Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32586
Image Adaptive Watermarking with Visual Model in Orthogonal Polynomials based Transformation Domain

Authors: Krishnamoorthi R., Sheba Kezia Malarchelvi P. D.


In this paper, an image adaptive, invisible digital watermarking algorithm with Orthogonal Polynomials based Transformation (OPT) is proposed, for copyright protection of digital images. The proposed algorithm utilizes a visual model to determine the watermarking strength necessary to invisibly embed the watermark in the mid frequency AC coefficients of the cover image, chosen with a secret key. The visual model is designed to generate a Just Noticeable Distortion mask (JND) by analyzing the low level image characteristics such as textures, edges and luminance of the cover image in the orthogonal polynomials based transformation domain. Since the secret key is required for both embedding and extraction of watermark, it is not possible for an unauthorized user to extract the embedded watermark. The proposed scheme is robust to common image processing distortions like filtering, JPEG compression and additive noise. Experimental results show that the quality of OPT domain watermarked images is better than its DCT counterpart.

Keywords: Orthogonal Polynomials based Transformation, Digital Watermarking, Copyright Protection, Visual model.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1631


[1] Mitchell D. Swanson, Mei Kobayashi and Ahmed H. Tewfik, "Multimedia Data-Embedding and Watermarking Technologies", Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 86, No. 6, pp. 1064-1087, 1998.
[2] Christen Rey and Jean-Luc Dugelay, "A Survey of Watermarking Algorithms for Image Authentication," EURASIP Journal on Applied Signal Processing, Vol. 6, pp. 613-621, 2002.
[3] Wang Gang and Rao Ni-ni, "A fragile watermarking scheme for Medical Image", Proceedings of the 2005 IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology 27th Annual Conference, China, pp. 3406-3409, 2005.
[4] Dipti Prasad Mukherjee, Subhamoy Maitra, and Scott T. Acton, "Spatial Domain Digital Watermarking of Multimedia Objects for Buyer Authentication", IEEE Transactions on Multimedia, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 1-19, 2004.
[5] R.B. Wolfgang, C.I. Podilchuk and E.J. Delp, "Perceptual Watermarks for Digital Images and Video," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 87, No. 7, pp. 1108-1126, 1999.
[6] S. Kay and E. Izquierdo, "Robust content based image watermarking," Proceedings of the Workshop on Image Analysis for Multimedia Interactive Services, WIAMIS-2001, Tampere, Finland, 2001.
[7] Xia-mu Niu, Zhe-ming and Sheng-ho Sun, "Digital watermarking of still images with Gray-level digital watermarks," IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, Vol. 46, No. 1, pp. 137-145, 2000.
[8] Peter H.W. Wong, Oscar C. Au and Y.M. Yeung, "A Novel Blind Multiple Watermarking Technique for Images," IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems for VideoTechnology, Vol. 13, No. 8, pp. 813-830, 2003.
[9] Ping Dong, Jovan G. Brankov, Nikolas P. Galatsanos, Yongyi Yang and Frank Davoine, "Digital Watermarking Robust to Geometric Distortions," IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, Vol. 14, No. 12, pp. 2140-2149, 2005.
[10] Christine I. Podilchuk and Wenjun zeng, " Image-Adaptive Watermarking Using Visual models," IEEE Journal on Selected areas in communications, Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 525-539, 1998.
[11] Ko-Ming Chan and Lon-Wen Chang, " A Novel Public Watermarking System based on Advanced Encryption System," Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Application, IEEE Computer Society (AINA'04), 2004.
[12] Wei Z. H., Qin P. and Fu Y. Q., "Perceptual digital watermark of image using wavelet transform", IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, Vol. 44, No. 4, 1267-1272, 1998
[13] Ching-Yung Lin, Min Wu, J. Bloom, Ingemar J. Cox, Matt L.Miller and Yui Man Lui, "Rotation, Scale and Translation Resilient Watermarking for Images," IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, Vol. 10, No. 5, pp.767-782, 2001.