Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 490

Search results for: thin films.

490 CuO Thin Films Deposition by Spray Pyrolysis: Influence of Precursor Solution Properties

Authors: M. Lamri Zeggar, F. Bourfaa, A. Adjimi, F. Boutbakh, M. S. Aida, N. Attaf

Abstract:

CuO thin films were deposited by spray ultrasonic pyrolysis with different precursor solution. Two staring solution slats were used namely: copper acetate and copper chloride. The influence of these solutions on CuO thin films proprieties of is instigated. The X rays diffraction (XDR) analysis indicated that the films deposed with copper acetate are amorphous however the films elaborated with copper chloride have monoclinic structure. UV- Visible transmission spectra showed a strong absorbance of the deposited CuO thin films in the visible region. Electrical characterization has shown that CuO thin films prepared with copper acetate have a higher electrical conductivity.

Keywords: Thin films, cuprous oxide, spray pyrolysis, precursor solution.

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489 Effects of Mo Thickness on the Properties of AZO/Mo/AZO Multilayer Thin Films

Authors: Hung-Wei Wu, Chien-Hsun Chu, Ru-Yuan Yang, Chin-Min Hsiung

Abstract:

In this paper, we proposed the effects of Mo thickness on the properties of AZO/Mo/AZO multilayer thin films for opto-electronics applications. The structural, optical and electrical properties of AZO/Mo/AZO thin films were investigated. Optimization of the thin films coatings resulted with low resistivity of 9.98 × 10-5 )-cm, mobility of 12.75 cm2/V-s, carrier concentration of 1.05 × 1022 cm-3, maximum transmittance of 79.13% over visible spectrum of 380 – 780 nm and Haacke figure of merit (FOM) are 5.95 × 10-2 )-1 under Mo layer thickness of 15 nm. These results indicate an alternative candidate for use as a transparent electrode in solar cells and various displays applications.

Keywords: Aluminum-doped zinc oxide, AZO, multilayer, RF magnetron sputtering, AZO/Mo/AZO, thin film, transparent conductive oxides.

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488 Selective Wet-Etching of Amorphous/Crystallized Sb20se80 Thin Films

Authors: O. Shiman, V. Gerbreders, E. Sledevskis, A. Bulanovs, V.Pashkevich

Abstract:

The selective wet-etching of amorphous and crystalline region of Sb20Se80 thin films was carried out using organic based solution e.g. amines. We report the development of an in situ real-time method to study the wet chemical etching process of thin films. Characterization of the structure and surface of films studied by X-ray diffraction, SEM and EBSD methods has been done and potential application suggested.

Keywords: amorphous and crystalline phases, chalcogenide thinfilm, etching process

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487 Physical and Electrical Characterization of ZnO Thin Films Prepared by Sol-Gel Method

Authors: Mohammad Reza Tabatabaei, Ali Vaseghi Ardekani

Abstract:

In this paper, Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin films are deposited on glass substrate by sol-gel method. The ZnO thin films with well defined orientation were acquired by spin coating of zinc acetate dehydrate monoethanolamine (MEA), de-ionized water and isopropanol alcohol. These films were pre-heated at 275°C for 10 min and then annealed at 350°C, 450°C and 550°C for 80 min. The effect of annealing temperature and different thickness on structure and surface morphology of the thin films were verified by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). It was found that there was a significant effect of annealing temperature on the structural parameters of the films such as roughness exponent, fractal dimension and interface width. Thin films also were characterizied by X-ray Diffractometery (XRD) method. XRD analysis revealed that the annealed ZnO thin films consist of single phase ZnO with wurtzite structure and show the c-axis grain orientation. Increasing annealing temperature increased the crystallite size and the c-axis orientation of the film after 450°C. Also In this study, ZnO thin films in different thickness have been prepared by sol-gel method on the glass substrate at room temperature. The thicknesses of films are 100, 150 and 250 nm. Using fractal analysis, morphological characteristics of surface films thickness in amorphous state were investigated. The results show that with increasing thickness, surface roughness (RMS) and lateral correlation length (ξ) are decreased. Also, the roughness exponent (α) and growth exponent (β) were determined to be 0.74±0.02 and 0.11±0.02, respectively.

Keywords: ZnO, Thin film, Fractal analysis, Morphology, AFM, annealing temperature, different thickness, XRD.

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486 Preparation of Nanostructure ZnO-SnO2 Thin Films for Optoelectronic Properties and Post Annealing Influence

Authors: Vipin Kumar Jain, Praveen Kumar, Y.K. Vijay

Abstract:

ZnO-SnO2 i.e. Zinc-Tin-Oxide (ZTO) thin films were deposited on glass substrate with varying concentrations (ZnO:SnO2 - 100:0, 90:10, 70:30 and 50:50 wt.%) at room temperature by flash evaporation technique. These deposited ZTO film were annealed at 450 0C in vacuum. These films were characterized to study the effect of annealing on the structural, electrical, and optical properties. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images manifest the surface morphology of these ZTO thin films. The apparent growth of surface features revealed the formation of nanostructure ZTO thin films. The small value of surface roughness (root mean square RRMS) ensures the usefulness in optical coatings. The sheet resistance was also found to be decreased for both types of films with increasing concentration of SnO2. The optical transmittance found to be decreased however blue shift has been observed after annealing.

Keywords: ZTO thin film, AFM, SEM, Optical transmittance, Sheet resistance.

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485 Effect of Precursors Aging Time on the Photocatalytic Activity of ZnO Thin Films

Authors: N. Kaneva, A. Bojinova, K. Papazova

Abstract:

Thin ZnO films are deposited on glass substrates via sol–gel method and dip-coating. The films are prepared from zinc acetate dehydrate as a starting reagent. After that the as-prepared ZnO sol is aged for different periods (0, 1, 3, 5, 10, 15 and 30 days). Nanocrystalline thin films are deposited from various sols. The effect ZnO sols aging time on the structural and photocatalytic properties of the films is studied. The films surface is studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy. The effect of the aging time of the starting solution is studied in the photocatalytic degradation of Reactive Black 5 (RB5) by UV-vis spectroscopy. The experiments are conducted upon UV-light illumination and in complete darkness. The variation of the absorption spectra shows the degradation of RB5 dissolved in water, as a result of the reaction, occurring on the surface of the films and promoted by UV irradiation. The initial concentrations of dye (5, 10 and 20 ppm) and the effect of the aging time are varied during the experiments. The results show, that the increasing aging time of starting solution with respect to ZnO generally promotes photocatalytic activity. The thin films obtained from ZnO sol, which is aged 30 days have best photocatalytic degradation of the dye (97,22%) in comparison with the freshly prepared ones (65,92%). The samples and photocatalytic experimental results are reproducible. Nevertheless, all films exhibit a substantial activity in both UV light and darkness, which is promising for the development of new ZnO photocatalysts by sol-gel method.

Keywords: ZnO thin films, sol-gel, photocatalysis, aging time.

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484 The Effect of the Deposition Parameters on the Microstructural and Optical Properties of Mn-Doped GeTe Chalcogenide Materials

Authors: Adam Abdalla Elbashir Adam, Xiaomin Cheng, Xiang Shui Miao

Abstract:

In this work, the effect of the magnetron sputtering system parameters on the optical properties of the Mn doped GeTe were investigated. The optical properties of the Ge1-xMnxTe thin films with different thicknesses are determined by analyzing the transmittance and reflectance data. The energy band gaps of the amorphous Mn-doped GeTe thin films with different thicknesses were calculated. The obtained results demonstrated that the energy band gap values of the amorphous films are quite different and they are dependent on the films thicknesses. The extinction coefficients of amorphous Mn-doped GeTe thin films as function of wavelength for different thicknesses were measured. The results showed that the extinction coefficients of all films are varying inversely with their optical transmission. Moreover, the results emphasis that, not only the microstructure, electrical and magnetic properties of Mn doped GeTe thin films vary with the films thicknesses but also the optical properties differ with the film thickness.

Keywords: Phase change magnetic materials, transmittance, absorbance, extinction coefficients.

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483 Deposition of Transparent IGZO Conducting Thin Films by Co-Sputtering of Zn2Ga2O3 and In2O3 Targets at Room Temperature

Authors: Yu-Hsin Chen, Yuan-Tai Hsieh, Cheng-Shong Hong, Chia-Ching Wu, Cheng-Fu Yang, Yu-Jhen Liou

Abstract:

In this study, we investigated (In,Ga,Zn)Ox (IGZO) thin films and examined their characteristics of using Ga2O3-2 ZnO (GZO) co-sputtered In2O3 prepared by dual target radio frequency magnetron sputtering at room temperature in a pure Ar atmosphere. RF powers of 80 W and 70 W were used for GZO and pure In2O3, room temperature (RT) was used as deposition temperature, and the deposition time was changed from 15 min to 60 min. Structural, surface, electrical, and optical properties of IGZO thin films were investigated as a function of deposition time. Furthermore, the GZO co-sputtered In2O3 thin films showed a very smooth and featureless surface and an amorphous structure regardless of the deposition time due to the room temperature sputtering process. We would show that the co-sputtered IGZO thin films exhibited transparent electrode properties with high transmittance ratio and low resistivity.

Keywords: IGZO, co-sputter, Ga2O3-2 ZnO, In2O3.

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482 RBS Characteristic of Cd1−xZnxS Thin Film Fabricated by Vacuum Deposition Method

Authors: N. Dahbi, D-E. Arafah

Abstract:

Cd1−xZnxS thins films have been fabricated from ZnS/CdS/ZnS multilayer thin film systems, by using the vacuum deposition method; the Rutherford backscattering (RBS) technique have been applied in order to determine the: structure, composition, depth profile, and stoichiometric of these films. The influence of the chemical and heat treatments on the produced films also have been investigated; the RBS spectra of the films showed that homogenous Cd1−xZnxS can be synthesized with x=0.45.

Keywords: Cd1−xZnxS, chemical treatment, depth profile, heat treatment, RBS, RUMP simulation, thin film, vacuum deposition, ZnS/CdS/ZnS.

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481 Influence of Thermal Annealing on The Structural Properties of Vanadyl Phthalocyanine Thin Films: A Comparative Study

Authors: Fakhra Aziz, K. Sulaiman, M. R. Muhammad, M. Hassan Sayyad, Kh. Karimov

Abstract:

This paper presents a comparative study on Vanadyl Phthalocyanine (VOPc) thin films deposited by thermal evaporation and spin coating techniques. The samples were prepared on cleaned glass substrates and annealed at various temperatures ranging form 95oC to 155oC. To obtain the morphological and structural properties of VOPc thin films, X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique and atomic force microscopy (AFM) have been implied. The AFM topographic images show a very slight difference in the thermally grown films, before and after annealing, however best results are achieved for the spin-cast film annealed at 125oC. The XRD spectra show no existence of the sharp peaks, suggesting the material to be amorphous. The humps in the XRD patterns indicate the presence of some crystallites.

Keywords: Annealing, optical properties, thin films, Vanadylphthalocyanine.

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480 Determination of Optical Constants of Semiconductor Thin Films by Ellipsometry

Authors: Aïssa Manallah, Mohamed Bouafia

Abstract:

Ellipsometry is an optical method based on the study of the behavior of polarized light. The light reflected on a surface induces a change in the polarization state which depends on the characteristics of the material (complex refractive index and thickness of the different layers constituting the device). The purpose of this work is to determine the optical properties of semiconductor thin films by ellipsometry. This paper describes the experimental aspects concerning the semiconductor samples, the SE400 ellipsometer principle, and the results obtained by direct measurements of ellipsometric parameters and modelling using appropriate software.

Keywords: Ellipsometry, optical constants, semiconductors, thin films.

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479 Sol-gel Synthesis and Optical Characterisation of TiO2 Thin Films for Photovoltaic Application

Authors: N. H. Arabi, Aicha Iratni, Talaighil Razika, Bruno Capoen, Mohamed Bouazaoui

Abstract:

TiO2 thin films have been prepared by the sol-gel dipcoating technique in order to elaborate antireflective thin films for monocrystalline silicon (mono-Si). The titanium isopropoxyde was chosen as a precursor with hydrochloric acid as a catalyser for preparing a stable solution. The optical properties have been tailored with varying the solution concentration, the withdrawn speed, and the heat-treatment. We showed that using a TiO2 single layer with 64.5 nm in thickness, heat-treated at 450°C or 300°C reduces the mono-Si reflection at a level lower than 3% over the broadband spectral domains [669-834] nm and [786-1006] nm respectively. Those latter performances are similar to the ones obtained with double layers of low and high refractive index glasses respectively.

Keywords: Dip coating, mono-Si, titanium oxide, thin film.

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478 Peeling Behavior of Thin Elastic Films Bonded to Rigid Substrate of Random Surface Topology

Authors: Ravinu Garg, Naresh V. Datla

Abstract:

We study the fracture mechanics of peeling of thin films perfectly bonded to a rigid substrate of any random surface topology using an analytical formulation. A generalized theoretical model has been developed to determine the peel strength of thin elastic films. It is demonstrated that an improvement in the peel strength can be achieved by modifying the surface characteristics of the rigid substrate. Characterization study has been performed to analyze the effect of different parameters on effective peel force from the rigid surface. Different surface profiles such as circular and sinusoidal has been considered to demonstrate the bonding characteristics of film-substrate interface. Condition for the instability in the debonding of the film is analyzed, where the localized self-debonding arises depending upon the film and surface characteristics. This study is towards improved adhesion strength of thin films to rigid substrate using different textured surfaces.

Keywords: Debonding, fracture mechanics, surface topology, thin film adhesion.

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477 Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Photodetector Based On Porous In0.08Ga0.92N

Authors: Saleh H. Abud, Z. Hassan, F. K. Yam

Abstract:

Characteristics of MSM photodetector based on a porous In0.08Ga0.92N thin film were reported. Nanoporous structures of n-type In0.08Ga0.92N/AlN/Si thin films were synthesized by photoelectrochemical (PEC) etching at a ratio of 1:4 of HF:C2H5OH solution for 15min. The structural and optical properties of pre- and post-etched thin films were investigated. Field emission scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope images showed that the pre-etched thin film has a sufficiently smooth surface over a large region and the roughness increased for porous film. Blue shift has been observed in photoluminescence emission peak at 300 K for porous sample. The photoluminescence intensity of the porous film indicated that the optical properties have been enhanced. A high work function metals (Pt and Ni) were deposited as a metal contact on the porous films. The rise and recovery times of the devices were investigated at 390nm chopped light. Finally, the sensitivity and quantum efficiency were also studied.

Keywords: Porous InGaN, photoluminescence, SMS photodetector.

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476 Characterization of Microroughness Parameters in Cu and Cu2O Nanoparticles Embedded in Carbon Film

Authors: S.Solaymani, T.Ghodselahi, N.B.Nezafat, H.Zahrabi, A.Gelali

Abstract:

The morphological parameter of a thin film surface can be characterized by power spectral density (PSD) functions which provides a better description to the topography than the RMS roughness and imparts several useful information of the surface including fractal and superstructure contributions. Through the present study Nanoparticle copper/carbon composite films were prepared by co-deposition of RF-Sputtering and RF-PECVD method from acetylene gas and copper target. Surface morphology of thin films is characterized by using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The Carbon content of our films was obtained by Rutherford Back Scattering (RBS) and it varied from .4% to 78%. The power values of power spectral density (PSD) for the AFM data were determined by the fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithms. We investigate the effect of carbon on the roughness of thin films surface. Using such information, roughness contributions of the surface have been successfully extracted.

Keywords: Atomic force microscopy, Fast Fourier transform, Power spectral density, RBS.

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475 Effects of Annealing Treatment on Optical Properties of Anatase TiO2 Thin Films

Authors: M. M. Hasan, A. S. M. A. Haseeb, R. Saidur, H. H. Masjuki

Abstract:

In this investigation, anatase TiO2 thin films were grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering on glass substrates at a high sputtering pressure and room temperature. The anatase films were then annealed at 300-600 °C in air for a period of 1 hour. To examine the structure and morphology of the films, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) methods were used respectively. From X-ray diffraction patterns of the TiO2 films, it was found that the as-deposited film showed some differences compared with the annealed films and the intensities of the peaks of the crystalline phase increased with the increase of annealing temperature. From AFM images, the distinct variations in the morphology of the thin films were also observed. The optical constants were characterized using the transmission spectra of the films obtained by UV-VIS-IR spectrophotometer. Besides, optical thickness of the film deposited at room temperature was calculated and cross-checked by taking a cross-sectional image through SEM. The optical band gaps were evaluated through Tauc model. It was observed that TiO2 films produced at room temperatures exhibited high visible transmittance and transmittance decreased slightly with the increase of annealing temperatures. The films were found to be crystalline having anatase phase. The refractive index of the films was found from 2.31-2.35 in the visible range. The extinction coefficient was nearly zero in the visible range and was found to increase with annealing temperature. The allowed indirect optical band gap of the films was estimated to be in the range from 3.39 to 3.42 eV which showed a small variation. The allowed direct band gap was found to increase from 3.67 to 3.72 eV. The porosity was also found to decrease at a higher annealing temperature making the film compact and dense.

Keywords: Titanium dioxide, RF reactive sputtering, Structuralproperties, Surface morphology, Optical properties.

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474 Preparation of CuAlO2 Thin Films on Si or Sapphire Substrate by Sol-Gel Method Using Metal Acetate or Nitrate

Authors: Takashi Ehara, Takayoshi Nakanishi, Kohei Sasaki, Marina Abe, Hiroshi Abe, Kiyoaki Abe, Ryo Iizaka, Takuya Sato

Abstract:

CuAlO2 thin films are prepared on Si or sapphire substrate by sol-gel method using two kinds of sols. One is combination of Cu acetate and Al acetate basic, and the other is Cu nitrate and Al nitrate. In the case of acetate sol, XRD peaks of CuAlO2 observed at annealing temperature of 800-950 ºC on both Si and sapphire substrates. In contrast, in the case of the films prepared using nitrate on Si substrate, XRD peaks of CuAlO2 have been observed only at the annealing temperature of 800-850 ºC. At annealing temperature of 850ºC, peaks of other species have been observed beside the CuAlO2 peaks, then, the CuAlO2 peaks disappeared at annealing temperature of 900 °C with increasing in intensity of the other peaks. Intensity of the other peaks decreased at annealing temperature of 950 ºC with appearance of broad SiO2 peak. In the present, we ascribe these peaks as metal silicide.

Keywords: CuAlO2, silicide, thin films, transparent conducting oxide, sol-gel.

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473 The Effect of Chemical Treatment on TL Glow Curves of CdS/ZnS Thin Films Deposited by Vacuum Deposition Method

Authors: N. Dahbi, D-E. Arafah

Abstract:

The effect of chemical treatment in CdCl2 and thermal annealing in 400°C, on the defect structures of potentially useful ZnS\CdS solar cell thin films deposited onto quartz substrate and prepared by vacuum deposition method was studied using the Thermoluminesence (TL) techniques. A series of electron and hole traps are found in the various deposited samples studied. After annealing, however, it was observed that the intensity and activation energy of TL signal increases with loss of the low temperature electron traps.

Keywords: CdS, chemical treatment, heat treatment, Thermoluminescence, trapping parameters, thin film, vacuumdeposition, ZnS

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472 Optical and Structural Properties of a ZnS Buffer Layer Fabricated with Deposition Temperature of RF Magnetron Sputtering System

Authors: Won Song, Bo-Ra Koo, Seok Eui Choi, Yong-Taeg Oh, Dong-Chan Shin

Abstract:

Optical properties of sputter-deposited ZnS thin films were investigated as potential replacements for CBD(chemical bath deposition) CdS buffer layers in the application of CIGS solar cells. ZnS thin films were fabricated on glass substrates at RT, 150oC, 200oC, and 250oC with 50 sccm Ar gas using an RF magnetron sputtering system. The crystal structure of the thin film is found to be zinc blende (cubic) structure. Lattice parameter of ZnS is slightly larger than CdS on the plane and thus better matched with that of CIGS. Within a 400-800 nm wavelength region, the average transmittance was larger than 75%. When the deposition temperature of the thin film was increased, the blue shift phenomenon was enhanced. Band gap energy of the ZnS thin film tended to increase as the deposition temperature increased. ZnS thin film is a promising material system for the CIGS buffer layer, in terms of ease of processing, low cost, environmental friendliness, higher transparency, and electrical properties

Keywords: ZnS thin film, Buffer layer, CIGS, Solar cell.

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471 Synthesis and Characterization of Plasma Polymerized Thin Films Deposited from Benzene and Hexamethyldisiloxane using (PECVD) Method

Authors: Hisham M. Abourayana, Nuri A. Zreiba, Abdulkader M. Elamin

Abstract:

Polymer-like organic thin films were deposited on both aluminum alloy type 6061 and glass substrates at room temperature by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) methodusing benzene and hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) as precursor materials. The surface and physical properties of plasma-polymerized organic thin films were investigated at different r.f. powers. The effects of benzene/argon ratio on the properties of plasma polymerized benzene films were also investigated. It is found that using benzene alone results in a non-coherent and non-adherent powdery deposited material. The chemical structure and surface properties of the asgrown plasma polymerized thin films were analyzed on glass substrates with FTIR and contact angle measurements. FTIR spectra of benzene deposited film indicated that the benzene rings are preserved when increasing benzene ratio and/or decreasing r.f. powers. FTIR spectra of HMDSO deposited films indicated an increase of the hydrogen concentration and a decrease of the oxygen concentration with the increase of r.f. power. The contact angle (θ) of the films prepared from benzene was found to increase by about 43% as benzene ratio increases from 10% to 20%. θ was then found to decrease to the original value (51°) when the benzene ratio increases to 100%. The contact angle, θ, for both benzene and HMDSO deposited films were found to increase with r.f. power. This signifies that the plasma polymerized organic films have substantially low surface energy as the r.f power increases. The corrosion resistance of aluminum alloy substrate both bare and covered with plasma polymerized thin films was carried out by potentiodynamic polarization measurements in standard 3.5 wt. % NaCl solution at room temperature. The results indicate that the benzene and HMDSO deposited films are suitable for protection of the aluminum substrate against corrosion. The changes in the processing parameters seem to have a strong influence on the film protective ability. Surface roughness of films deposited on aluminum alloy substrate was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The SEM images indicate that the surface roughness of benzene deposited films increase with decreasing the benzene ratio. SEM images of benzene and HMDSO deposited films indicate that the surface roughness decreases with increasing r.f. power. Studying the above parameters indicate that the films produced are suitable for specific practical applications.

Keywords: Plasma polymerization, potentiodynamic test, Contact angle.

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470 Effect of Thickness on Structural and Electrical Properties of CuAlS2 Thin Films Grown by Two Stage Vacuum Thermal Evaporation Technique

Authors: A. U. Moreh, M. Momoh, H. N. Yahya, B. Hamza, I. G. Saidu, S. Abdullahi

Abstract:

This work studies the effect of thickness on structural and electrical properties of CuAlS2 thin films grown by two stage vacuum thermal evaporation technique. CuAlS2 thin films of thicknesses 50nm, 100nm and 200nm were deposited on suitably cleaned corning 7059 glass substrate at room temperature (RT). In the first stage Cu-Al precursors were grown at room temperature by thermal evaporation and in the second stage Cu-Al precursors were converted to CuAlS2 thin films by sulfurisation under sulfur atmosphere at the temperature of 673K. The structural properties of the films were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique while electrical properties of the specimens were studied using four point probe method. The XRD studies revealed that the films are of crystalline in nature having tetragonal structure. The variations of the micro-structural parameters, such as crystallite size (D), dislocation density ( ), and micro-strain ( ), with film thickness were investigated. The results showed that the crystallite sizes increase as the thickness of the film increases. The dislocation density and micro-strain decreases as the thickness increases. The resistivity (  ) of CuAlS2 film is found to decrease with increase in film thickness, which is related to the increase of carrier concentration with film thickness. Thus thicker films exhibit the lowest resistivity and high carrier concentration, implying these are the most conductive films. Low electrical resistivity and high carrier concentration are widely used as the essential components in various optoelectronic devices such as light-emitting diode and photovoltaic cells.

Keywords: Crystalline, CuAlS2, evaporation, resistivity, sulfurisation, thickness.

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469 Design of Reliable and Low Cost Substrate Heater for Thin Film Deposition

Authors: Ali Eltayeb Muhsin, Mohamed Elhadi Elsari

Abstract:

The substrate heater designed for this investigation is a front side substrate heating system. It consists of 10 conventional tungsten halogen lamps and an aluminum reflector, total input electrical power of 5 kW. The substrate is heated by means of a radiation from conventional tungsten halogen lamps directed to the substrate through a glass window. This design allows easy replacement of the lamps and maintenance of the system. Within 2 to 6 minutes the substrate temperature reaches 500 to 830 C by varying the vertical distance between the glass window and the substrate holder. Moreover, the substrate temperature can be easily controlled by controlling the input power to the system. This design gives excellent opportunity to deposit many deferent films at deferent temperatures in the same deposition time. This substrate heater was successfully used for Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) of many thin films, such as Silicon, iron, etc.

Keywords: CVD, Halogen Lamp, Substrate Heater, Thin Films.

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468 Effects of Formic Acid on the Chemical State and Morphology of As-synthesized and Annealed ZnO Films

Authors: Chueh-Jung Huang, Chia-Hung Li, Hsueh-Lung Wang, Tsun-Nan Lin

Abstract:

Zinc oxide thin films with various microstructures were grown on substrates by using HCOOH-sols. The reaction mechanism of the sol system was investigated by performing an XPS analysis of as-synthesized films, due to the products of hydrolysis and condensation in the sol system contributing to the chemical state of the as-synthesized films. The chemical structures of the assynthesized films related to the microstructures of the final annealed films were also studied. The results of the Zn 2p3/2, C 1s and O1s XPS patterns indicate that the hydrolysis reaction in the sol system is strongly influenced by the HCOOH agent. The results of XRD and FE-SEM demonstrated the microstructures of the annealed films are related to the content of hydrolyzed zinc hydrate (Zn-OH) species present, and that content of the Zn-OH species in the sol system increases the HCOOH adding, and these Zn-OH species existing in the sol phase are responsible for large ZnO crystallites in the final annealed films.

Keywords: zinc oxide, hydrolysis catalyst, zinc acetate source, formic acid.

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467 Magneto-Optical Properties in Transparent Region of Implanted Garnet Films

Authors: Lali Kalanadzde

Abstract:

We investigated magneto-optical Kerr effect in transparent region of implanted ferrite-garnet films for the (YBiCa)3(FeGe)5O12. The implantation process was carried out at room temperature by Ne+ ions with energy of 100 KeV and with various doses (0.5-2.5) 1014 ion/cm2. We discovered that slight deviation of the plane of external alternating magnetic field from plane of sample leads to appearance intensive magneto-optical maximum in transparent region of garnet films ħω=0.5-2.0 eV. In the proceeding, we have also found that the deviation of polarization plane from P- component of incident light leads to the appearance of the similar magneto-optical effects in this region. The research of magnetization processes in transparent region of garnet films showed that the formation of magneto-optical effects in region ħω=0.5-2.3 eV has a rather complex character.

Keywords: Ferrite-garnet films, ion implantation, magneto-optical, thin films.

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466 Investigation of Thin Film Cathode Prepared by Synthesized Nano Pyrite

Authors: S. Kowsari, M. Aghaziarati

Abstract:

Pyrite (FeS2) is a promising candidate for cathode materials in batteries because of it`s high theoretical capacity, low cost and non-toxicity. In this study, nano size iron disulfide thin film was prepared on graphite substrate through a new method as battery cathode. In this way, acetylene black and poly vinylidene fluoride were used as electron conductor and binder, respectively. Fabricated thin films were analyzed by XRD and SEM. These results and electrochemical data confirm improvement of battery discharge capacity in comparison with commercial type of pyrite.

Keywords: Nano pyrite, Thin film, Battery cathode, capacity.

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465 Electrophysical and Thermoelectric Properties of Nano-scaled In2O3:Sn, Zn, Ga-Based Thin Films: Achievements and Limitations for Thermoelectric Applications

Authors: G. Korotcenkov, V. Brinzari, B. K. Cho

Abstract:

The thermoelectric properties of nano-scaled In2O3:Sn films deposited by spray pyrolysis are considered in the present report. It is shown that multicomponent In2O3:Sn-based films are promising material for the application in thermoelectric devices. It is established that the increase in the efficiency of thermoelectric conversion at CSn~5% occurred due to nano-scaled structure of the films studied and the effect of the grain boundary filtering of the low energy electrons. There are also analyzed the limitations that may appear during such material using in devices developed for the market of thermoelectric generators and refrigerators. Studies showed that the stability of nano-scaled film’s parameters is the main problem which can limit the application of these materials in high temperature thermoelectric converters.

Keywords: Energy conversion technologies, thermoelectricity, In2O3-based films, power factor, nanocomposites, stability.

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464 Mechanical Properties and Microstructural Properties of CrSiN Coating

Authors: Dhiflaoui Hafedh, Khlifi Kaouthar, Ben Cheikh Larbi Ahmed

Abstract:

The present study deals with the characterization of CrSiN coatings obtained by PVD magnetron sputtering systems. CrSiN films were deposited with different Si contents, in order to check the effect of at.% variation on the different properties of the Cr–N system. Coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for thickness measurements, X-ray diffraction. Surface morphology and the roughness characteristics were explored using AFM, Mechanicals properties, elastic and plastic deformation resistance of thin films were investigated using nanoindentation test. We observed that the Si addition improved the hardness and the Young’s modulus of the Cr–N system. Indeed, the hardness value is 18,56 GPa for CrSiN coatings. Besides, the Young’s modulus value is 224,22 GPa for CrSiN coatings for Si content of 1.2 at.%.

Keywords: Thin film, mechanicals properties, PVD.

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463 Work Function Engineering of Functionally Graded ZnO+Ga2O3 Thin Film for Solar Cell and Organic Light Emitting Diodes Applications

Authors: Yong-Taeg Oh, Won Song, Seok-Eui Choi, Bo-Ra Koo, Dong-Chan Shin

Abstract:

ZnO+Ga2O3 functionally graded thin films (FGTFs) were examined for their potential use as Solar cell and organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). FGTF transparent conducting oxides (TCO) were fabricated by combinatorial RF magnetron sputtering. The composition gradient was controlled up to 10% by changing the plasma power of the two sputter guns. A Ga2O3+ZnO graded region was placed on the top layer of ZnO. The FGTFs showed up to 80% transmittance. Their surface resistances were reduced to < 10% by increasing the Ga2O3: pure ZnO ratio in the TCO. The FGTFs- work functions could be controlled within a range of 0.18 eV. The controlled work function is a very promising technology because it reduces the contact resistance between the anode and Hall transport layers of OLED and solar cell devices.

Keywords: Work Function, TCO, Functionally Graded Thin Films, Resistance, Transmittance.

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462 Nano Effects of Nitrogen Ion Implantation on TiN Hard Coatings Deposited by PVD and IBAD

Authors: Branko Skoric, Aleksandar Miletic, Pal Terek, Lazar Kovacevic, Milan Kukuruzovic

Abstract:

In this paper, we present the results of a study of TiN thin films which are deposited by a Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) and Ion Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD). In the present investigation the subsequent ion implantation was provided with N5+ ions. The ion implantation was applied to enhance the mechanical properties of surface. The thin film deposition process exerts a number of effects such as crystallographic orientation, morphology, topography, densification of the films. A variety of analytic techniques were used for characterization, such as scratch test, calo test, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX).

Keywords: Steel, coating, super hard, ion implantation, nanohardness.

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461 Hydrogen Sensor Based on Surface Activated WO3 Films by Pd Nanoclusters

Authors: S.Fardindoost, A. Iraji Zad, S.M.Mahdavi

Abstract:

Tungsten trioxide has been prepared by using P-PTA as a precursor on alumina substrates by spin coating method. Palladium introduced on WO3 film via electrolysis deposition by using palladium chloride as catalytic precursor. The catalytic precursor was introduced on the series of films with different morphologies. X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and XPS were applied to analyze structure and morphology of the fabricated thin films. Then we measured variation of samples- electrical conductivity of pure and Pd added films in air and diluted hydrogen. Addition of Pd resulted in a remarkable improvement of the hydrogen sensing properties of WO3 by detection of Hydrogen below 1% at room temperature. Also variation of the electrical conductivity in the presence of diluted hydrogen revealed that response of samples depends rather strongly on the palladium configuration on the surface.

Keywords: Electrolysis, Hydrogen sensing, Palladium, WO3

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