcationic > Kanionic > Kwater. After 12 min and in absence of the ANP, only 2%, 3% and 6% of the dye reduction was completed in aqueous, anionic and cationic micellar media respectively while, in presence of ANP coated by polar neutral amino acid with non-polar -R group, the reduction completed to 84%, 95% and 98% respectively. The ANP coated with polar neutral amino acid having non-polar -R group, increased the rate of reduction of the dye by 94, 3205 and 6370 folds in aqueous, anionic and cationic micellar media respectively. Also, the rate of reduction of the dye increased by three folds when the micellar media was changed from anionic to cationic when the ANP is coated by a polar neutral amino acid having a non-polar -R group.
Keywords: Silver nanoparticle, surfactant, methylene blue, amino acid.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2399
1471 Reduction of Peak Input Currents during Charge Pump Boosting in Monolithically Integrated High-Voltage Generators
Authors: Jan Doutreloigne
Abstract:This paper describes two methods for the reduction of the peak input current during the boosting of Dickson charge pumps. Both methods are implemented in the fully integrated Dickson charge pumps of a high-voltage display driver chip for smart-card applications. Experimental results reveal good correspondence with Spice simulations and show a reduction of the peak input current by a factor of 6 during boosting.
Keywords: Bi-stable display driver, Dickson charge pump, highvoltage generator, peak current reduction, sub-pump boosting, variable frequency boosting.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1481
1470 Multivariable System Reduction Using Stability Equation Method and SRAM
Authors: D. Bala Bhaskar
An algorithm is proposed for the order reduction of large scale linear dynamic multi variable systems where the reduced order model denominator is obtained by using Stability equation method and numerator coefficients are obtained by using SRAM. The proposed algorithm produces a lower order model for an original stable high order multivariable system. The reduction procedure is easy to understand, efficient and computer oriented. To highlight the advantages of the approach, the algorithm is illustrated with the help of a numerical example and the results are compared with the other existing techniques in literature.
Keywords: Multi variable systems, order reduction, stability equation method, SRAM, time domain characteristics, ISE.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 590
1469 Mammogram Image Size Reduction Using 16-8 bit Conversion Technique
Authors: Ayman A. AbuBaker, Rami S.Qahwaji, Musbah J. Aqel, Mohmmad H. Saleh
Abstract:Two algorithms are proposed to reduce the storage requirements for mammogram images. The input image goes through a shrinking process that converts the 16-bit images to 8-bits by using pixel-depth conversion algorithm followed by enhancement process. The performance of the algorithms is evaluated objectively and subjectively. A 50% reduction in size is obtained with no loss of significant data at the breast region.
Keywords: Breast cancer, Image processing, Image reduction, Mammograms, Image enhancementProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1917
1468 Heterogeneous Attribute Reduction in Noisy System based on a Generalized Neighborhood Rough Sets Model
Authors: Siyuan Jing, Kun She
Abstract:Neighborhood Rough Sets (NRS) has been proven to be an efficient tool for heterogeneous attribute reduction. However, most of researches are focused on dealing with complete and noiseless data. Factually, most of the information systems are noisy, namely, filled with incomplete data and inconsistent data. In this paper, we introduce a generalized neighborhood rough sets model, called VPTNRS, to deal with the problem of heterogeneous attribute reduction in noisy system. We generalize classical NRS model with tolerance neighborhood relation and the probabilistic theory. Furthermore, we use the neighborhood dependency to evaluate the significance of a subset of heterogeneous attributes and construct a forward greedy algorithm for attribute reduction based on it. Experimental results show that the model is efficient to deal with noisy data.
Keywords: attribute reduction, incomplete data, inconsistent data, tolerance neighborhood relation, rough setsProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1464