Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 72

Search results for: PSNR.

72 An Efficient Gaussian Noise Removal Image Enhancement Technique for Gray Scale Images

Authors: V. Murugan, R. Balasubramanian

Abstract:

Image enhancement is a challenging issue in many applications. In the last two decades, there are various filters developed. This paper proposes a novel method which removes Gaussian noise from the gray scale images. The proposed technique is compared with Enhanced Fuzzy Peer Group Filter (EFPGF) for various noise levels. Experimental results proved that the proposed filter achieves better Peak-Signal-to-Noise-Ratio PSNR than the existing techniques. The proposed technique achieves 1.736dB gain in PSNR than the EFPGF technique.

Keywords: Gaussian noise, adaptive bilateral filter, fuzzy peer group filter, switching bilateral filter, PSNR

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71 Quality Estimation of Video Transmitted overan Additive WGN Channel based on Digital Watermarking and Wavelet Transform

Authors: Mohamed S. El-Mahallawy, Attalah Hashad, Hazem Hassan Ali, Heba Sami Zaky

Abstract:

This paper presents an evaluation for a wavelet-based digital watermarking technique used in estimating the quality of video sequences transmitted over Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel in terms of a classical objective metric, such as Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) without the need of the original video. In this method, a watermark is embedded into the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) domain of the original video frames using a quantization method. The degradation of the extracted watermark can be used to estimate the video quality in terms of PSNR with good accuracy. We calculated PSNR for video frames contaminated with AWGN and compared the values with those estimated using the Watermarking-DWT based approach. It is found that the calculated and estimated quality measures of the video frames are highly correlated, suggesting that this method can provide a good quality measure for video frames transmitted over AWGN channel without the need of the original video.

Keywords: AWGN, DWT, PSNR, Watermarking, VideoQuality.

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70 Discrete and Stationary Adaptive Sub-Band Threshold Method for Improving Image Resolution

Authors: P. Joyce Beryl Princess, Y. Harold Robinson

Abstract:

Image Processing is a structure of Signal Processing for which the input is the image and the output is also an image or parameter of the image. Image Resolution has been frequently referred as an important aspect of an image. In Image Resolution Enhancement, images are being processed in order to obtain more enhanced resolution. To generate highly resoluted image for a low resoluted input image with high PSNR value. Stationary Wavelet Transform is used for Edge Detection and minimize the loss occurs during Downsampling. Inverse Discrete Wavelet Transform is to get highly resoluted image. Highly resoluted output is generated from the Low resolution input with high quality. Noisy input will generate output with low PSNR value. So Noisy resolution enhancement technique has been used for adaptive sub-band thresholding is used. Downsampling in each of the DWT subbands causes information loss in the respective subbands. SWT is employed to minimize this loss. Inverse Discrete wavelet transform (IDWT) is to convert the object which is downsampled using DWT into a highly resoluted object. Used Image denoising and resolution enhancement techniques will generate image with high PSNR value. Our Proposed method will improve Image Resolution and reached the optimized threshold.

Keywords: Image Processing, Inverse Discrete wavelet transform, PSNR.

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69 Comparison of Compression Ability Using DCT and Fractal Technique on Different Imaging Modalities

Authors: Sumathi Poobal, G. Ravindran

Abstract:

Image compression is one of the most important applications Digital Image Processing. Advanced medical imaging requires storage of large quantities of digitized clinical data. Due to the constrained bandwidth and storage capacity, however, a medical image must be compressed before transmission and storage. There are two types of compression methods, lossless and lossy. In Lossless compression method the original image is retrieved without any distortion. In lossy compression method, the reconstructed images contain some distortion. Direct Cosine Transform (DCT) and Fractal Image Compression (FIC) are types of lossy compression methods. This work shows that lossy compression methods can be chosen for medical image compression without significant degradation of the image quality. In this work DCT and Fractal Compression using Partitioned Iterated Function Systems (PIFS) are applied on different modalities of images like CT Scan, Ultrasound, Angiogram, X-ray and mammogram. Approximately 20 images are considered in each modality and the average values of compression ratio and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) are computed and studied. The quality of the reconstructed image is arrived by the PSNR values. Based on the results it can be concluded that the DCT has higher PSNR values and FIC has higher compression ratio. Hence in medical image compression, DCT can be used wherever picture quality is preferred and FIC is used wherever compression of images for storage and transmission is the priority, without loosing picture quality diagnostically.

Keywords: DCT, FIC, PIFS, PSNR.

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68 Evaluation of Wavelet Filters for Image Compression

Authors: G. Sadashivappa, K. V. S. AnandaBabu

Abstract:

The aim of this paper to characterize a larger set of wavelet functions for implementation in a still image compression system using SPIHT algorithm. This paper discusses important features of wavelet functions and filters used in sub band coding to convert image into wavelet coefficients in MATLAB. Image quality is measured objectively using peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) and its variation with bit rate (bpp). The effect of different parameters is studied on different wavelet functions. Our results provide a good reference for application designers of wavelet based coder.

Keywords: Wavelet, image compression, sub band, SPIHT, PSNR.

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67 Comparative Study of Different Enhancement Techniques for Computed Tomography Images

Authors: C. G. Jinimole, A. Harsha

Abstract:

One of the key problems facing in the analysis of Computed Tomography (CT) images is the poor contrast of the images. Image enhancement can be used to improve the visual clarity and quality of the images or to provide a better transformation representation for further processing. Contrast enhancement of images is one of the acceptable methods used for image enhancement in various applications in the medical field. This will be helpful to visualize and extract details of brain infarctions, tumors, and cancers from the CT image. This paper presents a comparison study of five contrast enhancement techniques suitable for the contrast enhancement of CT images. The types of techniques include Power Law Transformation, Logarithmic Transformation, Histogram Equalization, Contrast Stretching, and Laplacian Transformation. All these techniques are compared with each other to find out which enhancement provides better contrast of CT image. For the comparison of the techniques, the parameters Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Mean Square Error (MSE) are used. Logarithmic Transformation provided the clearer and best quality image compared to all other techniques studied and has got the highest value of PSNR. Comparison concludes with better approach for its future research especially for mapping abnormalities from CT images resulting from Brain Injuries.

Keywords: Computed tomography, enhancement techniques, increasing contrast, PSNR and MSE.

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66 Arriving at an Optimum Value of Tolerance Factor for Compressing Medical Images

Authors: Sumathi Poobal, G. Ravindran

Abstract:

Medical imaging uses the advantage of digital technology in imaging and teleradiology. In teleradiology systems large amount of data is acquired, stored and transmitted. A major technology that may help to solve the problems associated with the massive data storage and data transfer capacity is data compression and decompression. There are many methods of image compression available. They are classified as lossless and lossy compression methods. In lossy compression method the decompressed image contains some distortion. Fractal image compression (FIC) is a lossy compression method. In fractal image compression an image is coded as a set of contractive transformations in a complete metric space. The set of contractive transformations is guaranteed to produce an approximation to the original image. In this paper FIC is achieved by PIFS using quadtree partitioning. PIFS is applied on different images like , Ultrasound, CT Scan, Angiogram, X-ray, Mammograms. In each modality approximately twenty images are considered and the average values of compression ratio and PSNR values are arrived. In this method of fractal encoding, the parameter, tolerance factor Tmax, is varied from 1 to 10, keeping the other standard parameters constant. For all modalities of images the compression ratio and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) are computed and studied. The quality of the decompressed image is arrived by PSNR values. From the results it is observed that the compression ratio increases with the tolerance factor and mammogram has the highest compression ratio. The quality of the image is not degraded upto an optimum value of tolerance factor, Tmax, equal to 8, because of the properties of fractal compression.

Keywords: Fractal image compression, IFS, PIFS, PSNR, Quadtree partitioning.

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65 Fractional Masks Based On Generalized Fractional Differential Operator for Image Denoising

Authors: Hamid A. Jalab, Rabha W. Ibrahim

Abstract:

This paper introduces an image denoising algorithm based on generalized Srivastava-Owa fractional differential operator for removing Gaussian noise in digital images. The structures of nxn fractional masks are constructed by this algorithm. Experiments show that, the capability of the denoising algorithm by fractional differential-based approach appears efficient to smooth the Gaussian noisy images for different noisy levels. The denoising performance is measured by using peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) for the denoising images. The results showed an improved performance (higher PSNR values) when compared with standard Gaussian smoothing filter.

Keywords: Fractional calculus, fractional differential operator, fractional mask, fractional filter.

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64 Objective Evaluation of Mathematical Morphology Edge Detection on Computed Tomography (CT) Images

Authors: Emhimed Saffor, Abdelkader Salama

Abstract:

In this paper problem of edge detection in digital images is considered. Edge detection based on morphological operators was applied on two sets (brain & chest) ct images. Three methods of edge detection by applying line morphological filters with multi structures in different directions have been used. 3x3 filter for first method, 5x5 filter for second method, and 7x7 filter for third method. We had applied this algorithm on (13 images) under MATLAB program environment. In order to evaluate the performance of the above mentioned edge detection algorithms, standard deviation (SD) and peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) were used for justification for all different ct images. The objective method and the comparison of different methods of edge detection,  shows that high values of both standard deviation and PSNR values of edge detection images were obtained. 

Keywords: Medical images, Matlab, Edge detection.

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63 Performance Improvement in the Bivariate Models by using Modified Marginal Variance of Noisy Observations for Image-Denoising Applications

Authors: R. Senthilkumar

Abstract:

Most simple nonlinear thresholding rules for wavelet- based denoising assume that the wavelet coefficients are independent. However, wavelet coefficients of natural images have significant dependencies. This paper attempts to give a recipe for selecting one of the popular image-denoising algorithms based on VisuShrink, SureShrink, OracleShrink, BayesShrink and BiShrink and also this paper compares different Bivariate models used for image denoising applications. The first part of the paper compares different Shrinkage functions used for image-denoising. The second part of the paper compares different bivariate models and the third part of this paper uses the Bivariate model with modified marginal variance which is based on Laplacian assumption. This paper gives an experimental comparison on six 512x512 commonly used images, Lenna, Barbara, Goldhill, Clown, Boat and Stonehenge. The following noise powers 25dB,26dB, 27dB, 28dB and 29dB are added to the six standard images and the corresponding Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) values are calculated for each noise level.

Keywords: BiShrink, Image-Denoising, PSNR, Shrinkage function

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62 Adaptive Motion Estimator Based on Variable Block Size Scheme

Authors: S. Dhahri, A. Zitouni, H. Chaouch, R. Tourki

Abstract:

This paper presents an adaptive motion estimator that can be dynamically reconfigured by the best algorithm depending on the variation of the video nature during the lifetime of an application under running. The 4 Step Search (4SS) and the Gradient Search (GS) algorithms are integrated in the estimator in order to be used in the case of rapid and slow video sequences respectively. The Full Search Block Matching (FSBM) algorithm has been also integrated in order to be used in the case of the video sequences which are not real time oriented. In order to efficiently reduce the computational cost while achieving better visual quality with low cost power, the proposed motion estimator is based on a Variable Block Size (VBS) scheme that uses only the 16x16, 16x8, 8x16 and 8x8 modes. Experimental results show that the adaptive motion estimator allows better results in term of Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR), computational cost, FPGA occupied area, and dissipated power relatively to the most popular variable block size schemes presented in the literature.

Keywords: H264, Configurable Motion Estimator, VariableBlock Size, PSNR, Dissipated power.

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61 CT Medical Images Denoising Based on New Wavelet Thresholding Compared with Curvelet and Contourlet

Authors: Amir Moslemi, Amir Movafeghi, Shahab Moradi

Abstract:

One of the most important challenging factors in medical images is nominated as noise. Image denoising refers to the improvement of a digital medical image that has been infected by Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN). The digital medical image or video can be affected by different types of noises. They are impulse noise, Poisson noise and AWGN. Computed tomography (CT) images are subjects to low quality due to the noise. Quality of CT images is dependent on absorbed dose to patients directly in such a way that increase in absorbed radiation, consequently absorbed dose to patients (ADP), enhances the CT images quality. In this manner, noise reduction techniques on purpose of images quality enhancement exposing no excess radiation to patients is one the challenging problems for CT images processing. In this work, noise reduction in CT images was performed using two different directional 2 dimensional (2D) transformations; i.e., Curvelet and Contourlet and Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) thresholding methods of BayesShrink and AdaptShrink, compared to each other and we proposed a new threshold in wavelet domain for not only noise reduction but also edge retaining, consequently the proposed method retains the modified coefficients significantly that result good visual quality. Data evaluations were accomplished by using two criterions; namely, peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) and Structure similarity (Ssim).

Keywords: Computed Tomography (CT), noise reduction, curve-let, contour-let, Signal to Noise Peak-Peak Ratio (PSNR), Structure Similarity (Ssim), Absorbed Dose to Patient (ADP).

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60 Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm vs. Genetic Algorithm for Image Watermarking Based Discrete Wavelet Transform

Authors: Omaima N. Ahmad AL-Allaf

Abstract:

Over communication networks, images can be easily copied and distributed in an illegal way. The copyright protection for authors and owners is necessary. Therefore, the digital watermarking techniques play an important role as a valid solution for authority problems. Digital image watermarking techniques are used to hide watermarks into images to achieve copyright protection and prevent its illegal copy. Watermarks need to be robust to attacks and maintain data quality. Therefore, we discussed in this paper two approaches for image watermarking, first is based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and the second approach is based on Genetic Algorithm (GA). Discrete wavelet transformation (DWT) is used with the two approaches separately for embedding process to cover image transformation. Each of PSO and GA is based on co-relation coefficient to detect the high energy coefficient watermark bit in the original image and then hide the watermark in original image. Many experiments were conducted for the two approaches with different values of PSO and GA parameters. From experiments, PSO approach got better results with PSNR equal 53, MSE equal 0.0039. Whereas GA approach got PSNR equal 50.5 and MSE equal 0.0048 when using population size equal to 100, number of iterations equal to 150 and 3×3 block. According to the results, we can note that small block size can affect the quality of image watermarking based PSO/GA because small block size can increase the search area of the watermarking image. Better PSO results were obtained when using swarm size equal to 100.

Keywords: Image watermarking, genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization, discrete wavelet transform.

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59 Optimal Image Compression Based on Sign and Magnitude Coding of Wavelet Coefficients

Authors: Mbainaibeye Jérôme, Noureddine Ellouze

Abstract:

Wavelet transforms is a very powerful tools for image compression. One of its advantage is the provision of both spatial and frequency localization of image energy. However, wavelet transform coefficients are defined by both a magnitude and sign. While algorithms exist for efficiently coding the magnitude of the transform coefficients, they are not efficient for the coding of their sign. It is generally assumed that there is no compression gain to be obtained from the coding of the sign. Only recently have some authors begun to investigate the sign of wavelet coefficients in image coding. Some authors have assumed that the sign information bit of wavelet coefficients may be encoded with the estimated probability of 0.5; the same assumption concerns the refinement information bit. In this paper, we propose a new method for Separate Sign Coding (SSC) of wavelet image coefficients. The sign and the magnitude of wavelet image coefficients are examined to obtain their online probabilities. We use the scalar quantization in which the information of the wavelet coefficient to belong to the lower or to the upper sub-interval in the uncertainly interval is also examined. We show that the sign information and the refinement information may be encoded by the probability of approximately 0.5 only after about five bit planes. Two maps are separately entropy encoded: the sign map and the magnitude map. The refinement information of the wavelet coefficient to belong to the lower or to the upper sub-interval in the uncertainly interval is also entropy encoded. An algorithm is developed and simulations are performed on three standard images in grey scale: Lena, Barbara and Cameraman. Five scales are performed using the biorthogonal wavelet transform 9/7 filter bank. The obtained results are compared to JPEG2000 standard in terms of peak signal to noise ration (PSNR) for the three images and in terms of subjective quality (visual quality). It is shown that the proposed method outperforms the JPEG2000. The proposed method is also compared to other codec in the literature. It is shown that the proposed method is very successful and shows its performance in term of PSNR.

Keywords: Image compression, wavelet transform, sign coding, magnitude coding.

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58 Union is Strength in Lossy Image Compression

Authors: Mario Mastriani

Abstract:

In this work, we present a comparison between different techniques of image compression. First, the image is divided in blocks which are organized according to a certain scan. Later, several compression techniques are applied, combined or alone. Such techniques are: wavelets (Haar's basis), Karhunen-Loève Transform, etc. Simulations show that the combined versions are the best, with minor Mean Squared Error (MSE), and higher Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and better image quality, even in the presence of noise.

Keywords: Haar's basis, Image compression, Karhunen-LoèveTransform, Morton's scan, row-rafter scan.

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57 Design of a DCT-based Image Compression with Efficient Enhancement Filter

Authors: Yen-Yu Chen, Pao-Ching Chu, Ya-Ling Tsai

Abstract:

The algorithm represents the DCT coefficients to concentrate signal energy and proposes combination and dictator to eliminate the correlation in the same level subband for encoding the DCT-based images. This work adopts DCT and modifies the SPIHT algorithm to encode DCT coefficients. The proposed algorithm also provides the enhancement function in low bit rate in order to improve the perceptual quality. Experimental results indicate that the proposed technique improves the quality of the reconstructed image in terms of both PSNR and the perceptual results close to JPEG2000 at the same bit rate.

Keywords: JPEG 2000, enhancement filter

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56 Modified Vector Quantization Method for Image Compression

Authors: K.Somasundaram, S.Domnic

Abstract:

A low bit rate still image compression scheme by compressing the indices of Vector Quantization (VQ) and generating residual codebook is proposed. The indices of VQ are compressed by exploiting correlation among image blocks, which reduces the bit per index. A residual codebook similar to VQ codebook is generated that represents the distortion produced in VQ. Using this residual codebook the distortion in the reconstructed image is removed, thereby increasing the image quality. Our scheme combines these two methods. Experimental results on standard image Lena show that our scheme can give a reconstructed image with a PSNR value of 31.6 db at 0.396 bits per pixel. Our scheme is also faster than the existing VQ variants.

Keywords: Image compression, Vector Quantization, Residual Codebook.

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55 New Enhanced Hexagon-Based Search Using Point-Oriented Inner Search for Fast Block Motion Estimation

Authors: Lai-Man Po, Chi-Wang Ting, Ka-Ho Ng

Abstract:

Recently, an enhanced hexagon-based search (EHS) algorithm was proposed to speedup the original hexagon-based search (HS) by exploiting the group-distortion information of some evaluated points. In this paper, a second version of the EHS is proposed with a new point-oriented inner search technique which can further speedup the HS in both large and small motion environments. Experimental results show that the enhanced hexagon-based search version-2 (EHS2) is faster than the HS up to 34% with negligible PSNR degradation.

Keywords: Inner search, fast motion estimation, block-matching, hexagon search

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54 A Novel Dual-Purpose Image Watermarking Technique

Authors: Maha Sharkas, Dahlia R. ElShafie, Nadder Hamdy

Abstract:

Image watermarking has proven to be quite an efficient tool for the purpose of copyright protection and authentication over the last few years. In this paper, a novel image watermarking technique in the wavelet domain is suggested and tested. To achieve more security and robustness, the proposed techniques relies on using two nested watermarks that are embedded into the image to be watermarked. A primary watermark in form of a PN sequence is first embedded into an image (the secondary watermark) before being embedded into the host image. The technique is implemented using Daubechies mother wavelets where an arbitrary embedding factor α is introduced to improve the invisibility and robustness. The proposed technique has been applied on several gray scale images where a PSNR of about 60 dB was achieved.

Keywords: Image watermarking, Multimedia Security, Wavelets, Image Processing.

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53 A High Bitrate Information Hiding Algorithm for Video in Video

Authors: Wang Shou-Dao, Xiao Chuang-Bai, Lin Yu

Abstract:

In high bitrate information hiding techniques, 1 bit is embedded within each 4 x 4 Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) coefficient block by means of vector quantization, then the hidden bit can be effectively extracted in terminal end. In this paper high bitrate information hiding algorithms are summarized, and the scheme of video in video is implemented. Experimental result shows that the host video which is embedded numerous auxiliary information have little visually quality decline. Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR)Y of host video only degrades 0.22dB in average, while the hidden information has a high percentage of survives and keeps a high robustness in H.264/AVC compression, the average Bit Error Rate(BER) of hiding information is 0.015%.

Keywords: Information Hiding, Embed, Quantification, Extract

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52 A Novel Approach to Image Compression of Colour Images by Plane Reduction Technique

Authors: K.Sowmyan, A.Siddarth, D.Menaka

Abstract:

Several methods have been proposed for color image compression but the reconstructed image had very low signal to noise ratio which made it inefficient. This paper describes a lossy compression technique for color images which overcomes the drawbacks. The technique works on spatial domain where the pixel values of RGB planes of the input color image is mapped onto two dimensional planes. The proposed technique produced better results than JPEG2000, 2DPCA and a comparative study is reported based on the image quality measures such as PSNR and MSE.Experiments on real time images are shown that compare this methodology with previous ones and demonstrate its advantages.

Keywords: Color Image compression, spatial domain, planereduction, root mean square, image restoration

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51 The Effect of Directional Search Using Iterated Functional System for Matching Range and Domain Blocks

Authors: Shimal Das, Dibyendu Ghoshal

Abstract:

The effect of directional search using iterated functional system has been studied on four images taken from databases. The images are portioned successively towards smaller dimension. Presented method provides the faster rate of convergence with respect to processing time in the flat region, but the same has been found to be slower at the border of the images and edges. It has also been revealed that the PSNR is lower at the edges and border portions of the image, and it is found to be higher in the uniform gray region, under the same external illumination and external noise environment.

Keywords: Iterated functional system, fractal compression, structural similarity index measure, fractal block coding, affine transformations.

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50 Selective Intra Prediction Mode Decision for H.264/AVC Encoders

Authors: Jun Sung Park, Hyo Jung Song

Abstract:

H.264/AVC offers a considerably higher improvement in coding efficiency compared to other compression standards such as MPEG-2, but computational complexity is increased significantly. In this paper, we propose selective mode decision schemes for fast intra prediction mode selection. The objective is to reduce the computational complexity of the H.264/AVC encoder without significant rate-distortion performance degradation. In our proposed schemes, the intra prediction complexity is reduced by limiting the luma and chroma prediction modes using the directional information of the 16×16 prediction mode. Experimental results are presented to show that the proposed schemes reduce the complexity by up to 78% maintaining the similar PSNR quality with about 1.46% bit rate increase in average.

Keywords: Video encoding, H.264, Intra prediction.

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49 Factorial Design Analysis for Quality of Video on MANET

Authors: Hyoup-Sang Yoon

Abstract:

The quality of video transmitted by mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) can be influenced by several factors, including protocol layers; parameter settings of each protocol. In this paper, we are concerned with understanding the functional relationship between these influential factors and objective video quality in MANETs. We illustrate a systematic statistical design of experiments (DOE) strategy can be used to analyze MANET parameters and performance. Using a 2k factorial design, we quantify the main and interactive effects of 7 factors on a response metric (i.e., mean opinion score (MOS) calculated by PSNR with Evalvid package) we then develop a first-order linear regression model between the influential factors and the performance metric.

Keywords: Evalvid, full factorial design, mobile ad hoc networks, ns-2.

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48 Combined DWT-CT Blind Digital Image Watermarking Algorithm

Authors: Nidal F. Shilbayeh, Belal AbuHaija, Zainab N. Al-Qudsy

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a new robust and secure system that is based on the combination between two different transforms Discrete wavelet Transform (DWT) and Contourlet Transform (CT). The combined transforms will compensate the drawback of using each transform separately. The proposed algorithm has been designed, implemented and tested successfully. The experimental results showed that selecting the best sub-band for embedding from both transforms will improve the imperceptibility and robustness of the new combined algorithm. The evaluated imperceptibility of the combined DWT-CT algorithm which gave a PSNR value 88.11 and the combination DWT-CT algorithm improves robustness since it produced better robust against Gaussian noise attack. In addition to that, the implemented system shored a successful extraction method to extract watermark efficiently.

Keywords: DWT, CT, Digital Image Watermarking, Copyright Protection.

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47 Low Computational Image Compression Scheme based on Absolute Moment Block Truncation Coding

Authors: K.Somasundaram, I.Kaspar Raj

Abstract:

In this paper we have proposed three and two stage still gray scale image compressor based on BTC. In our schemes, we have employed a combination of four techniques to reduce the bit rate. They are quad tree segmentation, bit plane omission, bit plane coding using 32 visual patterns and interpolative bit plane coding. The experimental results show that the proposed schemes achieve an average bit rate of 0.46 bits per pixel (bpp) for standard gray scale images with an average PSNR value of 30.25, which is better than the results from the exiting similar methods based on BTC.

Keywords: Bit plane, Block Truncation Coding, Image compression, lossy compression, quad tree segmentation

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46 Video Coding Algorithm for Video Sequences with Abrupt Luminance Change

Authors: Sang Hyun Kim

Abstract:

In this paper, a fast motion compensation algorithm is proposed that improves coding efficiency for video sequences with brightness variations. We also propose a cross entropy measure between histograms of two frames to detect brightness variations. The framewise brightness variation parameters, a multiplier and an offset field for image intensity, are estimated and compensated. Simulation results show that the proposed method yields a higher peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) compared with the conventional method, with a greatly reduced computational load, when the video scene contains illumination changes.

Keywords: Motion estimation, Fast motion compensation, Brightness variation compensation, Brightness change detection, Cross entropy.

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45 Image Enhancement of Medical Images using Gabor Filter Bank on Hexagonal Sampled Grids

Authors: Veni.S , K.A.Narayanankutty

Abstract:

For about two decades scientists have been developing techniques for enhancing the quality of medical images using Fourier transform, DWT (Discrete wavelet transform),PDE model etc., Gabor wavelet on hexagonal sampled grid of the images is proposed in this work. This method has optimal approximation theoretic performances, for a good quality image. The computational cost is considerably low when compared to similar processing in the rectangular domain. As X-ray images contain light scattered pixels, instead of unique sigma, the parameter sigma of 0.5 to 3 is found to satisfy most of the image interpolation requirements in terms of high Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) , lower Mean Squared Error (MSE) and better image quality by adopting windowing technique.

Keywords: Hexagonal lattices, Gabor filter, Interpolation, imageprocessing.

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44 A Dual Digital-Image Watermarking Technique

Authors: Maha Sharkas, Dahlia ElShafie, Nadder Hamdy

Abstract:

Image watermarking has become an important tool for intellectual property protection and authentication. In this paper a watermarking technique is suggested that incorporates two watermarks in a host image for improved protection and robustness. A watermark, in form of a PN sequence (will be called the secondary watermark), is embedded in the wavelet domain of a primary watermark before being embedded in the host image. The technique has been tested using Lena image as a host and the camera man as the primary watermark. The embedded PN sequence was detectable through correlation among other five sequences where a PSNR of 44.1065 dB was measured. Furthermore, to test the robustness of the technique, the watermarked image was exposed to four types of attacks, namely compression, low pass filtering, salt and pepper noise and luminance change. In all cases the secondary watermark was easy to detect even when the primary one is severely distorted.

Keywords: DWT, Image watermarking, watermarkingtechniques, wavelets.

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43 Lifting Wavelet Transform and Singular Values Decomposition for Secure Image Watermarking

Authors: Siraa Ben Ftima, Mourad Talbi, Tahar Ezzedine

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a technique of secure watermarking of grayscale and color images. This technique consists in applying the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) in LWT (Lifting Wavelet Transform) domain in order to insert the watermark image (grayscale) in the host image (grayscale or color image). It also uses signature in the embedding and extraction steps. The technique is applied on a number of grayscale and color images. The performance of this technique is proved by the PSNR (Pick Signal to Noise Ratio), the MSE (Mean Square Error) and the SSIM (structural similarity) computations.

Keywords: Color image, grayscale image, singular values decomposition, lifting wavelet transform, image watermarking, watermark, secure.

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