Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 285

Search results for: Morphology

285 Improvements in Edge Detection Based on Mathematical Morphology and Wavelet Transform using Fuzzy Rules

Authors: Masrour Dowlatabadi, Jalil Shirazi

Abstract:

In this paper, an improved edge detection algorithm based on fuzzy combination of mathematical morphology and wavelet transform is proposed. The combined method is proposed to overcome the limitation of wavelet based edge detection and mathematical morphology based edge detection in noisy images. Experimental results show superiority of the proposed method, as compared to the traditional Prewitt, wavelet based and morphology based edge detection methods. The proposed method is an effective edge detection method for noisy image and keeps clear and continuous edges.

Keywords: Edge detection, Wavelet transform, Mathematical morphology, Fuzzy logic.

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284 A New Algorithm to Stereo Correspondence Using Rank Transform and Morphology Based On Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Razagh Hafezi, Ahmad Keshavarz, Vida Moshfegh

Abstract:

This paper presents a novel algorithm of stereo correspondence with rank transform. In this algorithm we used the genetic algorithm to achieve the accurate disparity map. Genetic algorithms are efficient search methods based on principles of population genetic, i.e. mating, chromosome crossover, gene mutation, and natural selection. Finally morphology is employed to remove the errors and discontinuities.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, morphology, rank transform, stereo correspondence

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283 Fuzzy Mathematical Morphology approach in Image Processing

Authors: Yee Yee Htun, Dr. Khaing Khaing Aye

Abstract:

Morphological operators transform the original image into another image through the interaction with the other image of certain shape and size which is known as the structure element. Mathematical morphology provides a systematic approach to analyze the geometric characteristics of signals or images, and has been applied widely too many applications such as edge detection, objection segmentation, noise suppression and so on. Fuzzy Mathematical Morphology aims to extend the binary morphological operators to grey-level images. In order to define the basic morphological operations such as fuzzy erosion, dilation, opening and closing, a general method based upon fuzzy implication and inclusion grade operators is introduced. The fuzzy morphological operations extend the ordinary morphological operations by using fuzzy sets where for fuzzy sets, the union operation is replaced by a maximum operation, and the intersection operation is replaced by a minimum operation. In this work, it consists of two articles. In the first one, fuzzy set theory, fuzzy Mathematical morphology which is based on fuzzy logic and fuzzy set theory; fuzzy Mathematical operations and their properties will be studied in details. As a second part, the application of fuzziness in Mathematical morphology in practical work such as image processing will be discussed with the illustration problems.

Keywords: Binary Morphological, Fuzzy sets, Grayscalemorphology, Image processing, Mathematical morphology.

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282 Image Segmentation by Mathematical Morphology: An Approach through Linear, Bilinear and Conformal Transformation

Authors: Dibyendu Ghoshal, Pinaki Pratim Acharjya

Abstract:

Image segmentation process based on mathematical morphology has been studied in the paper. It has been established from the first principles of the morphological process, the entire segmentation is although a nonlinear signal processing task, the constituent wise, the intermediate steps are linear, bilinear and conformal transformation and they give rise to a non linear affect in a cumulative manner.

Keywords: Image segmentation, linear transform, bilinear transform, conformal transform, mathematical morphology.

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281 Contrast Enhancement of Masses in Mammograms Using Multiscale Morphology

Authors: Amit Kamra, V. K. Jain, Pragya

Abstract:

Mammography is widely used technique for breast cancer screening. There are various other techniques for breast cancer screening but mammography is the most reliable and effective technique. The images obtained through mammography are of low contrast which causes problem for the radiologists to interpret. Hence, a high quality image is mandatory for the processing of the image for extracting any kind of information from it. Many contrast enhancement algorithms have been developed over the years. In the present work, an efficient morphology based technique is proposed for contrast enhancement of masses in mammographic images. The proposed method is based on Multiscale Morphology and it takes into consideration the scale of the structuring element. The proposed method is compared with other stateof- the-art techniques. The experimental results show that the proposed method is better both qualitatively and quantitatively than the other standard contrast enhancement techniques.

Keywords: Enhancement, mammography, multi-scale, mathematical morphology.

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280 Image Segmentation and Contour Recognition Based on Mathematical Morphology

Authors: Pinaki Pratim Acharjya, Esha Dutta

Abstract:

In image segmentation contour detection is one of the important pre-processing steps in recent days. Contours characterize boundaries and contour detection is one of the most difficult tasks in image processing. Hence it is a problem of fundamental importance in image processing. Contour detection of an image decreases the volume of data considerably and useless information is removed, but the structural properties of the image remain same. In this research, a robust and effective contour detection technique has been proposed using mathematical morphology. Three different contour detection results are obtained by using morphological dilation and erosion. The comparative analyses of three different results also have been done.

Keywords: Image segmentation, contour detection, mathematical morphology.

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279 Influence of Hydrolytic Degradation on Properties of Moisture Membranes Used in Fire-Protective Clothing

Authors: Rachid El Aidani, Phuong Nguyen-Tri, Toan Vu-Khanh

Abstract:

This study intends to show the influence of the hydrolytic degradation on the properties of the e-PTFE/NOMEX® membranes used in fire-protective clothing. The modification of water vapour permeability, morphology and chemical structure was examined by MOCON Permatran, electron microscopy scanning (SEM), and ATR-FTIR, respectively. A decrease in permeability to water vapour of the aged samples was observed following closure of transpiration pores. Analysis of fiber morphology indicates the appearance of defects at the fibers surface with the presence of micro cavities. ATR-FTIR analysis reveals the presence of a new absorption band attributed to carboxylic acid terminal groups generated during the amide bond hydrolysis.

Keywords: Hydrolytic ageing, moisture membrane; water vapor permeability, morphology.

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278 Morphology Study of Inverted Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells in Sequential Deposition

Authors: Asmat Nawaz, Ali Koray Erdinc, Burak Gultekin, Muhammad Tayyib, Ceylan Zafer, Kaiying Wang, M. Nadeem Akram

Abstract:

In this study, a sequential deposition process is used for the fabrication of PEDOT: PSS based inverted planar perovskite solar cell. A small amount of additive deionized water (DI-H2O) was added into PbI2 + Dimethyl formamide (DMF) precursor solution in order to increase the solubility of PbI2 in DMF, and finally to manipulate the surface morphology of the perovskite films. A morphology transition from needle like structure to hexagonal plates, and then needle-like again has been observed as the DI-H2O was added continuously (0.0 wt% to 3.0wt%). The latter one leads to full surface coverage of the perovskite, which is essential for high performance solar cell.

Keywords: Charge carrier diffusion lengths, methylamonium lead iodide, precursor composition, perovskite solar cell, sequential deposition.

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277 Morphology of Parts of the Middle Benue Trough of Nigeria from Spectral Analysis of Aeromagnetic Data (Akiri Sheet 232 and Lafia Sheet 231)

Authors: B. S. Jatau, Nandom Abu

Abstract:

Structural interpretation of aeromagnetic data and Landsat imagery over the Middle Benue Trough was carried out to determine the depth to basement, delineate the basement morphology and relief, and the structural features within the basin. The aeromagnetic and Landsat data were subjected to various image and data enhancement and transformation routines. Results of the study revealed lineaments with trend directions in the N-S, NE-SW, NWSE and E-W directions, with the NE-SW trends been dominant. The depths to basement within the trough were established to be at 1.8, 0.3 and 0.8km, as shown from the spectral analysis plot. The Source Parameter Imaging (SPI) plot generated showed the centralsouth/ eastern portion of the study area as being deeper in contrast to the western-south-west portion. The basement morphology of the trough was interpreted as having parallel sets of micro-basins which could be considered as grabens and horsts in agreement with the general features interpreted by early workers.

Keywords: Morphology, Middle Benue Trough, Spectral Analysis, Source Parameter Imaging.

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276 Enhancement and Characterization of Titanium Surfaces with Sandblasting and Acid Etching for Dental Implants

Authors: Busra Balli, Tuncay Dikici, Mustafa Toparli

Abstract:

Titanium and its alloys have been used extensively over the past 25 years as biomedical materials in orthopedic and dental applications because of their good mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. It is known that the surface properties of titanium implants can enhance the cellular response and play an important role in Osseo integration. The rate and quality of Osseo integration in titanium implants are related to their surface properties. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of sandblasting and acid etching on surface morphology, roughness, the wettability of titanium. The surface properties will be characterized by scanning electron microscopy and contact angle and roughness measurements. The results show that surface morphology, roughness, and wettability were changed and enhanced by these treatments.

Keywords: Dental implant, etching, surface modifications, surface morphology, surface roughness.

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275 An Image Matching Method for Digital Images Using Morphological Approach

Authors: Pinaki Pratim Acharjya, Dibyendu Ghoshal

Abstract:

Image matching methods play a key role in deciding correspondence between two image scenes. This paper presents a method for the matching of digital images using mathematical morphology. The proposed method has been applied to real life images. The matching process has shown successful and promising results.

Keywords: Digital image, gradients, image matching, mathematical morphology.

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274 Cytotaxonomy and Morphology of Chironomid Larvae (Diptera, Chironomidae) in Armenia

Authors: Ninel A. Petrova, Sergey V. Zhirov, Maria V. Harutyunova, Karine V. Harutyunova

Abstract:

In the study of chironomids in Armenia several species of Orthocladiinae subfamily of Cricotopus genus, Diamesinae subfamily of Diamesa genus, and Chironominae subfamily of Chironomus genus, have been identified. In the Cricotopus genus two sibling species were found, not distinguishable by larval morphological features, but clearly distinct cytogenetically.

Keywords: Armenia, Chironomidae, karyotype, larval morphology.

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273 Effects of a Nectandra Membranacea Extract on Labeling of Blood Constituents with Technetium-99m and on the Morphology of Red Blood Cells

Authors: Silvana R.F. Moreno, Jorge J. Carvalho, Ana L. Nascimento, Mario Pereira, Luiz Q. A. Caldas, Mário Bernardo-Filho

Abstract:

The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the possible interference of a Nectandra membranacea extract (i) on the labeling of blood cells (BC), (ii) on the labeling process of BC and plasma (P) proteins with technetium-99m (Tc-99m) and (iii) on the morphology of red blood cells (RBC). Blood samples were incubated with a Nectandra membranacea crude extract, stannous chloride, Tc- 99m (sodium pertechnetate) was added, and soluble (SF) and insoluble (IF) fractions were isolated. Morphometry studies were performed with blood samples incubated with Nectandra membranacea extract. The results show that the Nectandra membranacea extract does not promote significant alteration of the labeling of BC, IF-P and IF-BC. The Nectandra membranacea extract was able to alter the erythrocyte membrane morphology, but these morphological changes were not capable to interfere on the labeling of blood constituents with Tc-99m.

Keywords: in vitro study, Nectandra membranacea, red bloodcell, technetium-99m

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272 Quality Control of Automotive Gearbox Based On Vibration Signal Analysis

Authors: Nilson Barbieri, Bruno Matos Martins, Gabriel de Sant'Anna Vitor Barbieri

Abstract:

In more complex systems, such as automotive gearbox, a rigorous treatment of the data is necessary because there are several moving parts (gears, bearings, shafts, etc.), and in this way, there are several possible sources of errors and also noise. The basic objective of this work is the detection of damage in automotive gearbox. The detection methods used are the wavelet method, the bispectrum; advanced filtering techniques (selective filtering) of vibrational signals and mathematical morphology. Gearbox vibration tests were performed (gearboxes in good condition and with defects) of a production line of a large vehicle assembler. The vibration signals are obtained using five accelerometers in different positions of the sample. The results obtained using the kurtosis, bispectrum, wavelet and mathematical morphology showed that it is possible to identify the existence of defects in automotive gearboxes.

Keywords: Automotive gearbox, mathematical morphology, wavelet, bispectrum.

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271 Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Structural and Optical Properties of ZnO/Mesoporous Silica Nanocomposite

Authors: K. Sowri Babu, P. Srinath, N. Rajeswara Rao, K. Venugopal Reddy

Abstract:

The effect of gamma ray irradiation on morphology and optical properties of ZnO/Mesoporous silica (MPS) nanocomposite was studied. The ZnO/MPS nanocomposite was irradiated with gamma rays of doses 30, 60, and 90 kGy and dose-rate of irradiation was 0.15 kGy/hour. Irradiated samples are characterized with FE-SEM, FT-IR, UV-vis, and Photoluminescence (PL) spectrometers. SEM pictures showed that morphology changed from spherical to flake like morphology. UV-vis analysis showed that the band gap increased with increase of gamma ray irradiation dose. This enhancement of the band gap is assigned to the depletion of oxygen vacancies with irradiation. The intensity of PL peak decreased gradually with increase of gamma ray irradiation dose. The decrease in PL intensity is attributed to the decrease of oxygen vacancies at the interface due to poor interface and improper passivation between ZnO/MPS.

Keywords: ZnO nanoparticles, photoluminescence, porous silicon, nanocomposites.

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270 A Morphological Examination of Urban Renewal Processes: The Sample of Konya City

Authors: Muzaffer Ali Yaygın, Mehmet Topçu

Abstract:

This research aims to investigate morphological changes in urban patterns in urban renewal areas by using geographic information systems and to reveal pattern differences that occur before and after urban renewal processes by applying a morphological analysis. The concept of urban morphology is not involved in urban renewal and urban planning practices in Turkey. This situation destroys the structural characteristic of urban space which appears as a consequence of changes at city, street or plot level. Different approaches and renewal interventions to urban settlements, which are formed as a reflection of cultural issues, may have positive and negative results. A morphological analysis has been applied to an urban renewal area that covers 325 ha. in Konya, in which city urban renewal projects have gained speed with the increasing of economic investments in this study. The study mentions urban renewal and urban morphology relationship, varied academic approach on the urban morphology issue, urban morphology components, changes in lots pattern and numerical differences that occur on road, construction and green space ratios that are before and after the renewal project, and the results of the morphological analysis. It is seen that the built-up area has significant differences when compared to the previous situation. The amount of green areas decreased significantly in quantitative terms; the transportation systems has been changed completely; and the property ownership has been reconstructed without taking the previous situation into account. Findings show that urban renewal projects in Turkey are put into practice with a rent-oriented approach without making an in-depth analysis. The paper discusses the morphological dimension of urban renewal projects in Turkey through a case study from Konya city.

Keywords: Konya, pattern, urban morphology, urban renewal.

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269 Suspended Matter Model on Alsat-1 Image by MLP Network and Mathematical Morphology: Prototypes by K-Means

Authors: S. Loumi, H. Merrad, F. Alilat, B. Sansal

Abstract:

In this article, we propose a methodology for the characterization of the suspended matter along Algiers-s bay. An approach by multi layers perceptron (MLP) with training by back propagation of the gradient optimized by the algorithm of Levenberg Marquardt (LM) is used. The accent was put on the choice of the components of the base of training where a comparative study made for four methods: Random and three alternatives of classification by K-Means. The samples are taken from suspended matter image, obtained by analytical model based on polynomial regression by taking account of in situ measurements. The mask which selects the zone of interest (water in our case) was carried out by using a multi spectral classification by ISODATA algorithm. To improve the result of classification, a cleaning of this mask was carried out using the tools of mathematical morphology. The results of this study presented in the forms of curves, tables and of images show the founded good of our methodology.

Keywords: Classification K-means, mathematical morphology, neural network MLP, remote sensing, suspended particulate matter

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268 Morphology of Machined Surfaces from Electro Discharge Sawing and Sinking Electro Discharge Machining

Authors: N. Nagabhushana Ramesh, Kalley Harinarayana, T. Raghavender Reddy, B. Balu Naik

Abstract:

Electro Discharge Sawing is a hybrid process combining the features of SEDM and ECM. Its major characteristic is extremely fast erosion rate compare to either of the above processes. This paper brings out its relative feature of SEDM and EDS about their erosion rates, surface roughness, and morphology of machined surfaces.

Keywords: Electro Chemical Machining (ECM), Electro Discharge Sawing (EDS), Sinking Electro Discharge Machining (SEDM).

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267 Parametric Urban Comfort Envelope an Approach toward a Responsive Sustainable Urban Morphology

Authors: Mohamed M. Saleh, Khalid S. Al-Hagla

Abstract:

By taking advantage of computer-s processing power, an unlimited number of variations and parameters in both spatial and environmental can be provided while following the same set of rules and constraints. This paper focuses on using the tools of parametric urbanism towards a more responsive environmental and sustainable urban morphology. It presents an understanding to Parametric Urban Comfort Envelope (PUCE) as an interactive computational assessment urban model. In addition, it investigates the applicability potentials of this model to generate an optimized urban form to Borg El Arab city (a new Egyptian Community) concerning the human comfort values specially wind and solar envelopes. Finally, this paper utilizes its application outcomes -both visual and numerical- to extend the designer-s limitations by decrease the concern of controlling and manipulation of geometry, and increase the designer-s awareness about the various potentials of using the parametric tools to create relationships that generate multiple geometric alternatives.

Keywords: Assessment model, human comfort, parametric urbanism, sustainable urban morphology.

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266 Synthesis of ZnO Nanostructures via Gel-casting Method

Authors: A.A.Rohani, A.Salehi, M.Tabrizi, S. A. Manafi, A. Fardafshari

Abstract:

In this study, ZnO nano rods and ZnO ultrafine particles were synthesized by Gel-casting method. The synthesized ZnO powder has a hexagonal zincite structure. The ZnO aggregates with rod-like morphology are typically 1.4 μm in length and 120 nm in diameter, which consist of many small nanocrystals with diameters of 10 nm. Longer wires connected by many hexahedral ZnO nanocrystals were obtained after calcinations at the temperature over 600° C.The crystalline structures and morphologies of the powder have been characterized by X-ray diffraction(XRD) and Scaning electron microscopy (SEM).The result shows that the different preparation conditions such as concentration H2O, calcinations time and calcinations temperature have a lot of influences upon the properties of nano ZnO powders, an increase in the temperature of the calcinations results in an increase of the grain size and also the increase of the calcinations time in high temperature makes the size of the grains bigger. The existences of extra watter prevent nano grains from improving like rod morphology. We have obtained the smallest grain size of ZnO powder by controlling the process conditions. Finally In a suitable condition, a novel nanostructure, namely bi-rod-like ZnO nano rods was found which is different from known ZnO nanostructures.

Keywords: morphology, nano particles, ZnO, gel-Casting method.

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265 Effect of Si/Al Ratio on SSZ-13 Crystallization and Its Methanol-To-Olefins Catalytic Properties

Authors: Zhiqiang Xu, Hongfang Ma, Haitao Zhang, Weixin Qian, Weiyong Ying

Abstract:

SSZ-13 materials with different Si/Al ratio were prepared by varying the composition of aluminosilicate precursor solutions upon hydrothermal treatment at 150 °C. The Si/Al ratio of the initial system was systematically changed from 12.5 to infinity in order to study the limits of Al composition in precursor solutions for constructing CHA structure. The intermediates and final products were investigated by complementary techniques such as XRD, HRTEM, FESEM, and chemical analysis. NH3-TPD was used to study the Brønsted acidity of SSZ-13 samples with different Si/Al ratios. The effect of the Si/Al ratio on the precursor species, ultimate crystal size, morphology and yield was investigated. The results revealed that Al species determine the nucleation rate and the number of nuclei, which is tied to the morphology and yield of SSZ-13. The size of SSZ-13 increased and the yield decreased as the Si/Al ratio was improved. Varying Si/Al ratio of the initial system is a facile, commercially viable method of tailoring SSZ-13 crystal size and morphology. Furthermore, SSZ-13 materials with different Si/Al ratio were tested as catalysts for the methanol to olefins (MTO) reaction at 350 °C. SSZ-13 with the Si/Al ratio of 35 shows the best MTO catalytic performance.

Keywords: Crystallization, MTO, Si/Al ratio, SSZ-13.

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264 The Catalytic Activity of Cu2O Microparticles

Authors: Kanda Wongwailikhit

Abstract:

Copper (I) oxide microparticles with the morphology of cubic and hollow sphere were synthesized with the assistance of surfactant as the shape controller. Both particles were then subjected to study the catalytic activity and observed the results of shape effects of catalysts on rate of catalytic reaction. The decolorizing reaction of crystal violet and sodium hydroxide was chosen and measured the decreasing of reactant with respect to times using spectrophotometer. The result revealed that morphology of crystal had no effect on the catalytic activity for crystal violet reaction but contributed to total surface area predominantly.

Keywords: Copper (I) oxide, Catalytic activity, Crystal violet.

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263 Biomimetic Preparation of Nano Hydroxyapatite in Gelatin-Starch Matrix

Authors: M.Meskinfam, M. S. Sadjadi, H.Jazdarreh

Abstract:

In this study, we report the synthesis and characterization of nanohydroxyapatite (nHAp) in gelatin-starch matrix via biomimetic method. Characterization of the samples was performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The Size and morphology of the nHAp samples were determined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). The results reveal that the shape and morphology of nHAp is influenced by presence of biopolymers as template. Carbonyl and amino groups from gelatin and hydroxyl from starch play crucial roles in HAp formation on the surface of gelatin-starch.

Keywords: Biocomposite, Biomimetic , Nano Hydroxyapatite , Template.

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262 Inductions of CaC2 on Sperm Morphology and Viability of the Albino Mice (Mus musculus)

Authors: Dike H. Ogbuagu, Etsede J. Oritsematosan

Abstract:

This work investigated possible inductions of CaC2, often misused by fruit vendors to stimulate artificial ripening, on mammalian sperm morphology and viability. Thirty isogenic strains of male albino mice, Mus musculus (age≈ 8weeks; weight= 32.52.0g) were acclimatized (ambient temperature 28.0±1.0°C) for 2 weeks and fed standard growers mash and water ad libutum. They were later exposed to graded toxicant concentrations (w/w) of 2.5000, 1.2500, 0.6250, and 0.3125% in 4 cages. A control cage was also established. After 5 weeks, 3 animals from each cage were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and the cauda epididymis excised. Sperm morphology and viability were determined by microscopic procedures. The ANOVA, means plots, Student’s t-test and variation plots were used to analyze data. The common abnormalities observed included Double Head, Pin Head, Knobbed Head, No Tail and With Hook. The higher toxicant concentrations induced significantly lower body weights [F(829.899) ˃ Fcrit(4.19)] and more abnormalities [F(26.52) ˃ Fcrit(4.00)] at P˂0.05. Sperm cells in the control setup were significantly more viable than those in the 0.625% (t=0.005) and 2.500% toxicant doses (t=0.018) at the 95% confidence limit. CaC2 appeared to induced morphological abnormalities and reduced viability in sperm cells of M. musculus.

Keywords: Artificial ripening, Calcium carbide, fruit vendors, sperm morphology, sperm viability.

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261 Physicochemical and Thermal Characterization of Starch from Three Different Plantain Cultivars in Puerto Rico

Authors: Carmen E. Pérez-Donado, Fernando Pérez-Muñoz, Rosa N. Chávez-Jáuregui

Abstract:

Plantain contains starch as the main component and represents a relevant source of this carbohydrate. Starches from different cultivars of plantain and bananas have been studied for industrialization purposes due to their morphological and thermal characteristics and their influence in food products. This study aimed to characterize the physical, chemical, and thermal properties of starch from three different plantain cultivated in Puerto Rico: Maricongo, Maiden and FHIA 20. Amylose and amylopectin content, color, granular size, morphology, and thermal properties were determined. According to the amylose content in starches, FHIA 20 presented lowest content of the three cultivars studied. In terms of color, Maiden and FHIA 20 starches exhibited significantly higher whiteness indexes compared to Maricongo starch. Starches of the three cultivars had an elongated-ovoid morphology, with a smooth surface and a non-porous appearance. Regardless of similarities in their morphology, FHIA 20 exhibited a lower aspect ratio since its granules tended to be more elongated. Comparison of the thermal properties of starches showed that initial starch gelatinization temperature was similar among cultivars. However, FHIA 20 starch presented a noticeably higher final gelatinization temperature (87.95°C) and transition enthalpy than Maricongo (79.69°C) and Maiden (77.40°C). Despite similarities, starches from plantain cultivars showed differences in their composition and thermal behavior. This represents an opportunity to diversify plantain starch use in food-related applications.

Keywords: aspect ratio, morphology, Musa spp., starch, thermal properties, amylose content

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260 Surface Morphology and Formation of Nanostructured Porous GaN by UV-assisted Electrochemical Etching

Authors: L. S. Chuah, Z. Hassan, C. W. Chin, H. Abu Hassan

Abstract:

This article reports on the studies of porous GaN prepared by ultra-violet (UV) assisted electrochemical etching in a solution of 4:1:1 HF: CH3OH:H2O2 under illumination of an UV lamp with 500 W power for 10, 25 and 35 minutes. The optical properties of porous GaN sample were compared to the corresponding as grown GaN. Porosity induced photoluminescence (PL) intensity enhancement was found in these samples. The resulting porous GaN displays blue shifted PL spectra compared to the as-grown GaN. Appearance of the blue shifted emission is correlated with the development of highly anisotropic structures in the morphology. An estimate of the size of the GaN nanostructure can be obtained with the help of a quantized state effective mass theory.

Keywords: Photoluminescence, porous GaN, electrochemical etching, Si, RF-MBE.

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259 Urban Form, Heritage, and Disaster Prevention: What Do They Have in Common?

Authors: Milton Montejano Castillo, Tarsicio Pastrana Salcedo

Abstract:

Based on the hypothesis that disaster risk is constructed socially and historically, this article shows the importance of keeping alive the historical memory of disaster by means of architectural and urban heritage conservation. This is illustrated with three examples of Latin American World Heritage cities, where disasters like floods and earthquakes have shaped urban form. Therefore, the study of urban form or "Urban Morphology" is proposed as a tool to understand and analyze urban transformations with the documentation of the occurrence of disasters. Lessons learned from such cities may be useful to reduce disasters risk in contemporary built environments.

Keywords: Conservation, disaster risk reduction, urban morphology, world heritage.

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258 Morphology and Magnetic Properties of Fe3O4 and [email protected] Nanoparticles Synthesized by Pulsed Plasma in Liquid

Authors: Zhazgul Kelgenbaeva, Emil Omurzak, Saadat Sulaimankulova, Tsutomu Mashimo

Abstract:

Spherical shaped magnetite (Fe3O4) and [email protected] nanoparticles were successfully synthesized from Fe electrodes immersed in water with CTAB surfactant and HAuCl4 solution using simple method-pulsed plasma in liquid, without the use of dopants or special conditions for stabilization. Vibrating sample magnetometer indicated ferromagnetic behavior of particles at room temperature with coercivity and saturation magnetization of (Hc=105 Oe, Ms=6.83 emu/g) for Fe3O4 and (Hc=175, Ms=3.56emu/g) for [email protected] nanoparticles. Structure and morphology of nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray Diffraction analysis and HR-TEM measurements. The cytotoxicity of nanoparticles was indicated using a XTT assay to be very low (cell viability: 98-89% with Fe3O4 and 99-91% for [email protected] NPs).

Keywords: Magnetite, Gold coated magnetite, Nanoparticles, Pulsed Plasma in Liquid, Cytotoxicity.

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257 Morphological and Syntactic Meaning: An Interactive Crossword Puzzle Approach

Authors: Ibrahim Garba

Abstract:

This research involved the use of word distributions and morphological knowledge by speakers of Arabic learning English connected different allomorphs in order to realize how the morphology and syntax of English gives meaning through using interactive crossword puzzles (ICP). Fifteen chapters covered with a class of nine learners over an academic year of an intensive English program were reviewed using the ICP. Learners were questioned about how the use of this gaming element enhanced and motivated their learning of English. The findings were positive indicating a successful implementation of ICP both at creational and user levels. This indicated a positive role technology had when learning and teaching English through adopting an interactive gaming element for learning English.

Keywords: Distribution, gaming, interactive-crossword-puzzle, morphology.

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256 Generalized Morphological 3D Shape Decomposition Grayscale Interframe Interpolation Method

Authors: Dragos Nicolae VIZIREANU

Abstract:

One of the main image representations in Mathematical Morphology is the 3D Shape Decomposition Representation, useful for Image Compression and Representation,and Pattern Recognition. The 3D Morphological Shape Decomposition representation can be generalized a number of times,to extend the scope of its algebraic characteristics as much as possible. With these generalizations, the Morphological Shape Decomposition 's role to serve as an efficient image decomposition tool is extended to grayscale images.This work follows the above line, and further develops it. Anew evolutionary branch is added to the 3D Morphological Shape Decomposition's development, by the introduction of a 3D Multi Structuring Element Morphological Shape Decomposition, which permits 3D Morphological Shape Decomposition of 3D binary images (grayscale images) into "multiparameter" families of elements. At the beginning, 3D Morphological Shape Decomposition representations are based only on "1 parameter" families of elements for image decomposition.This paper addresses the gray scale inter frame interpolation by means of mathematical morphology. The new interframe interpolation method is based on generalized morphological 3D Shape Decomposition. This article will present the theoretical background of the morphological interframe interpolation, deduce the new representation and show some application examples.Computer simulations could illustrate results.

Keywords: 3D shape decomposition representation, mathematical morphology, gray scale interframe interpolation

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