Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1697

Search results for: Computational Complexity.

1697 A Survey on Metric of Software Cognitive Complexity for OO design

Authors: A.Aloysius, L. Arockiam

Abstract:

In modern era, the biggest challenge facing the software industry is the upcoming of new technologies. So, the software engineers are gearing up themselves to meet and manage change in large software system. Also they find it difficult to deal with software cognitive complexities. In the last few years many metrics were proposed to measure the cognitive complexity of software. This paper aims at a comprehensive survey of the metric of software cognitive complexity. Some classic and efficient software cognitive complexity metrics, such as Class Complexity (CC), Weighted Class Complexity (WCC), Extended Weighted Class Complexity (EWCC), Class Complexity due to Inheritance (CCI) and Average Complexity of a program due to Inheritance (ACI), are discussed and analyzed. The comparison and the relationship of these metrics of software complexity are also presented.

Keywords: Software Metrics, Software Complexity, Cognitive Informatics, Cognitive Complexity, Software measurement

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1696 Selective Intra Prediction Mode Decision for H.264/AVC Encoders

Authors: Jun Sung Park, Hyo Jung Song

Abstract:

H.264/AVC offers a considerably higher improvement in coding efficiency compared to other compression standards such as MPEG-2, but computational complexity is increased significantly. In this paper, we propose selective mode decision schemes for fast intra prediction mode selection. The objective is to reduce the computational complexity of the H.264/AVC encoder without significant rate-distortion performance degradation. In our proposed schemes, the intra prediction complexity is reduced by limiting the luma and chroma prediction modes using the directional information of the 16×16 prediction mode. Experimental results are presented to show that the proposed schemes reduce the complexity by up to 78% maintaining the similar PSNR quality with about 1.46% bit rate increase in average.

Keywords: Video encoding, H.264, Intra prediction.

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1695 Low Complexity Hybrid Scheme for PAPR Reduction in OFDM Systems Based on SLM and Clipping

Authors: V. Sudha, D. Sriram Kumar

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a low complexity hybrid scheme using conventional selective mapping (C-SLM) and clipping algorithms to reduce the high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal. In the proposed scheme, the input data sequence (X) is divided into two sub-blocks, then clipping algorithm is applied to the first sub-block, whereas C-SLM algorithm is applied to the second sub-block in order to reduce both computational complexity and PAPR. The resultant time domain OFDM signal is obtained by combining the output of two sub-blocks. The simulation results show that the proposed hybrid scheme provides 0.45 dB PAPR reduction gain at CCDF value of 10-2 and 52% of computational complexity reduction when compared to C-SLM scheme at the expense of slight degradation in bit error rate (BER) performance.

Keywords: CCDF, Clipping, OFDM, PAPR, SLM.

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1694 Control-flow Complexity Measurement of Processes and Weyuker's Properties

Authors: Jorge Cardoso

Abstract:

Process measurement is the task of empirically and objectively assigning numbers to the properties of business processes in such a way as to describe them. Desirable attributes to study and measure include complexity, cost, maintainability, and reliability. In our work we will focus on investigating process complexity. We define process complexity as the degree to which a business process is difficult to analyze, understand or explain. One way to analyze a process- complexity is to use a process control-flow complexity measure. In this paper, an attempt has been made to evaluate the control-flow complexity measure in terms of Weyuker-s properties. Weyuker-s properties must be satisfied by any complexity measure to qualify as a good and comprehensive one.

Keywords: Business process measurement, workflow, complexity.

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1693 Static and Dynamic Complexity Analysis of Software Metrics

Authors: Kamaljit Kaur, Kirti Minhas, Neha Mehan, Namita Kakkar

Abstract:

Software complexity metrics are used to predict critical information about reliability and maintainability of software systems. Object oriented software development requires a different approach to software complexity metrics. Object Oriented Software Metrics can be broadly classified into static and dynamic metrics. Static Metrics give information at the code level whereas dynamic metrics provide information on the actual runtime. In this paper we will discuss the various complexity metrics, and the comparison between static and dynamic complexity.

Keywords: Static Complexity, Dynamic Complexity, Halstead Metric, Mc Cabe's Metric.

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1692 Fast and Efficient Algorithms for Evaluating Uniform and Nonuniform Lagrange and Newton Curves

Authors: Taweechai Nuntawisuttiwong, Natasha Dejdumrong

Abstract:

Newton-Lagrange Interpolations are widely used in numerical analysis. However, it requires a quadratic computational time for their constructions. In computer aided geometric design (CAGD), there are some polynomial curves: Wang-Ball, DP and Dejdumrong curves, which have linear time complexity algorithms. Thus, the computational time for Newton-Lagrange Interpolations can be reduced by applying the algorithms of Wang-Ball, DP and Dejdumrong curves. In order to use Wang-Ball, DP and Dejdumrong algorithms, first, it is necessary to convert Newton-Lagrange polynomials into Wang-Ball, DP or Dejdumrong polynomials. In this work, the algorithms for converting from both uniform and non-uniform Newton-Lagrange polynomials into Wang-Ball, DP and Dejdumrong polynomials are investigated. Thus, the computational time for representing Newton-Lagrange polynomials can be reduced into linear complexity. In addition, the other utilizations of using CAGD curves to modify the Newton-Lagrange curves can be taken.

Keywords: Newton interpolation, Lagrange interpolation, linear complexity.

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1691 Object-Oriented Cognitive-Spatial Complexity Measures

Authors: Varun Gupta, Jitender Kumar Chhabra

Abstract:

Software maintenance and mainly software comprehension pose the largest costs in the software lifecycle. In order to assess the cost of software comprehension, various complexity measures have been proposed in the literature. This paper proposes new cognitive-spatial complexity measures, which combine the impact of spatial as well as architectural aspect of the software to compute the software complexity. The spatial aspect of the software complexity is taken into account using the lexical distances (in number of lines of code) between different program elements and the architectural aspect of the software complexity is taken into consideration using the cognitive weights of control structures present in control flow of the program. The proposed measures are evaluated using standard axiomatic frameworks and then, the proposed measures are compared with the corresponding existing cognitive complexity measures as well as the spatial complexity measures for object-oriented software. This study establishes that the proposed measures are better indicators of the cognitive effort required for software comprehension than the other existing complexity measures for object-oriented software.

Keywords: cognitive complexity, software comprehension, software metrics, spatial complexity, Object-oriented software

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1690 Attribute Weighted Class Complexity: A New Metric for Measuring Cognitive Complexity of OO Systems

Authors: Dr. L. Arockiam, A. Aloysius

Abstract:

In general, class complexity is measured based on any one of these factors such as Line of Codes (LOC), Functional points (FP), Number of Methods (NOM), Number of Attributes (NOA) and so on. There are several new techniques, methods and metrics with the different factors that are to be developed by the researchers for calculating the complexity of the class in Object Oriented (OO) software. Earlier, Arockiam et.al has proposed a new complexity measure namely Extended Weighted Class Complexity (EWCC) which is an extension of Weighted Class Complexity which is proposed by Mishra et.al. EWCC is the sum of cognitive weights of attributes and methods of the class and that of the classes derived. In EWCC, a cognitive weight of each attribute is considered to be 1. The main problem in EWCC metric is that, every attribute holds the same value but in general, cognitive load in understanding the different types of attributes cannot be the same. So here, we are proposing a new metric namely Attribute Weighted Class Complexity (AWCC). In AWCC, the cognitive weights have to be assigned for the attributes which are derived from the effort needed to understand their data types. The proposed metric has been proved to be a better measure of complexity of class with attributes through the case studies and experiments

Keywords: Software Complexity, Attribute Weighted Class Complexity, Weighted Class Complexity, Data Type

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1689 Multi Switched Split Vector Quantization of Narrowband Speech Signals

Authors: M. Satya Sai Ram, P. Siddaiah, M. Madhavi Latha

Abstract:

Vector quantization is a powerful tool for speech coding applications. This paper deals with LPC Coding of speech signals which uses a new technique called Multi Switched Split Vector Quantization (MSSVQ), which is a hybrid of Multi, switched, split vector quantization techniques. The spectral distortion performance, computational complexity, and memory requirements of MSSVQ are compared to split vector quantization (SVQ), multi stage vector quantization(MSVQ) and switched split vector quantization (SSVQ) techniques. It has been proved from results that MSSVQ has better spectral distortion performance, lower computational complexity and lower memory requirements when compared to all the above mentioned product code vector quantization techniques. Computational complexity is measured in floating point operations (flops), and memory requirements is measured in (floats).

Keywords: Linear predictive Coding, Multi stage vectorquantization, Switched Split vector quantization, Split vectorquantization, Line Spectral Frequencies (LSF).

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1688 Cognitive Weighted Polymorphism Factor: A Comprehension Augmented Complexity Metric

Authors: T. Francis Thamburaj, A. Aloysius

Abstract:

Polymorphism is one of the main pillars of objectoriented paradigm. It induces hidden forms of class dependencies which may impact software quality, resulting in higher cost factor for comprehending, debugging, testing, and maintaining the software. In this paper, a new cognitive complexity metric called Cognitive Weighted Polymorphism Factor (CWPF) is proposed. Apart from the software structural complexity, it includes the cognitive complexity on the basis of type. The cognitive weights are calibrated based on 27 empirical studies with 120 persons. A case study and experimentation of the new software metric shows positive results. Further, a comparative study is made and the correlation test has proved that CWPF complexity metric is a better, more comprehensive, and more realistic indicator of the software complexity than Abreu’s Polymorphism Factor (PF) complexity metric.

Keywords: Cognitive complexity metric, cognitive weighted polymorphism factor, object-oriented metrics, polymorphism factor, software metrics.

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1687 Blind Channel Estimation Based on URV Decomposition Technique for Uplink of MC-CDMA

Authors: Pradya Pornnimitkul, Suwich Kunaruttanapruk, Bamrung Tau Sieskul, Somchai Jitapunkul

Abstract:

In this paper, we investigate a blind channel estimation method for Multi-carrier CDMA systems that use a subspace decomposition technique. This technique exploits the orthogonality property between the noise subspace and the received user codes to obtain channel of each user. In the past we used Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) technique but SVD have most computational complexity so in this paper use a new algorithm called URV Decomposition, which serve as an intermediary between the QR decomposition and SVD, replaced in SVD technique to track the noise space of the received data. Because of the URV decomposition has almost the same estimation performance as the SVD, but has less computational complexity.

Keywords: Channel estimation, MC-CDMA, SVD, URV.

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1686 An Approach for Reducing the Computational Complexity of LAMSTAR Intrusion Detection System using Principal Component Analysis

Authors: V. Venkatachalam, S. Selvan

Abstract:

The security of computer networks plays a strategic role in modern computer systems. Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) act as the 'second line of defense' placed inside a protected network, looking for known or potential threats in network traffic and/or audit data recorded by hosts. We developed an Intrusion Detection System using LAMSTAR neural network to learn patterns of normal and intrusive activities, to classify observed system activities and compared the performance of LAMSTAR IDS with other classification techniques using 5 classes of KDDCup99 data. LAMSAR IDS gives better performance at the cost of high Computational complexity, Training time and Testing time, when compared to other classification techniques (Binary Tree classifier, RBF classifier, Gaussian Mixture classifier). we further reduced the Computational Complexity of LAMSTAR IDS by reducing the dimension of the data using principal component analysis which in turn reduces the training and testing time with almost the same performance.

Keywords: Binary Tree Classifier, Gaussian Mixture, IntrusionDetection System, LAMSTAR, Radial Basis Function.

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1685 Complexity Reduction Approach with Jacobi Iterative Method for Solving Composite Trapezoidal Algebraic Equations

Authors: Mohana Sundaram Muthuvalu, Jumat Sulaiman

Abstract:

In this paper, application of the complexity reduction approach based on half- and quarter-sweep iteration concepts with Jacobi iterative method for solving composite trapezoidal (CT) algebraic equations is discussed. The performances of the methods for CT algebraic equations are comparatively studied by their application in solving linear Fredholm integral equations of the second kind. Furthermore, computational complexity analysis and numerical results for three test problems are also included in order to verify performance of the methods.

Keywords: Complexity reduction approach, Composite trapezoidal scheme, Jacobi method, Linear Fredholm integral equations

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1684 Multi Switched Split Vector Quantizer

Authors: M. Satya Sai Ram, P. Siddaiah, M. Madhavi Latha

Abstract:

Vector quantization is a powerful tool for speech coding applications. This paper deals with LPC Coding of speech signals which uses a new technique called Multi Switched Split Vector Quantization, This is a hybrid of two product code vector quantization techniques namely the Multi stage vector quantization technique, and Switched split vector quantization technique,. Multi Switched Split Vector Quantization technique quantizes the linear predictive coefficients in terms of line spectral frequencies. From results it is proved that Multi Switched Split Vector Quantization provides better trade off between bitrate and spectral distortion performance, computational complexity and memory requirements when compared to Switched Split Vector Quantization, Multi stage vector quantization, and Split Vector Quantization techniques. By employing the switching technique at each stage of the vector quantizer the spectral distortion, computational complexity and memory requirements were greatly reduced. Spectral distortion was measured in dB, Computational complexity was measured in floating point operations (flops), and memory requirements was measured in (floats).

Keywords: Unconstrained vector quantization, Linear predictiveCoding, Split vector quantization, Multi stage vector quantization, Switched Split vector quantization, Line Spectral Frequencies.

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1683 Fuzzy Based Problem-Solution Data Structureas a Data Oriented Model for ABS Controlling

Authors: Ahmad Habibizad Navin, Mehdi Naghian Fesharaki, Mohamad Teshnelab, Ehsan Shahamatnia

Abstract:

The anti-lock braking systems installed on vehicles for safe and effective braking, are high-order nonlinear and timevariant. Using fuzzy logic controllers increase efficiency of such systems, but impose a high computational complexity as well. The main concept introduced by this paper is reducing computational complexity of fuzzy controllers by deploying problem-solution data structure. Unlike conventional methods that are based on calculations, this approach is based on data oriented modeling.

Keywords: ABS, Fuzzy controller, PSDS, Time-Memory tradeoff, Data oriented modeling.

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1682 Computationally Efficient Adaptive Rate Sampling and Adaptive Resolution Analysis

Authors: Saeed Mian Qaisar, Laurent Fesquet, Marc Renaudin

Abstract:

Mostly the real life signals are time varying in nature. For proper characterization of such signals, time-frequency representation is required. The STFT (short-time Fourier transform) is a classical tool used for this purpose. The limitation of the STFT is its fixed time-frequency resolution. Thus, an enhanced version of the STFT, which is based on the cross-level sampling, is devised. It can adapt the sampling frequency and the window function length by following the input signal local variations. Therefore, it provides an adaptive resolution time-frequency representation of the input. The computational complexity of the proposed STFT is deduced and compared to the classical one. The results show a significant gain of the computational efficiency and hence of the processing power. The processing error of the proposed technique is also discussed.

Keywords: Level Crossing Sampling, Activity Selection, Adaptive Resolution Analysis, Computational Complexity

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1681 Project Complexity Indices based on Topology Features

Authors: Amer A. Boushaala

Abstract:

The heuristic decision rules used for project scheduling will vary depending upon the project-s size, complexity, duration, personnel, and owner requirements. The concept of project complexity has received little detailed attention. The need to differentiate between easy and hard problem instances and the interest in isolating the fundamental factors that determine the computing effort required by these procedures inspired a number of researchers to develop various complexity measures. In this study, the most common measures of project complexity are presented. A new measure of project complexity is developed. The main privilege of the proposed measure is that, it considers size, shape and logic characteristics, time characteristics, resource demands and availability characteristics as well as number of critical activities and critical paths. The degree of sensitivity of the proposed measure for complexity of project networks has been tested and evaluated against the other measures of complexity of the considered fifty project networks under consideration in the current study. The developed measure showed more sensitivity to the changes in the network data and gives accurate quantified results when comparing the complexities of networks.

Keywords: Activity networks, Complexity index, Networkcomplexity measure, Network topology, Project Network.

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1680 Efficient and Effective Gabor Feature Representation for Face Detection

Authors: Yasuomi D. Sato, Yasutaka Kuriya

Abstract:

We here propose improved version of elastic graph matching (EGM) as a face detector, called the multi-scale EGM (MS-EGM). In this improvement, Gabor wavelet-based pyramid reduces computational complexity for the feature representation often used in the conventional EGM, but preserving a critical amount of information about an image. The MS-EGM gives us higher detection performance than Viola-Jones object detection algorithm of the AdaBoost Haar-like feature cascade. We also show rapid detection speeds of the MS-EGM, comparable to the Viola-Jones method. We find fruitful benefits in the MS-EGM, in terms of topological feature representation for a face.

Keywords: Face detection, Gabor wavelet based pyramid, elastic graph matching, topological preservation, redundancy of computational complexity.

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1679 A Comparative Study of High Order Rotated Group Iterative Schemes on Helmholtz Equation

Authors: Norhashidah Hj. Mohd Ali, Teng Wai Ping

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a high order group explicit method in solving the two dimensional Helmholtz equation. The presented method is derived from a nine-point fourth order finite difference approximation formula obtained from a 45-degree rotation of the standard grid which makes it possible for the construction of iterative procedure with reduced complexity. The developed method will be compared with the existing group iterative schemes available in literature in terms of computational time, iteration counts, and computational complexity. The comparative performances of the methods will be discussed and reported.

Keywords: Explicit group method, finite difference, Helmholtz equation, rotated grid, standard grid.

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1678 Computational Aspects of Regression Analysis of Interval Data

Authors: Michal Cerny

Abstract:

We consider linear regression models where both input data (the values of independent variables) and output data (the observations of the dependent variable) are interval-censored. We introduce a possibilistic generalization of the least squares estimator, so called OLS-set for the interval model. This set captures the impact of the loss of information on the OLS estimator caused by interval censoring and provides a tool for quantification of this effect. We study complexity-theoretic properties of the OLS-set. We also deal with restricted versions of the general interval linear regression model, in particular the crisp input – interval output model. We give an argument that natural descriptions of the OLS-set in the crisp input – interval output cannot be computed in polynomial time. Then we derive easily computable approximations for the OLS-set which can be used instead of the exact description. We illustrate the approach by an example.

Keywords: Linear regression, interval-censored data, computational complexity.

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1677 Evaluating Complexity – Ethical Challenges in Computational Design Processes

Authors: J.Partanen

Abstract:

Complexity, as a theoretical background has made it easier to understand and explain the features and dynamic behavior of various complex systems. As the common theoretical background has confirmed, borrowing the terminology for design from the natural sciences has helped to control and understand urban complexity. Phenomena like self-organization, evolution and adaptation are appropriate to describe the formerly inaccessible characteristics of the complex environment in unpredictable bottomup systems. Increased computing capacity has been a key element in capturing the chaotic nature of these systems. A paradigm shift in urban planning and architectural design has forced us to give up the illusion of total control in urban environment, and consequently to seek for novel methods for steering the development. New methods using dynamic modeling have offered a real option for more thorough understanding of complexity and urban processes. At best new approaches may renew the design processes so that we get a better grip on the complex world via more flexible processes, support urban environmental diversity and respond to our needs beyond basic welfare by liberating ourselves from the standardized minimalism. A complex system and its features are as such beyond human ethics. Self-organization or evolution is either good or bad. Their mechanisms are by nature devoid of reason. They are common in urban dynamics in both natural processes and gas. They are features of a complex system, and they cannot be prevented. Yet their dynamics can be studied and supported. The paradigm of complexity and new design approaches has been criticized for a lack of humanity and morality, but the ethical implications of scientific or computational design processes have not been much discussed. It is important to distinguish the (unexciting) ethics of the theory and tools from the ethics of computer aided processes based on ethical decisions. Urban planning and architecture cannot be based on the survival of the fittest; however, the natural dynamics of the system cannot be impeded on grounds of being “non-human". In this paper the ethical challenges of using the dynamic models are contemplated in light of a few examples of new architecture and dynamic urban models and literature. It is suggested that ethical challenges in computational design processes could be reframed under the concepts of responsibility and transparency.

Keywords: urban planning, architecture, dynamic modeling, ethics, complexity theory.

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1676 Low Complexity Peak-to-Average Power Ratio Reduction in Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing System by Simultaneously Applying Partial Transmit Sequence and Clipping Algorithms

Authors: V. Sudha, D. Sriram Kumar

Abstract:

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) has been used in many advanced wireless communication systems due to its high spectral efficiency and robustness to frequency selective fading channels. However, the major concern with OFDM system is the high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of the transmitted signal. Some of the popular techniques used for PAPR reduction in OFDM system are conventional partial transmit sequences (CPTS) and clipping. In this paper, a parallel combination/hybrid scheme of PAPR reduction using clipping and CPTS algorithms is proposed. The proposed method intelligently applies both the algorithms in order to reduce both PAPR as well as computational complexity. The proposed scheme slightly degrades bit error rate (BER) performance due to clipping operation and it can be reduced by selecting an appropriate value of the clipping ratio (CR). The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm achieves significant PAPR reduction with much reduced computational complexity.

Keywords: CCDF, OFDM, PAPR, PTS.

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1675 Improvement over DV-Hop Localization Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Shrawan Kumar, D. K. Lobiyal

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose improved versions of DVHop algorithm as QDV-Hop algorithm and UDV-Hop algorithm for better localization without the need for additional range measurement hardware. The proposed algorithm focuses on third step of DV-Hop, first error terms from estimated distances between unknown node and anchor nodes is separated and then minimized. In the QDV-Hop algorithm, quadratic programming is used to minimize the error to obtain better localization. However, quadratic programming requires a special optimization tool box that increases computational complexity. On the other hand, UDV-Hop algorithm achieves localization accuracy similar to that of QDV-Hop by solving unconstrained optimization problem that results in solving a system of linear equations without much increase in computational complexity. Simulation results show that the performance of our proposed schemes (QDV-Hop and UDV-Hop) is superior to DV-Hop and DV-Hop based algorithms in all considered scenarios.

Keywords: Wireless sensor networks, Error term, DV-Hop algorithm, Localization.

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1674 A Complexity Measure for Java Bean based Software Components

Authors: Sandeep Khimta, Parvinder S. Sandhu, Amanpreet Singh Brar

Abstract:

The traditional software product and process metrics are neither suitable nor sufficient in measuring the complexity of software components, which ultimately is necessary for quality and productivity improvement within organizations adopting CBSE. Researchers have proposed a wide range of complexity metrics for software systems. However, these metrics are not sufficient for components and component-based system and are restricted to the module-oriented systems and object-oriented systems. In this proposed study it is proposed to find the complexity of the JavaBean Software Components as a reflection of its quality and the component can be adopted accordingly to make it more reusable. The proposed metric involves only the design issues of the component and does not consider the packaging and the deployment complexity. In this way, the software components could be kept in certain limit which in turn help in enhancing the quality and productivity.

Keywords: JavaBean Components, Complexity, Metrics, Validation.

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1673 An Improved Quality Adaptive Rate Filtering Technique Based on the Level Crossing Sampling

Authors: Saeed Mian Qaisar, Laurent Fesquet, Marc Renaudin

Abstract:

Mostly the systems are dealing with time varying signals. The Power efficiency can be achieved by adapting the system activity according to the input signal variations. In this context an adaptive rate filtering technique, based on the level crossing sampling is devised. It adapts the sampling frequency and the filter order by following the input signal local variations. Thus, it correlates the processing activity with the signal variations. Interpolation is required in the proposed technique. A drastic reduction in the interpolation error is achieved by employing the symmetry during the interpolation process. Processing error of the proposed technique is calculated. The computational complexity of the proposed filtering technique is deduced and compared to the classical one. Results promise a significant gain of the computational efficiency and hence of the power consumption.

Keywords: Level Crossing Sampling, Activity Selection, Rate Filtering, Computational Complexity, Interpolation Error.

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1672 Complexity of Component-based Development of Embedded Systems

Authors: M. Zheng, V. S. Alagar

Abstract:

The paper discusses complexity of component-based development (CBD) of embedded systems. Although CBD has its merits, it must be augmented with methods to control the complexities that arise due to resource constraints, timeliness, and run-time deployment of components in embedded system development. Software component specification, system-level testing, and run-time reliability measurement are some ways to control the complexity.

Keywords: Components, embedded systems, complexity, softwaredevelopment, traffic controller system.

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1671 Recursive Wiener-Khintchine Theorem

Authors: Khalid M. Aamir, Mohammad A. Maud

Abstract:

Power Spectral Density (PSD) computed by taking the Fourier transform of auto-correlation functions (Wiener-Khintchine Theorem) gives better result, in case of noisy data, as compared to the Periodogram approach. However, the computational complexity of Wiener-Khintchine approach is more than that of the Periodogram approach. For the computation of short time Fourier transform (STFT), this problem becomes even more prominent where computation of PSD is required after every shift in the window under analysis. In this paper, recursive version of the Wiener-Khintchine theorem has been derived by using the sliding DFT approach meant for computation of STFT. The computational complexity of the proposed recursive Wiener-Khintchine algorithm, for a window size of N, is O(N).

Keywords: Power Spectral Density (PSD), Wiener-KhintchineTheorem, Periodogram, Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT), TheSliding DFT.

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1670 A Complexity-Based Approach in Image Compression using Neural Networks

Authors: Hadi Veisi, Mansour Jamzad

Abstract:

In this paper we present an adaptive method for image compression that is based on complexity level of the image. The basic compressor/de-compressor structure of this method is a multilayer perceptron artificial neural network. In adaptive approach different Back-Propagation artificial neural networks are used as compressor and de-compressor and this is done by dividing the image into blocks, computing the complexity of each block and then selecting one network for each block according to its complexity value. Three complexity measure methods, called Entropy, Activity and Pattern-based are used to determine the level of complexity in image blocks and their ability in complexity estimation are evaluated and compared. In training and evaluation, each image block is assigned to a network based on its complexity value. Best-SNR is another alternative in selecting compressor network for image blocks in evolution phase which chooses one of the trained networks such that results best SNR in compressing the input image block. In our evaluations, best results are obtained when overlapping the blocks is allowed and choosing the networks in compressor is based on the Best-SNR. In this case, the results demonstrate superiority of this method comparing with previous similar works and JPEG standard coding.

Keywords: Adaptive image compression, Image complexity, Multi-layer perceptron neural network, JPEG Standard, PSNR.

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1669 Sequential Straightforward Clustering for Local Image Block Matching

Authors: Mohammad Akbarpour Sekeh, Mohd. Aizaini Maarof, Mohd. Foad Rohani, Malihe Motiei

Abstract:

Duplicated region detection is a technical method to expose copy-paste forgeries on digital images. Copy-paste is one of the common types of forgeries to clone portion of an image in order to conceal or duplicate special object. In this type of forgery detection, extracting robust block feature and also high time complexity of matching step are two main open problems. This paper concentrates on computational time and proposes a local block matching algorithm based on block clustering to enhance time complexity. Time complexity of the proposed algorithm is formulated and effects of two parameter, block size and number of cluster, on efficiency of this algorithm are considered. The experimental results and mathematical analysis demonstrate this algorithm is more costeffective than lexicographically algorithms in time complexity issue when the image is complex.

Keywords: Copy-paste forgery detection, Duplicated region, Timecomplexity, Local block matching, Sequential block clustering.

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1668 A Technique for Reachability Graph Generation for the Petri Net Models of Parallel Processes

Authors: Farooq Ahmad, Hejiao Huang, Xiaolong Wang

Abstract:

Reachability graph (RG) generation suffers from the problem of exponential space and time complexity. To alleviate the more critical problem of time complexity, this paper presents the new approach for RG generation for the Petri net (PN) models of parallel processes. Independent RGs for each parallel process in the PN structure are generated in parallel and cross-product of these RGs turns into the exhaustive state space from which the RG of given parallel system is determined. The complexity analysis of the presented algorithm illuminates significant decrease in the time complexity cost of RG generation. The proposed technique is applicable to parallel programs having multiple threads with the synchronization problem.

Keywords: Parallel processes, Petri net, reachability graph, time complexity.

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