Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32

Search results for: MANETs

32 Blockchain Security in MANETs

Authors: Nada Mouchfiq, Ahmed Habbani, Chaimae Benjbara

Abstract:

The security aspect of the IoT occupies a place of great importance especially after the evolution that has known this field lastly because it must take into account the transformations and the new applications .Blockchain is a new technology dedicated to the data sharing. However, this does not work the same way in the different systems with different operating principles. This article will discuss network security using the Blockchain to facilitate the sending of messages and information, enabling the use of new processes and enabling autonomous coordination of devices. To do this, we will discuss proposed solutions to ensure a high level of security in these networks in the work of other researchers. Finally, our article will propose a method of security more adapted to our needs as a team working in the ad hoc networks, this method is based on the principle of the Blockchain and that we named ”MPR Blockchain”.

Keywords: Security, Ad hoc networks, Blockchain, MPR

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31 Evaluation of Context Information for Intermittent Networks

Authors: S. Balaji, E. Golden Julie, Y. Harold Robinson

Abstract:

The context aware adaptive routing protocol is presented for unicast communication in intermittently connected mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). The selection of the node is done by the Kalman filter prediction theory and it also makes use of utility functions. The context aware adaptive routing is defined by spray and wait technique, but the time consumption in delivering the message is too high and also the resource wastage is more. In this paper, we describe the spray and focus routing scheme for avoiding the existing problems.

Keywords: Context aware adaptive routing, Kalman filter prediction, spray and wait, spray and focus, intermittent networks

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30 TBOR: Tree Based Opportunistic Routing for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: Y. Harold Robinson, M. Rajaram, E. Golden Julie, S. Balaji

Abstract:

A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a wireless communication network where nodes that are not within direct transmission range establish their communication via the help of other nodes to forward data. Routing protocols in MANETs are usually categorized as proactive. Tree Based Opportunistic Routing (TBOR) finds a multipath link based on maximum probability of the throughput. The simulation results show that the presented method is performed very well compared to the existing methods in terms of throughput, delay and routing overhead.

Keywords: Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, opportunistic data forwarding, proactive Source routing, BFS

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29 An Enhanced Associativity Based Routing with Fuzzy Based Trust to Mitigate Network Attacks

Authors: K. Geetha, P. Thangaraj

Abstract:

Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) is a collection of mobile devices forming a communication network without infrastructure. MANET is vulnerable to security threats due to network’s limited security, dynamic topology, scalability and the lack of central management. The Quality of Service (QoS) routing in such networks is limited by network breakage caused by node mobility or nodes energy depletions. The impact of node mobility on trust establishment is considered and its use to propagate trust through a network is investigated in this paper. This work proposes an enhanced Associativity Based Routing (ABR) with Fuzzy based Trust (Fuzzy- ABR) routing protocol for MANET to improve QoS and to mitigate network attacks.

Keywords: Mobile ad hoc networks (MANET), Associativity Based Routing (ABR), Fuzzy based Computed Trust

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28 Secure Low-Bandwidth Video Streaming through Reliable Multipath Propagation in MANETs

Authors: S. Mohideen Badhusha, K. Duraiswamy

Abstract:

Most of the existing video streaming protocols provide video services without considering security aspects in decentralized mobile ad-hoc networks. The security policies adapted to the currently existing non-streaming protocols, do not comply with the live video streaming protocols resulting in considerable vulnerability, high bandwidth consumption and unreliability which cause severe security threats, low bandwidth and error prone transmission respectively in video streaming applications. Therefore a synergized methodology is required to reduce vulnerability and bandwidth consumption, and enhance reliability in the video streaming applications in MANET. To ensure the security measures with reduced bandwidth consumption and improve reliability of the video streaming applications, a Secure Low-bandwidth Video Streaming through Reliable Multipath Propagation (SLVRMP) protocol architecture has been proposed by incorporating the two algorithms namely Secure Low-bandwidth Video Streaming Algorithm and Reliable Secure Multipath Propagation Algorithm using Layered Video Coding in non-overlapping zone routing network topology. The performances of the proposed system are compared to those of the other existing secure multipath protocols Sec-MR, SPREAD using NS 2.34 and the simulation results show that the performances of the proposed system get considerably improved.

Keywords: Reliability, Vulnerability, Security Threats, Bandwidth consumption, layered video coding, multipath propagation, video streaming applications

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27 Energy Aware Adhoc On-demand Multipath Distance Vector Protocol for QoS Routing

Authors: J. Seetaram, P. Satish Kumar

Abstract:

Mobile Adhoc Networks (MANETs) are infrastructure-less, dynamic network of collections of wireless mobile nodes communicating with each other without any centralized authority. A MANET is a mobile device of interconnections through wireless links, forming a dynamic topology. Routing protocols have a big role in data transmission across a network. Routing protocols, two major classifications are unipath and multipath. This study evaluates performance of an on-demand multipath routing protocol named Adhoc On-demand Multipath Distance Vector routing (AOMDV). This study proposes Energy Aware AOMDV (EAAOMDV) an extension of AOMDV which decreases energy consumed on a route.

Keywords: mobile Adhoc network (MANET), multipath, unipath, Adhoc On-demand Multipath Distance Vector routing (AOMDV)

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26 Trust and Reputation Mechanism with Path Optimization in Multipath Routing

Authors: Ramya Dorai, M. Rajaram

Abstract:

A Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET) is a collection of mobile nodes that communicate with each other with wireless links and without pre-existing communication infrastructure. Routing is an important issue which impacts network performance. As MANETs lack central administration and prior organization, their security concerns are different from those of conventional networks. Wireless links make MANETs susceptible to attacks. This study proposes a new trust mechanism to mitigate wormhole attack in MANETs. Different optimization techniques find available optimal path from source to destination. This study extends trust and reputation to an improved link quality and channel utilization based Adhoc Ondemand Multipath Distance Vector (AOMDV). Differential Evolution (DE) is used for optimization.

Keywords: differential evolution (DE), mobile Adhoc network (MANET), Adhoc Ondemand Multi-Path Distance Vector (AOMDV), Trust and Reputation, Link Quality, Channel Utilization

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25 Parameters Used in Gateway Selection Schemes for Internet Connected MANETs: A Review

Authors: Zainab S. Mahmood, Aisha H. Abdalla, Wan Haslina Hassan, Farhat Anwar

Abstract:

The wide use of the Internet-based applications bring many challenges to the researchers to guarantee the continuity of the connections needed by the mobile hosts and provide reliable Internet access for them. One of proposed solutions by Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is to connect the local, multi-hop, and infrastructure-less Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) with Internet structure. This connection is done through multi-interface devices known as Internet Gateways. Many issues are related to this connection like gateway discovery, handoff, address auto-configuration and selecting the optimum gateway when multiple gateways exist. Many studies were done proposing gateway selection schemes with a single selection criterion or weighted multiple criteria. In this research, a review of some of these schemes is done showing the differences, the features, the challenges and the drawbacks of each of them.

Keywords: Mobility, manet, selection criteria, Internet Gateway

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24 Back Bone Node Based Black Hole Detection Mechanism in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: Nidhi Gupta, Sanjoy Das, Khushal Singh

Abstract:

Mobile Ad hoc Network is a set of self-governing nodes which communicate through wireless links. Dynamic topology MANETs makes routing a challenging task. Various routing protocols are there, but due to various fundamental characteristic open medium, changing topology, distributed collaboration and constrained capability, these protocols are tend to various types of security attacks. Black hole is one among them. In this attack, malicious node represents itself as having the shortest path to the destination but that path not even exists. In this paper, we aim to develop a routing protocol for detection and prevention of black hole attack by modifying AODV routing protocol. This protocol is able to detect and prevent the black hole attack. Simulation is done using NS-2, which shows the improvement in network performance.

Keywords: Security, Routing, ad hoc, AODV, Back Bone

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23 Investigation on Novel Based Metaheuristic Algorithms for Combinatorial Optimization Problems in Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: C. Rajan, N. Shanthi, C. Rasi Priya, K. Geetha

Abstract:

Routing in MANET is extremely challenging because of MANETs dynamic features, its limited bandwidth, frequent topology changes caused by node mobility and power energy consumption. In order to efficiently transmit data to destinations, the applicable routing algorithms must be implemented in mobile ad-hoc networks. Thus we can increase the efficiency of the routing by satisfying the Quality of Service (QoS) parameters by developing routing algorithms for MANETs. The algorithms that are inspired by the principles of natural biological evolution and distributed collective behavior of social colonies have shown excellence in dealing with complex optimization problems and are becoming more popular. This paper presents a survey on few meta-heuristic algorithms and naturally-inspired algorithms.

Keywords: Ant colony optimization, Genetic Algorithm, Naturally-inspired algorithms and particle swarm optimization

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22 Factorial Design Analysis for Quality of Video on MANET

Authors: Hyoup-Sang Yoon

Abstract:

The quality of video transmitted by mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) can be influenced by several factors, including protocol layers; parameter settings of each protocol. In this paper, we are concerned with understanding the functional relationship between these influential factors and objective video quality in MANETs. We illustrate a systematic statistical design of experiments (DOE) strategy can be used to analyze MANET parameters and performance. Using a 2k factorial design, we quantify the main and interactive effects of 7 factors on a response metric (i.e., mean opinion score (MOS) calculated by PSNR with Evalvid package) we then develop a first-order linear regression model between the influential factors and the performance metric.

Keywords: Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, evalvid, full factorial design, ns-2

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21 TTCN-3 Based Conformance Testing of a Node Monitoring Protocol for MANETs

Authors: Mallikarjun B. Channappagoudar, Pallapa Venkataram

Abstract:

As a node monitoring protocol, which is a part of network management, operates in distributed manner, conformance testing of such protocols is more tedious than testing a peer-to-peer protocol. Various works carried out to give the methodology to do conformance testing of distributed protocol. In this paper, we have presented a formal approach for conformance testing of a Node Monitoring Protocol, which uses both static and mobile agents, for MANETs. First, we use SDL to obtain MSCs, which represent the scenario descriptions by sequence diagrams, which in turn generate test sequences and test cases. Later, Testing and Test Control Notation Version-3 (TTCN-3) is used to execute test cases with respect to generated test sequences to know the conformance of protocol against the given specification. This approach shows, the effective conformance testing of the distributed protocols for the network with varying node density and complex behavior. Experimental results for the protocol scenario represent the effectiveness of the method used.

Keywords: Mobile Agent, conformance testing, FSM, TTCN, Test sequence

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20 A Comprehensive Survey and Comparative Analysis of Black Hole Attack in Mobile Ad Hoc Network

Authors: Nidhi Gupta, Sanjoy Das, Khushal Singh

Abstract:

A Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) is a self managing network consists of versatile nodes that are capable of communicating with each other without having any fixed infrastructure. These nodes may be routers and/or hosts. Due to this dynamic nature of the network, routing protocols are vulnerable to various kinds of attacks. The black hole attack is one of the conspicuous security threats in MANETs. As the route discovery process is obligatory and customary, attackers make use of this loophole to get success in their motives to destruct the network. In Black hole attack the packet is redirected to a node that actually does not exist in the network. Many researchers have proposed different techniques to detect and prevent this type of attack. In this paper, we have analyzed various routing protocols in this context. Further we have shown a critical comparison among various protocols. We have shown various routing metrics are required proper and significant analysis of the protocol.

Keywords: black hole, manet, routing protocol, performance parameters

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19 Mobile Ad Hoc Networks and It’s Routing Protocols

Authors: Rakesh Kumar, Piush Verma, Yaduvir Singh

Abstract:

A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a self configuring network, without any centralized control. The topology of this network is not always defined. The main objective of this paper is to introduce the fundamental concepts of MANETs to the researchers and practitioners, who are involved in the work in the area of modeling and simulation of MANETs. This paper begins with an overview of mobile ad hoc networks. Then it proceeds with the overview of routing protocols used in the MANETS, their properties and simulation methods. A brief tabular comparison between the routing protocols is also given in this paper considering different routing protocol parameters. This paper introduces a new routing scheme developed by the use of evolutionary algorithms (EA) and analytical hierarchy process (AHP) which will be used for getting the optimized output of MANET. In this paper cryptographic technique, ceaser cipher is also employed for making the optimized route secure.

Keywords: Cryptography, manet, AHP, AODV, Optimized output

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18 A Distributed Weighted Cluster Based Routing Protocol for Manets

Authors: Naveen Chauhan, L.K. Awasthi, Narottam chand, Vivek Katiyar, Ankit Chug

Abstract:

Mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) are a form of wireless networks which do not require a base station for providing network connectivity. Mobile ad-hoc networks have many characteristics which distinguish them from other wireless networks which make routing in such networks a challenging task. Cluster based routing is one of the routing schemes for MANETs in which various clusters of mobile nodes are formed with each cluster having its own clusterhead which is responsible for routing among clusters. In this paper we have proposed and implemented a distributed weighted clustering algorithm for MANETs. This approach is based on combined weight metric that takes into account several system parameters like the node degree, transmission range, energy and mobility of the nodes. We have evaluated the performance of proposed scheme through simulation in various network situations. Simulation results show that proposed scheme outperforms the original distributed weighted clustering algorithm (DWCA).

Keywords: Clustering, Routing, MANETs, WirelessCommunication, Distributed Clustering

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17 Distributed Denial of Service Attacks in Mobile Adhoc Networks

Authors: Gurjinder Kaur, Yogesh Chaba, V. K. Jain

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to explore the security issues that significantly affect the performance of Mobile Adhoc Networks (MANET)and limit the services provided to their intended users. The MANETs are more vulnerable to Distributed Denial of Service attacks (DDoS) because of their properties like shared medium, dynamic topologies etc. A DDoS attack is a coordinated attempt made by malicious users to flood the victim network with the large amount of data such that the resources of the victim network are exhausted resulting in the deterioration of the network performance. This paper highlights the effects of different types of DDoS attacks in MANETs and categorizes them according to their behavior.

Keywords: mobile adhoc networks, Distributed Denial

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16 Performance Comparison for AODV, DSR and DSDV W.R.T. CBR and TCP in Large Networks

Authors: Ibrahim M. Buamod, Muattaz Elaneizi

Abstract:

Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is a wireless ad hoc self-configuring network of mobile routers (and associated hosts) connected by wireless links, the union of which forms an arbitrary topology, cause of the random mobility of the nodes. In this paper, an attempt has been made to compare these three protocols DSDV, AODV and DSR on the performance basis under different traffic protocols namely CBR and TCP in a large network. The simulation tool is NS2, the scenarios are made to see the effect of pause times. The results presented in this paper clearly indicate that the different protocols behave differently under different pause times. Also, the results show the main characteristics of different traffic protocols operating on MANETs and thus select the best protocol on each scenario.

Keywords: CBR, TCP, Awk, Random waypoint model

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15 A Comparative Analysis of Performance and QoS Issues in MANETs

Authors: Javed Parvez, Mushtaq Ahmad Peer

Abstract:

Mobile Ad hoc networks (MANETs) are collections of wireless mobile nodes dynamically reconfiguring and collectively forming a temporary network. These types of networks assume existence of no fixed infrastructure and are often useful in battle-field tactical operations or emergency search-and-rescue type of operations where fixed infrastructure is neither feasible nor practical. They also find use in ad hoc conferences, campus networks and commercial recreational applications carrying multimedia traffic. All of the above applications of MANETs require guaranteed levels of performance as experienced by the end-user. This paper focuses on key challenges in provisioning predetermined levels of such Quality of Service (QoS). It also identifies functional areas where QoS models are currently defined and used. Evolving functional areas where performance and QoS provisioning may be applied are also identified and some suggestions are provided for further research in this area. Although each of the above functional areas have been discussed separately in recent research studies, since these QoS functional areas are highly correlated and interdependent, a comprehensive and comparative analysis of these areas and their interrelationships is desired. In this paper we have attempted to provide such an overview.

Keywords: congestion, queuing, Bandwidth Reservation, DynamicNetwork Topology, End-to-End Delay, Flexible QoS Model forMANET(FQMM), Hidden Terminal, Mobile AdhocNetwork(MANET), Packet Jitter, Quality-of-Service(QoS), Relative Bandwidth Service Differentiation(RBSD), Resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP)

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14 Load Balancing in Genetic Zone Routing Protocol for MANETs

Authors: P. Sateesh Kumar , S. Ramachandram

Abstract:

Genetic Zone Routing Protocol (GZRP) is a new hybrid routing protocol for MANETs which is an extension of ZRP by using Genetic Algorithm (GA). GZRP uses GA on IERP and BRP parts of ZRP to provide a limited set of alternative routes to the destination in order to load balance the network and robustness during node/link failure during the route discovery process. GZRP is studied for its performance compared to ZRP in many folds like scalability for packet delivery and proved with improved results. This paper presents the results of the effect of load balancing on GZRP. The results show that GZRP outperforms ZRP while balancing the load.

Keywords: Routing, Genetic Algorithm, manet, Load Balancing, ZRP, GZRP

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13 MaxMin Share Based Medium Access for Attaining Fairness and Channel Utilization in Mobile Adhoc Networks

Authors: P. Priakanth, P. Thangaraj

Abstract:

Due to the complex network architecture, the mobile adhoc network-s multihop feature gives additional problems to the users. When the traffic load at each node gets increased, the additional contention due its traffic pattern might cause the nodes which are close to destination to starve the nodes more away from the destination and also the capacity of network is unable to satisfy the total user-s demand which results in an unfairness problem. In this paper, we propose to create an algorithm to compute the optimal MAC-layer bandwidth assigned to each flow in the network. The bottleneck links contention area determines the fair time share which is necessary to calculate the maximum allowed transmission rate used by each flow. To completely utilize the network resources, we compute two optimal rates namely, the maximum fair share and minimum fair share. We use the maximum fair share achieved in order to limit the input rate of those flows which crosses the bottleneck links contention area when the flows that are not allocated to the optimal transmission rate and calculate the following highest fair share. Through simulation results, we show that the proposed protocol achieves improved fair share and throughput with reduced delay.

Keywords: Transmission, MANETs, multihop, MAC-layer, optimal rate

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12 Trust Based Energy Aware Reliable Reactive Protocol in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: M. Pushpalatha, Revathi Venkataraman, T. Ramarao

Abstract:

Trust and Energy consumption is the most challenging issue in routing protocol design for Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), since mobile nodes are battery powered and nodes behaviour are unpredictable. Furthermore replacing and recharging batteries and making nodes co-operative is often impossible in critical environments like military applications. In this paper, we propose a trust based energy aware routing model in MANET. During route discovery, node with more trust and maximum energy capacity is selected as a router based on a parameter called 'Reliability'. Route request from the source is accepted by a node only if its reliability is high. Otherwise, the route request is discarded. This approach forms a reliable route from source to destination thus increasing network life time, improving energy utilization and decreasing number of packet loss during transmission.

Keywords: Energy, Reliability, Trust, Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, AODV, TEA-AODV

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11 Performance Analysis of Flooding Attack Prevention Algorithm in MANETs

Authors: Revathi Venkataraman, M. Pushpalatha, T. Rama Rao

Abstract:

The lack of any centralized infrastructure in mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) is one of the greatest security concerns in the deployment of wireless networks. Thus communication in MANET functions properly only if the participating nodes cooperate in routing without any malicious intention. However, some of the nodes may be malicious in their behavior, by indulging in flooding attacks on their neighbors. Some others may act malicious by launching active security attacks like denial of service. This paper addresses few related works done on trust evaluation and establishment in ad hoc networks. Related works on flooding attack prevention are reviewed. A new trust approach based on the extent of friendship between the nodes is proposed which makes the nodes to co-operate and prevent flooding attacks in an ad hoc environment. The performance of the trust algorithm is tested in an ad hoc network implementing the Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) protocol.

Keywords: Flooding, MANETs, AODV, trust estimation

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10 Delay and Packet Loss Analysis for Handovers between MANETs and NEMO Networks

Authors: Jirawat Thaenthong, Steven Gordon

Abstract:

MANEMO is the integration of Network Mobility (NEMO) and Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET). A MANEMO node has an interface to both a MANET and NEMO network, and therefore should choose the optimal interface for packet delivery, however such a handover between interfaces will introduce packet loss. We define the steps necessary for a MANEMO handover, using Mobile IP and NEMO to signal the new binding to the relevant Home Agent(s). The handover steps aim to minimize the packet loss by avoiding waiting for Duplicate Address Detection and Neighbour Unreachability Detection. We present expressions for handover delay and packet loss, and then use numerical examples to evaluate a MANEMO handover. The analysis shows how the packet loss depends on level of nesting within NEMO, the delay between Home Agents and the load on the MANET, and hence can be used to developing optimal MANEMO handover algorithms.

Keywords: manet, handover, network mobility, IP mobility

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9 An Approach for Reducing the End-to-end Delay and Increasing Network Lifetime in Mobile Adhoc Networks

Authors: R. Asokan, A. M. Natarajan

Abstract:

Mobile adhoc network (MANET) is a collection of mobile devices which form a communication network with no preexisting wiring or infrastructure. Multiple routing protocols have been developed for MANETs. As MANETs gain popularity, their need to support real time applications is growing as well. Such applications have stringent quality of service (QoS) requirements such as throughput, end-to-end delay, and energy. Due to dynamic topology and bandwidth constraint supporting QoS is a challenging task. QoS aware routing is an important building block for QoS support. The primary goal of the QoS aware protocol is to determine the path from source to destination that satisfies the QoS requirements. This paper proposes a new energy and delay aware protocol called energy and delay aware TORA (EDTORA) based on extension of Temporally Ordered Routing Protocol (TORA).Energy and delay verifications of query packet have been done in each node. Simulation results show that the proposed protocol has a higher performance than TORA in terms of network lifetime, packet delivery ratio and end-to-end delay.

Keywords: Routing, QoS, TORA, mobile adhoc networks, EDTORA

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8 Investigating Intrusion Detection Systems in MANET and Comparing IDSs for Detecting Misbehaving Nodes

Authors: Marjan Kuchaki Rafsanjani, Ali Movaghar, Faroukh Koroupi

Abstract:

As mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) have different characteristics from wired networks and even from standard wireless networks, there are new challenges related to security issues that need to be addressed. Due to its unique features such as open nature, lack of infrastructure and central management, node mobility and change of dynamic topology, prevention methods from attacks on them are not enough. Therefore intrusion detection is one of the possible ways in recognizing a possible attack before the system could be penetrated. All in all, techniques for intrusion detection in old wireless networks are not suitable for MANET. In this paper, we classify the architecture for Intrusion detection systems that have so far been introduced for MANETs, and then existing intrusion detection techniques in MANET presented and compared. We then indicate important future research directions.

Keywords: Security, Intrusion Detection System(IDS), Misbehavingnodes, Mobile Ad Hoc Network(MANET)

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7 Addressing Security Concerns of Data Exchange in AODV Protocol

Authors: Monis Akhlaq, M Noman Jafri, Muzammil A Khan, Baber Aslam

Abstract:

The Ad Hoc on demand distance vector (AODV) routing protocol is designed for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). AODV offers quick adaptation to dynamic link conditions; it is characterized by low memory overhead and low network utilization. The security issues related to the protocol remain challenging for the wireless network designers. Numerous schemes have been proposed for establishing secure communication between end users, these schemes identify that the secure operation of AODV is a bi tier task (routing and secure exchange of information at separate levels). Our endeavor in this paper would focus on achieving the routing and secure data exchange in a single step. This will facilitate the user nodes to perform routing, mutual authentications, generation and secure exchange of session key in one step thus ensuring confidentiality, integrity and authentication of data exchange in a more suitable way.

Keywords: Security, Key Management, AODV, wirelessnetworks

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6 Reduction of Overheads with Dynamic Caching in Fixed AODV based MANETs

Authors: Babar S. Kawish, Baber Aslam, Shoab A Khan

Abstract:

In this paper we show that adjusting ART in accordance with static network scenario can substantially improve the performance of AODV by reducing control overheads. We explain the relationship of control overheads with network size and request patterns of the users. Through simulation we show that making ART proportionate to network static time reduces the amount of control overheads independent of network size and user request patterns.

Keywords: Art, manet, AODV, Route Cache, TTL

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5 Integrated Energy-Aware Mechanism for MANETs using On-demand Routing

Authors: M. Tamilarasi, T.G. Palanivelu

Abstract:

Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) are multi-hop wireless networks in which all nodes cooperatively maintain network connectivity. In such a multi-hop wireless network, every node may be required to perform routing in order to achieve end-to-end communication among nodes. These networks are energy constrained as most ad hoc mobile nodes today operate with limited battery power. Hence, it is important to minimize the energy consumption of the entire network in order to maximize the lifetime of ad hoc networks. In this paper, a mechanism involving the integration of load balancing approach and transmission power control approach is introduced to maximize the life-span of MANETs. The mechanism is applied on Ad hoc On-demand Vector (AODV) protocol to make it as energy aware AODV (EA_AODV). The simulation is carried out using GloMoSim2.03 simulator. The results show that the proposed mechanism reduces the average required transmission energy per packet compared to the standard AODV.

Keywords: MANETs, load balance, energy aware routing, Mobile Ad HocNetworks, on demand routing, transmission power control

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4 Impact of MAC Layer on the Performance of Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad hoc Networks

Authors: T.G. Basavaraju, Subir Kumar Sarkar, C Puttamadappa

Abstract:

Mobile Ad hoc Networks is an autonomous system of mobile nodes connected by multi-hop wireless links without centralized infrastructure support. As mobile communication gains popularity, the need for suitable ad hoc routing protocols will continue to grow. Efficient dynamic routing is an important research challenge in such a network. Bandwidth constrained mobile devices use on-demand approach in their routing protocols because of its effectiveness and efficiency. Many researchers have conducted numerous simulations for comparing the performance of these protocols under varying conditions and constraints. Most of them are not aware of MAC Protocols, which will impact the relative performance of routing protocols considered in different network scenarios. In this paper we investigate the choice of MAC protocols affects the relative performance of ad hoc routing protocols under different scenarios. We have evaluated the performance of these protocols using NS2 simulations. Our results show that the performance of routing protocols of ad hoc networks will suffer when run over different MAC Layer protocols.

Keywords: MAC, MANETs, DSDV, AODV, DSR, relativeperformance

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3 Design, Implementation and Testing of Mobile Agent Protection Mechanism for MANETS

Authors: Khaled E. A. Negm

Abstract:

In the current research, we present an operation framework and protection mechanism to facilitate secure environment to protect mobile agents against tampering. The system depends on the presence of an authentication authority. The advantage of the proposed system is that security measures is an integral part of the design, thus common security retrofitting problems do not arise. This is due to the presence of AlGamal encryption mechanism to protect its confidential content and any collected data by the agent from the visited host . So that eavesdropping on information from the agent is no longer possible to reveal any confidential information. Also the inherent security constraints within the framework allow the system to operate as an intrusion detection system for any mobile agent environment. The mechanism is tested for most of the well known severe attacks against agents and networked systems. The scheme proved a promising performance that makes it very much recommended for the types of transactions that needs highly secure environments, e. g., business to business.

Keywords: mobile agent security, mobile accesses, agent encryption

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