Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 747

Search results for: humic acid

747 Effect of Humic Acid on Physical and Engineering Properties of Lime-Treated Organic Clay

Authors: N. Z. Mohd Yunus, D. Wanatowski, L. R. Stace

Abstract:

The present work deals with the stabilisation of organic clay using hydrated lime. Artificial organic clays were prepared by adding kaolin and different humic acid contents. Results given by physical testing show that the presence of humic acid has a drawback effect on the untreated organic clay. The decrease in specific gravity value was accompanied by a decrease in dry density and plasticity of clay at higher humic acid contents. Significant increase in shear strength at 7 days of curing period is observed in the lime-treated samples up to 5% lime content. However shear strength of lime-treated organic clay decreases at longer curing periods. The results given by laboratory testing is further verified by microstructure analysis. Based on the results obtained in this study, it can be concluded that the presence of more than 1.5% humic acid reduces significantly the efficiency of lime stabilization in organic clays.

Keywords: Humic acid, kaolin, lime, organic clay

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746 Reducing Humic Acid and Disinfection By-products in Raw Water using a Bio-activated Carbon Filter

Authors: Wei-Pin Tseng, Jie-Chung Lou, Ming-Ching Wu, Huang-Ming Fang

Abstract:

For stricter drinking water regulations in the future, reducing the humic acid and disinfection byproducts in raw water, namely, trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) is worthy for research. To investigate the removal of waterborne organic material using a lab-scale of bio-activated carbon filter under different EBCT, the concentrations of humic acid prepared were 0.01, 0.03, 0.06, 0.12, 0.17, 0.23, and 0.29 mg/L. Then we conducted experiments using a pilot plant with in-field of the serially connected bio-activated carbon filters and hollow fiber membrane processes employed in traditional water purification plants. Results showed under low TOC conditions of humic acid in influent (0.69 to 1.03 mg TOC/L) with an EBCT of 30 min, 40 min, and 50 min, TOC removal rates increases with greater EBCT, attaining about 39 % removal rate. The removal rate of THMs and HAAs by BACF was 54.8 % and 89.0 %, respectively.

Keywords: Bio-activated carbon filter, hollow fiber membrane, humic acid, THMs, HAAs, Water Treatment

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745 Characterization of Organic Matter in Spodosol Amazonian by Fluorescence Spectroscopy

Authors: Amanda M. Tadini, Houssam Hajjoul, Gustavo Nicolodelli, Stéphane Mounier, Célia R. Montes, Débora M. B. P. Milori

Abstract:

Soil organic matter (SOM) plays an important role in maintaining soil productivity and accounting for the promotion of biological diversity. The main components of the SOM are the humic substances which can be fractionated according to its solubility in humic acid (HA), fulvic acids (FA) and humin (HU). The determination of the chemical properties of organic matter as well as its interaction with metallic species is an important tool for understanding the structure of the humic fractions. Fluorescence spectroscopy has been studied as a source of information about what is happening at the molecular level in these compounds. Specially, soils of Amazon region are an important ecosystem of the planet. The aim of this study is to understand the molecular and structural composition of HA samples from Spodosol of Amazonia using the fluorescence Emission-Excitation Matrix (EEM) and Time Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TRFS). The results showed that the samples of HA showed two fluorescent components; one has a more complex structure and the other one has a simpler structure, which was also seen in TRFS through the evaluation of each sample lifetime. Thus, studies of this nature become important because it aims to evaluate the molecular and structural characteristics of the humic fractions in the region that is considered as one of the most important regions in the world, the Amazon.

Keywords: Amazonian soil, characterization, fluorescence, humic acid, lifetime.

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744 The Mechanistic and Oxidative Study of Methomyl and Parathion Degradation by Fenton Process

Authors: Chihhao Fan, Ming-Chu Liao

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to investigate the chemical degradation of the organophosphorus pesticide of parathion and carbamate insecticide of methomyl in the aqueous phase through Fenton process. With the employment of batch Fenton process, the degradation of the two selected pesticides at different pH, initial concentration, humic acid concentration, and Fenton reagent dosages was explored. The Fenton process was found effective to degrade parathion and methomyl. The optimal dosage of Fenton reagents (i.e., molar concentration ratio of H2O2 to Fe2+) at pH 7 for parathion degradation was equal to 3, which resulted in 50% removal of parathion. Similarly, the optimal dosage for methomyl degradation was 1, resulting in 80% removal of methomyl. This study also found that the presence of humic substances has enhanced pesticide degradation by Fenton process significantly. The mass spectroscopy results showed that the hydroxyl free radical may attack the single bonds with least energy of investigated pesticides to form smaller molecules which is more easily to degrade either through physio-chemical or bilolgical processes.

Keywords: Fenton Process, humic acid, methomyl, parathion, pesticides

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743 Synthesis and Performance of Polyamide Forward Osmosis Membrane for Natural Organic Matter (NOM) Removal

Authors: M. N. Abu Seman, L. M. Kei, M. A. Yusoff

Abstract:

Forward Osmosis (FO) polyamide thin-film composite membranes have been prepared by interfacial polymerization using commercial UF polyethersulfoneas membrane support. Different interfacial polymerization times (10s, 30s and 60s) in the organic solution containing trimesoyl chloride (TMC) at constant m-phenylenediamine (MPD) concentration (2% w/v) were studied. The synthesized polyamide membranes then tested for treatment of natural organic matter (NOM) and compared to commercial Cellulose TriAcetate (CTA) membrane. It was found that membrane prepared with higher reaction time (30s and 60s) exhibited better membrane performance (flux and humic acid removal) over commercial CTA membrane.

Keywords: Cellulose Triacetate, Forward Osmosis, Humic Acid, Polyamide.

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742 Effect of Zeolite on the Decomposition Resistance of Organic Matter in Tropical Soils under Global Warming

Authors: Mai Thanh Truc, Masao Yoshida

Abstract:

Global temperature had increased by about 0.5oC over the past century, increasing temperature leads to a loss or a decrease of soil organic matter (SOM). Whereas soil organic matter in many tropical soils is less stable than that of temperate soils, and it will be easily affected by climate change. Therefore, conservation of soil organic matter is urgent issue nowadays. This paper presents the effect of different doses (5%, 15%) of Ca-type zeolite in conjunction with organic manure, applied to soil samples from Philippines, Paraguay and Japan, on the decomposition resistance of soil organic matter under high temperature. Results showed that a remain or slightly increase the C/N ratio of soil. There are an increase in percent of humic acid (PQ) that extracted with Na4P2O7. A decrease of percent of free humus (fH) after incubation was determined. A larger the relative color intensity (RF) value and a lower the color coefficient (6logK) value following increasing zeolite rates leading to a higher degrees of humification. The increase in the aromatic condensation of humic acid (HA) after incubation, as indicates by the decrease of H/C and O/C ratios of HA. This finding indicates that the use of zeolite could be beneficial with respect to SOM conservation under global warming condition.

Keywords: Global warming, Humic substances, Soil organicmatter, Zeolite.

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741 Effect of Various Concentrations of Humic Acid on Growth and Development of Eggplant Seedlings in Tissue Cultures at Low Nutrient Level

Authors: Kullanart Obsuwan, Suluck Namchote, Natdhera Sanmanee, Kamolchanok Panishkan, Sirichai Dharmvanij

Abstract:

Humic acids (HAs) have been shown to activate some ion uptakes along with stimulating the lateral roots at effective concentration of micronutrients. However, the effects of HA on ion adsorption by plant roots are not easily explainable due to the varieties of HAs that differ from origins. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the effect of various concentrations of HA obtained from the compost derived from mix manures and some agricultural wastes on the growth of eggplant seedlings (Solanum melongena L. cv. Chao Praya) in tissue cultures at low nutrient level. Egg plant seeds were surfaced sterilized and germinated in ½ Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) without HA added or in ¼ MS supplemented with 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 ppm of HAs. Then, they were cultured for 4 weeks under the controlled environment. The results showed that seedlings grown on ¼MS supplemented with HAs at the concentration of 25 and 50 ppm had the average plant heights (2.49 and 2.28 cm, respectively) higher than the other treatments. Both treatments also significantly showed the maximum average fresh and dry weights (p<0.05). Also the later yielded the highest average number of leaves and the longest average root length (p<0.05). However, there was no statistically different in the number of roots among treatments (p>0.05). This suggested that HAs at the concentration of 25 and 50 ppm could improve the growth of egg plant seedlings in tissue cultures at low nutrient level (¼ MS).

Keywords: growth, seedling, humic acid, fresh weght, dry weight, tissue culture

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740 Study of Compost Maturity during Humification Process using UV-Spectroscopy

Authors: N. Sanmanee, K. Panishkan, K. Obsuwan, S. Dharmvanij

Abstract:

The increments of aromatic structures are widely used to monitor the degree of humification. Compost derived from mix manures mixed with agricultural wastes was studied. The compost collected at day 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 49, 77, 91, 105, and 119 was divided into 3 stages, initial stage at day 0, thermophilic stage during day 1-48, and mature stage during day 49-119. The change of highest absorptions at wavelength range between 210-235 nm during day 0- 49 implied that small molecules such as nitrates and carboxylic occurred faster than the aromatic molecules that were found at wavelength around 280 nm. The ratio of electron-transfer band at wavelength 253 nm by the benzonoid band at wavelength 230 nm (E253/E230) also gradually increased during the fermenting period indicating the presence of O-containing functional groups. This was in agreement with the shift change from aliphatic to aromatic structures as shown by the relationship with C/N and H/C ratios (r = - 0.631 and -0.717, p< 0.05) since both were decreasing. Although the amounts of humic acid (HA) were not different much during the humification process, the UV spectral deconvolution showed better qualitative characteristics to help in determining the compost quality. From this study, the compost should be used at day 49 and should not be kept longer than 3 months otherwise the quality of HA would decline regardless of the amounts of HA that might be rising. This implied that other processes, such as mineralization had an influence on the humification process changing HA-s structure and its qualities.

Keywords: Compost maturity, UV spectroscopy, humification, humic acid

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739 Fatty Acid and Amino Acid Composition in Mene maculata in The Sea of Maluku

Authors: Semuel Unwakoly, Reinner Puppela, Maresthy Rumalean, Healthy Kainama

Abstract:

Fish is a kind of food that contains many nutritions, one of those is the long chain of unsaturated fatty acids as omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids and essential amino acid in enough amount for the necessity of our body. Like pelagic fish that found in the sea of Maluku. This research was done to identify fatty acids and amino acids composition in Moonfish (M. maculata) using transesterification reaction steps and Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrophotometer (GC-MS) and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The result showed that fatty acids composition in Moonfish (M. maculata) contained tridecanoic acid (2.84%); palmitoleic acid (2.65%); palmitic acid (35.24%); oleic acid (6.2%); stearic acid (14.20%); and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (1.29%) and 12 amino acids composition that consist of 7 essential amino acids, were leucine, isoleucine, valine, phenylalanine, methionine, lysine, and histidine, and also 5 non-essential amino acid, were tyrosine, glycine, alanine, glutamic acid, and arginine.Thus, these fishes can be used by the people to complete the necessity of essential fatty acid and amino acid.

Keywords: Moonfish (M. maculata), fatty acid, amino acid, GC-MS, HPLC.

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738 Effect of Boric Acid on a-Hydroxy Acids Compounds in Thin Layer Chromatography

Authors: Elham Moniri, Homayon Ahmad Panahi, Ahmad Izadi, Mohamad Mehdi Parvin, Atyeh Rahimi

Abstract:

In this investigation Salicylic acid, Sulfosalicylic acid and Acetyl salicylic acid were chosen as a sample for thin layer chromatography (TLC) on silica gel plates. Bicarbonate buffer at different pH containing different amounts of boric acid was applied as mobile phase. Specific interaction of these substances with boric acid has effect on Rf in thin layer chromatography. Regular and similar trend was observed in variations of Rf for mentioned compounds in TLC by altering of percentages of boric acid in mobile phase in pH range of 8-10. Also effect of organic solvent, mixture of water/ organic solvent and organic solvent containing boric acid as mobile phase was studied.

Keywords: Thin layer chromatography (TLC), Aspirin, Salicylic acid, Sulfosalycylic acid, Boric acid.

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737 High Performance Liquid Chromatography Determination of Urinary Hippuric Acid and Benzoic Acid as Indices for Glue Sniffer Urine

Authors: Abdul Rahim Yacob, Mohamad Raizul Zinalibdin

Abstract:

A simple method for the simultaneous determination of hippuric acid and benzoic acid in urine using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography was described. Chromatography was performed on a Nova-Pak C18 (3.9 x 150 mm) column with a mobile phase of mixed solution methanol: water: acetic acid (20:80:0.2) and UV detection at 254 nm. The calibration curve was linear within concentration range at 0.125 to 6.0 mg/ml of hippuric acid and benzoic acid. The recovery, accuracy and coefficient variance of hippuric acid were 104.54%, 0.2% and 0.2% respectively and for benzoic acid were 98.48%, 1.25% and 0.60% respectively. The detection limit of this method was 0.01ng/l for hippuric acid and 0.06ng/l for benzoic acid. This method has been applied to the analysis of urine samples from the suspected of toluene abuser or glue sniffer among secondary school students at Johor Bahru.

Keywords: Glue sniffer, High Performance LiquidChromatography, Hippuric Acid, Toluene, Urine.

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736 Mathematical Simulation of Acid Concentration Effects during Acid Nitric Leaching of Cobalt from a Mixed Cobalt-Copper Oxide

Authors: Ek Ngoy, A F Mulaba-Bafubiandi

Abstract:

Cobalt was acid nitric leached from a mixed cobaltcopper oxide with variable acid concentration. Resulting experimental data were used to analyze effects of increase in acid concentration, based on a shrinking core model of the process. The mathematical simulation demonstrated that the time rate of the dissolution mechanism is an increasing function of acid concentration. It was also shown that the magnitude of the acid concentration effect is time dependent and the increase in acid concentration is more effective at earlier stage of the dissolution than at later stage. The remaining process parameters are comprehensively affected by acid concentration and their interaction is synergetic.

Keywords: Acid effect, Cobalt, Cobalt-copper oxide, Leaching, Simulation

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735 Evaluation of SSR Markers Associated with High Oleic Acid in Sunflower

Authors: Atitaya Singchai, Nooduan Muangsan, Thitiporn Machikowa

Abstract:

Sunflower oil with high oleic acid content is most desirable because of its high oxidative stability. Screening sunflower of high oleic acid using conventional method is laborious and time consuming. Therefore, the use of molecular markers as a screening tool is promising. The objective of this research was to evaluate SSR primers for high oleic acid content in sunflower. Two sunflower lines, 5A and PI 649855 were used as the representative of low and high oleic acid sunflowers, respectively, and thirty seven SSR markers were used to identify oleic acid content trait. The results revealing 10 SSR primers showed polymorphic between high and low oleic acid lines and thus were informative. With these primers, therefore, it is possible to identify the genetic markers associated with high oleic acid trait in sunflower genotypes. 

Keywords: Microsatellite, Helianthus annuus L., fatty acid composition, molecular markers.

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734 Influence of Fermentation Conditions on Humic Acids Production by Trichoderma viride Using an Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch as the Substrate

Authors: F. L. Motta, M. H. A. Santana

Abstract:

Humic acids (HA) were produced by a Trichoderma viride strain under submerged fermentation in a medium based on the oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) and the main variables of the process were optimized by using response surface methodology. A temperature of 40°C and concentrations of 50g/L EFB, 5.7g/L potato peptone and 0.11g/L (NH4)2SO4 were the optimum levels of the variables that maximize the HA production, within the physicochemical and biological limits of the process. The optimized conditions led to an experimental HA concentration of 428.4±17.5 mg/L, which validated the prediction from the statistical model of 412.0mg/L. This optimization increased about 7–fold the HA production previously reported in the literature. Additionally, the time profiles of HA production and fungal growth confirmed our previous findings that HA production preferably occurs during fungal sporulation. The present study demonstrated that T. viride successfully produced HA via the submerged fermentation of EFB and the process parameters were successfully optimized using a statistics-based response surface model. To the best of our knowledge, the present work is the first report on the optimization of HA production from EFB by a biotechnological process, whose feasibility was only pointed out in previous works.

Keywords: Empty fruit bunch, humic acids, submerged fermentation, Trichoderma viride.

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733 The Catalytic Properties of PtSn/Al2O3 for Acetic Acid Hydrogenation

Authors: Mingchuan Zhou, Haitao Zhang, Hongfang Ma, Weiyong Ying

Abstract:

Alumina supported platinum and tin catalysts with different loadings of Pt and Sn were prepared and characterized by low temperature N2 adsorption/desorption, H2-temperature programed reduction and CO pulse chemisorption. Pt and Sn below 1% loading were suitable for acetic acid hydrogenation. The best performance over 0.75Pt1Sn/Al2O3 can reach 87.55% conversion of acetic acid and 47.39% selectivity of ethanol. The operating conditions of acetic acid hydrogenation over 1Pt1Sn/Al2O3 were investigated. High reaction temperature can enhance the conversion of acetic acid, but it decreased total selectivity of ethanol and acetyl acetate. High pressure and low weight hourly space velocity were beneficial to both conversion of acetic acid and selectivity to ethanol.

Keywords: Acetic acid, hydrogenation, PtSn, operating condition.

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732 A Comparison of Dilute Sulfuric and Phosphoric Acid Pretreatments in Biofuel Production from Corncobs

Authors: Jirakarn Nantapipat, Apanee Luengnaruemitchai, Sujitra Wongkasemjit

Abstract:

Biofuels, like biobutanol, have been recognized for being renewable and sustainable fuels which can be produced from lignocellulosic biomass. To convert lignocellulosic biomass to biofuel, pretreatment process is an important step to remove hemicelluloses and lignin to improve enzymatic hydrolysis. Dilute acid pretreatment has been successful developed for pretreatment of corncobs and the optimum conditions of dilute sulfuric and phosphoric acid pretreatment were obtained at 120 °C for 5 min with 15:1 liquid to solid ratio and 140 °C for 10 min with 10:1 liquid to solid ratio, respectively. The result shows that both of acid pretreatments gave the content of total sugar approximately 34–35 g/l. In case of inhibitor content (furfural), phosphoric acid pretreatment gives higher than sulfuric acid pretreatment. Characterizations of corncobs after pretreatment indicate that both of acid pretreatments can improve enzymatic accessibility and the better results present in corncobs pretreated with sulfuric acid in term of surface area, crystallinity, and composition analysis.

Keywords: Corncobs, Pretreatment, Sulfuric acid, Phosphoric acid.

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731 Optimization of Diluted Organic Acid Pretreatment on Rice Straw Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Rotchanaphan Hengaroonprasan, Malinee Sriariyanun, Prapakorn Tantayotai, Supacharee Roddecha, Kraipat Cheenkachorn

Abstract:

Lignocellolusic material is a substance that is resistant to be degraded by microorganisms or hydrolysis enzymes. To be used as materials for biofuel production, it needs pretreatment process to improve efficiency of hydrolysis. In this work, chemical pretreatments on rice straw using three diluted organic acids, including acetic acid, citric acid, oxalic acid, were optimized. Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM), the effect of three pretreatment parameters, acid concentration, treatment time, and reaction temperature, on pretreatment efficiency were statistically evaluated. The results indicated that dilute oxalic acid pretreatment led to the highest enhancement of enzymatic saccharification by commercial cellulase and yielded sugar up to 10.67 mg/ml when using 5.04% oxalic acid at 137.11 oC for 30.01 min. Compared to other acid pretreatment by acetic acid, citric acid, and hydrochloric acid, the maximum sugar yields are 7.07, 6.30, and 8.53 mg/ml, respectively. Here, it was demonstrated that organic acids can be used for pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials to enhance of hydrolysis process, which could be integrated to other applications for various biorefinery processes. 

Keywords: Lignocellolusic biomass, pretreatment, organic acid response surface methodology, biorefinery.

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730 Utilization of Sugarcane Bagasses for Lactic Acid Production by acid Hydrolysis and Fermentation using Lactobacillus sp

Authors: Woranart Jonglertjunya, Nattawadee Pranrawang, Nuanyai Phookongka, Thanasak Sridangtip, Watthana Sawedrungreang, Chularat Krongtaew

Abstract:

Sugarcane bagasses are one of the most extensively used agricultural residues. Using acid hydrolysis and fermentation, conversion of sugarcane bagasses to lactic acid was technically and economically feasible. This research was concerned with the solubility of lignin in ammonium hydroxide, acid hydrolysis and lactic acid fermentation by Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus casei. The lignin extraction results for different ammonium hydroxide concentrations showed that 10 % (v/v) NH4OH was favorable to lignin dissolution. Acid hydrolysis can be enhanced with increasing acid concentration and reaction temperature. The optimum glucose and xylose concentrations occurred at 121 ○C for 1 hour hydrolysis time in 10% sulphuric acid solution were 32 and 11 g/l, respectively. In order to investigate the significance of medium composition on lactic acid production, experiments were undertaken whereby a culture of Lactococcus lactis was grown under various glucose, peptone, yeast extract and xylose concentrations. The optimum medium was composed of 5 g/l glucose, 2.5 g/l xylose, 10 g/l peptone and 5 g/l yeast extract. Lactococcus lactis represents the most efficient for lactic acid production amongst those considered. The lactic acid fermentation by Lactococcus lactis after 72 hours gave the highest yield of 1.4 (g lactic acid per g reducing sugar).

Keywords: sugarcane bagasses, acid hydrolysis, lactic acid, fermentation

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729 Hydrolytic Properties of Ellagic Acid in Commercial Pomegranate Juices

Authors: Sibel Uzuner, Jale Acar

Abstract:

Pomegranate and pomegranate juices (PJs) have taken great attention for their health benefits in the last years. As there is an increasing concern about potential health benefits of ellagic acid, it is of great interest to evaluate alterations in ellagic acid concentration of commercial PJs. The purpose of this study is to analyze total phenolic, free and total ellagic acid content of six commercial PJs sold in Turkish markets using HPLC. The results showed that some commercial PJs had markedly high total phenolic and ellagic acid content. Total phenolic substances of commercial PJs range from 796.71 to 4608.91 mg GAE/l. Free amount of ellagic acid in commercial PJs range from 27.64 to 111.78 mg/l. Samples are hydrolyzed with concentrated HCl at 93oC for 2 and 24 hour and influences of temperature and time parameters on hydrolization were investigated. Thermal processing for pasteurization increased ellagic acid via ellagitannins hydrolysis.

Keywords: Ellagic acid, ellagitannin, pomegranate juice, total phenolic compounds

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728 Inhibitory Effect of Lactic Acid and Nisin on Bacterial Spoilage of Chilled Shrimp

Authors: A. R. Shirazinejad, I. Noryati, A. Rosma, I. Darah

Abstract:

Lactic acid alone and its combined application with nisin were evaluated for reducing population of naturally occurring microorganisms on chilled shrimp. Fresh shrimps were dipped in 0, 1.0% and 2.0% (v/v) lactic acid alone and their combined application with 0.04 (g/L/kg) nisin solution for 10 min. Total plate counts of aerobic bacteria (TPCs), Psychrotrophic counts, population of Pseudomonas spp., H2S producing bacteria and Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on shrimps were determined during storage at 4 °C. The results indicated that total plate counts were 2.91 and 2.63 log CFU/g higher on untreated shrimps after 7 and 14 days of storage, respectively, than on shrimps treated with 2.0% lactic acid combined with 0.04 (g/L/kg) nisin. Both concentrations of lactic acid indicated significant reduction on Pseudomonas counts during storage, while 2.0% lactic acid combined with nisin indicated the highest reduction. In addition, H2S producing bacteria were more sensitive to high concentration of lactic acid combined with nisin during storage.

Keywords: Shrimp, lactic acid, nisin, spoilage bacteria

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727 Solid-State Bioconversion of Pineapple Residues into Kojic Acid by Aspergillus flavus: A Prospective Study

Authors: S. Nurashikin, E. Z. Rusley, A. Husaini

Abstract:

Kojic acid is an organic acid that is widely used as an ingredient for dermatological products, precursor for flavor enhancer and also as anti-inflammatory drug. The present study was undertaken to test the feasibility of pineapple residues as substrate for kojic acid production by Aspergillus flavus Link 44-1 via solid-state fermentation. The effect of initial moisture content, pH and incubation time on kojic acid fermentation was investigated. The best initial moisture content for kojic acid production from pineapple residues was observed at 70% (v/w) whereas initial culture pH 2.5 was identified to give high production of kojic acid. The optimal range of incubation time was identified between 8 and 14 days of incubation which corresponded to highest range of kojic acid produced. The results from this study pronounce the promising usability of pineapple residues as alternative substrate for kojic acid production by A. flavus Link 44-1.

Keywords: Aspergillus flavus, kojic acid, pineapple residues, solid state fermentation.

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726 Growth Behaviors, Thermostable Direct Hemolysin Secretion and Fatty Acid Profiles of Acid-adapted and Non-adapted Vibrio parahaemolyticus

Authors: Ming-Lun Chiang, Chieh Wu, Ming-Ju Chen

Abstract:

Three strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (690, BCRC 13023 and BCRC 13025) implicated in food poisoning outbreaks in Taiwan were subjected to acid adaptation at pH 5.5 for 90 min. The growth behaviors of acid-adapted and non-adapted V. parahaemolyticus in the media supplemented with various nitrogen and carbon sources were investigated. The effects of acid adaptation on the thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) secretion and fatty acid profiles of V. parahaemolyticus were also examined. Results showed that acid-adapted and non-adapted V. parahaemolyticus 690, BCRC 13023 and BCRC 13025 grew similarly in TSB-3% NaCl and basal media supplemented with various carbon and nitrogen sources during incubation period. Higher TDH secretion was noted with V. parahaemolyticus 690 among the three strains. However, acid-adapted strains produced less amounts of TDH than non-adapted strains when they were grown in TSB-3% NaCl. Additionally, acid adaptation increased the ratio of SFA/USFA in cells of V. parahaemolyticus strains.

Keywords: Vibrio parahaemolyticus, acid adaptation, thermostable direct hemolysin, fatty acid profile.

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725 Biocompatible Ionic Liquids in Liquid – Liquid Extraction of Lactic Acid: A Comparative Study

Authors: Konstantza Tonova, Ivan Svinyarov, Milen G. Bogdanov

Abstract:

Ionic liquids consisting of a phosphonium cationic moiety and a saccharinate anion are synthesized and compared with their precursors, phosphonium chlorides, in reference to their extraction efficiency towards L-lactic acid. On the base of measurements of the acid and the water partitioning in the equilibrium biphasic systems, the molar ratios between acid, water and ionic liquid are estimated which allows to deduce the lactic acid extractive pathway. The effect of a salting-out addition that strengthens hydrophobicity in both phases is studied in view to reveal the best biphasic system with respect to IL low toxicity and high extraction efficiency.

Keywords: Biphasic system, Extraction, Ionic liquids, Lactic acid.

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724 Growth Effects of Caffeic Acid and Thioglycolic Acid Modified Chitosans in U937 Cells

Authors: Aytekin A.O., Morimura S.

Abstract:

Chitosan is a biopolymer composed of glucosamine and N-acetyl glucosamine. Solubility and viscosity pose problems in some applications. These problems can be overcome with unique modifications. In this study, firstly, chitosan was modified by caffeic acid and thioglycolic acid, separately. Then, growing effects of these modified polymers was observed in U937 cell line. Caffeic acid is a phenolic compound and its modifications act carcinogenic inhibitors in drugs. Thiolated chitosans are commonly being used for drugdelivery systems in various routes, because of enhancing mucoadhesiveness property. U937 cell line was used model cell for leukaemia. Modifications were achieved by 1 – 15 % binding range. Increasing binding ratios showed higher radical-scavenging activity and reducing cell growth, in compared to native chitosan. Caffeic acid modifications showed higher radical-scavenging activity than thiolated chitosans at the same concentrations. Caffeic acid and thioglycolic acid modifications inhibited growth of U937, effectively.

Keywords: Chitosan, U937 cell, caffeic acid, thioglycolic acid

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723 Effect of Acid Adaptation on the Survival of Three Vibrio parahaemolyticus Strains under Simulated Gastric Condition and their Protein Expression Profiles

Authors: Ming-Lun Chiang, Hsi-Chia Chen, Chieh Wu, Yu-Ting Tseng, Ming-Ju Chen

Abstract:

In this study, three strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (690, BCRC 13023 and BCRC 13025) were subjected to acid adaptation at pH 5.5 for 90 min. The survival of acid-adapted and non-adapted V. parahaemolyticus strains under simulated gastric condition and their protein expression profiles were investigated. Results showed that acid adaptation increased the survival of the test V. parahaemolyticus strains after exposure to simulated gastric juice (pH 3). Additionally, acid adaptation also affected the protein expression in these V. parahaemolyticus strains. Nine proteins, identified as atpA, atpB, DnaK, GroEL, OmpU, enolase, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, phosphoglycerate kinase and triosephosphate isomerase, were induced by acid adaptation in two or three of the test strains. These acid-adaptive proteins may play important regulatory roles in the acid tolerance response (ATR) of V. parahaemolyticus.

Keywords: Acid adaptation, protein expression, simulated gastric juice, Vibrio parahaemolyticus

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722 Screening and Identification of Microorganisms – Potential Producers of Arachidonic Acid

Authors: A. V. Goncharova, T. A. Karpenyuk, Y. S. Tsurkan, R. U. Beisembaeva, A. M. Kalbaeva, T. D. Mukasheva, L. V. Ignatova

Abstract:

Microorganisms isolated from water and soil of Kazakhstan to identify potential high-effective producers of the arachidonic acid, exhibiting a wide range of physiological activity and having practical applications were screened. Based on the results of two independent tests (the test on the sensitivity of the growth processes of microorganisms to acetylsalicylic acid - an irreversible inhibitor of PGH-synthase involved in the metabolism of arachidonic acid and its derivatives, the test for inhibition of peroxidase activity of membrane-bounding fraction of PGH - synthase by acetylsalicylic acid) were selected microbial cultures which are potential highproducer of arachidonic acid. They are characterized by a stable strong growth in the laboratory conditions. Identification of microorganism cultures based on morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular genetic characteristics was performed.

Keywords: Arachidonic acid, aspirin-sensitive culture, bacteria, producers, screening.

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721 Humic Acid and Azadirachtin Derivatives for the Management of Crop Pests

Authors: R. S. Giraddi, C. M. Poleshi

Abstract:

Organic cultivation of crops is gaining importance consumer awareness towards pesticide residue free foodstuffs is increasing globally. This is also because of high costs of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, making the conventional farming non-remunerative. In India, organic manures (such as vermicompost) are an important input in organic agriculture.  Though vermicompost obtained through earthworm and microbe-mediated processes is known to comprise most of the crop nutrients, but they are in small amounts thus necessitating enrichment of nutrients so that crop nourishment is complete. Another characteristic of organic manures is that the pest infestations are kept under check due to induced resistance put up by the crop plants. In the present investigation, deoiled neem cake containing azadirachtin, copper ore tailings (COT), a source of micro-nutrients and microbial consortia were added for enrichment of vermicompost. Neem cake is a by-product obtained during the process of oil extraction from neem plant seeds. Three enriched vermicompost blends were prepared using vermicompost (at 70, 65 and 60%), deoiled neem cake (25, 30 and 35%), microbial consortia and COTwastes (5%). Enriched vermicompost was thoroughly mixed, moistened (25+5%), packed and incubated for 15 days at room temperature. In the crop response studies, the field trials on chili (Capsicum annum var. longum) and soybean, (Glycine max cv JS 335) were conducted during Kharif 2015 at the Main Agricultural Research Station, UAS, Dharwad-Karnataka, India. The vermicompost blend enriched with neem cake (known to possess higher amounts of nutrients) and vermicompost were applied to the crops and at two dosages and at two intervals of crop cycle (at sowing and 30 days after sowing) as per the treatment plan along with 50% recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF). 10 plants selected randomly in each plot were studied for pest density and plant damage. At maturity, crops were harvested, and the yields were recorded as per the treatments, and the data were analyzed using appropriate statistical tools and procedures. In the crops, chili and soybean, crop nourishment with neem enriched vermicompost reduced insect density and plant damage significantly compared to other treatments. These treatments registered as much yield (16.7 to 19.9 q/ha) as that realized in conventional chemical control (18.2 q/ha) in soybean, while 72 to 77 q/ha of green chili was harvested in the same treatments, being comparable to the chemical control (74 q/ha). The yield superiority of the treatments was of the order neem enriched vermicompost>conventional chemical control>neem cake>vermicompost>untreated control.  The significant features of the result are that it reduces use of inorganic manures by 50% and synthetic chemical insecticides by 100%.

Keywords: Humic acid, azadirachtin, vermicompost, insect-pest.

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720 Characterization of Penicillin V Acid and Its Related Compounds by HPLC

Authors: Bahdja Guerfi, N. Hadhoum, I. Azouz, M. Bendoumia, S. Bouafia, F. Z. Hadjadj Aoul

Abstract:

Background: 'Penicillin V' is a narrow, bactericidal antibiotic of the beta-lactam family of the naturally occurring penicillin group. It is limited to infections due to the germs defined as sensitive. The objective of this work was to identify and to characterize Penicillin V acid and its related compounds by High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Methods: Firstly phenoxymethylpenicillin was identified by an infrared absorption. The organoleptic characteristics, pH, and determination of water content were also studied. The dosage of Penicillin V acid active substance and the determination of its related compounds were carried on waters HPLC, equipped with a UV detector at 254 nm and Discovery HS C18 column (250 mm X 4.6 mm X 5 µm) which is maintained at room temperature. The flow rate was about 1 ml per min. A mixture of water, acetonitrile and acetic acid (65:35:01) was used as mobile phase for phenoxyacetic acid ‘impurity B' and a mixture of water, acetonitrile and acetic acid (650:150:5.75) for the assay and 4-hydroxypenicillin V 'impurity D'. Results: The identification of Penicillin V acid active substance and the evaluation of its chemical quality showed conformity with USP 35th edition. The Penicillin V acid content in the raw material is equal to 1692.22 UI/mg. The percentage content of phenoxyacetic acid and 4-hydroxypenicillin V was respectively: 0.035% and 0.323%. Conclusion: Through these results, we can conclude that the Penicillin V acid active substance tested is of good physicochemical quality.

Keywords: Penicillin V acid, characterization, related substances, HPLC.

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719 Proteomic Analysis of Tumor Tissue after Treatment with Ascorbic Acid

Authors: Seyeon Park, Mi Jang

Abstract:

Tumor cells have an invasive and metastatic phenotype that is the main cause of death for cancer patients. Tumor establishment and penetration consists of a series of complex processes involving multiple changes in gene expression. In this study, intraperitoneal administration of a high concentration of ascorbic acid inhibited tumor establishment and decreased tumor mass in BALB/C mice implanted with S-180 sarcoma cancer cells. To identify proteins involved in the ascorbic acid-mediated inhibition of tumor progression, changes in the tumor proteome associated with ascorbic acid treatment of BALB/C mice implanted with S-180 were investigated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Twenty protein spots were identified whose expression was different between control and ascorbic acid treatment groups.

Keywords: Ascorbic acid, Proteomic analysis, S-180 implantedBALB/C mouse

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718 Effect of Different Lactic Acid Bacteria on Phytic Acid Content and Quality of whole Wheat Toast Bread

Authors: Z. Didar, A. Pourfarzad, M. H. Haddad Khodaparast

Abstract:

Nowadays, consumption of whole flours and flours with high extraction rate is recommended, because of their high amount of fibers, vitamins and minerals. Despite nutritional benefits of whole flour, concentration of some undesirable components such as phytic acid is higher than white flour. In this study, effect of several lactic acid bacteria sourdough on Toast bread is investigated. Sourdough from lactic acid bacteria (Lb. plantarum, Lb. reuteri) with different dough yield (250 and 300) is made and incubated at 30°C for 20 hour, then added to dough in the ratio of 10, 20 and 30% replacement. Breads that supplemented with Lb. plantarum sourdough had lower phytic acid. Higher replacement of sourdough and higher DY cause higher decrease in phytic acid content. Sourdough from Lb. plantarum, DY = 300 and 30% replacement cause the highest decrease in phytic acid content (49.63 mg/100g). As indicated by panelists, Lb. reuteri sourdough can present the greatest effect on overall quality score of the breads. DY reduction cause a decrease in bread quality score. Sensory score of Toast bread is 81.71 in the samples that treated with Lb. reuteri sourdough with DY = 250 and 20% replacement.

Keywords: Phytic Acid, Sourdough, Toast Bread, Whole Wheat Flour, Lactic Acid Bacteria.

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