Search results for: heat treatment
2496 2D and 3D Unsteady Simulation of the Heat Transfer in the Sample during Heat Treatment by Moving Heat Source
Authors: Z. Veselý, M. Honner, J. Mach
Abstract:The aim of the performed work is to establish the 2D and 3D model of direct unsteady task of sample heat treatment by moving source employing computer model on the basis of finite element method. Complex boundary condition on heat loaded sample surface is the essential feature of the task. Computer model describes heat treatment of the sample during heat source movement over the sample surface. It is started from 2D task of sample cross section as a basic model. Possibilities of extension from 2D to 3D task are discussed. The effect of the addition of third model dimension on temperature distribution in the sample is showed. Comparison of various model parameters on the sample temperatures is observed. Influence of heat source motion on the depth of material heat treatment is shown for several velocities of the movement. Presented computer model is prepared for the utilization in laser treatment of machine parts.
Keywords: Computer simulation, unsteady model, heat treatment, complex boundary condition, moving heat source.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1806
2495 Effect of T6 and Re-Aging Heat Treatment on Mechanical Properties of 7055 Aluminum Alloy
Authors: M. Esmailian, M. Shakouri, A. Mottahedi, S. G. Shabestari
Abstract:Heat treatable aluminum alloys such as 7075 and 7055, because of high strength and low density, are used widely in aircraft industry. For best mechanical properties, T6 heat treatment has recommended for this regards, but this temper treatment is sensitive to corrosion induced and Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) damage. For improving this property, the over-aging treatment (T7) applies to this alloy, but it decreases the mechanical properties up to 30 percent. Hence, to increase the mechanical properties, without any remarkable decrease in SCC resistant, Retrogression and Re-Aging (RRA) heat treatment is used. This treatment performs in a relatively short time. In this paper, the RRA heat treatment was applied to 7055 aluminum alloy and then effect of RRA time on the mechanical properties of 7055 has been investigated. The results show that the 40-minute time is suitable time for retrogression of 7055 aluminum alloy and ultimate strength increases up to 625MPa.
Keywords: 7055 Aluminum alloy, Mechanical properties, SCC resistance, Heat Treatment.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2740
2494 Improvement in Mechanical Behavior of Expulsion with Heat treated Thermite Welded Rail Steel
Authors: S.Rajanna, H.K.Shivanand, Akash Deep B.N
Abstract:Thermite welding is mainly used in world. The reasons why the thermite welding method is widely used are that the equipment has good mobility and total working time of that is shorter than that of the enclosed arc welding method on site. Moreover, the operating skill, which required for thermite welding, is less than that of for enclosed arc welding. In the present research work, heat treatment and combined 'expulsion and heat treatment' techniques were used improve the mechanical properties and weldment structure. The specimens were cut in the transverse direction from expulsion with Heat treated and heat treated Thermite Welded rails. Specimens were prepared according to AWS standard and subjected to tensile test, Impact test and hardness and their results were tabulated. Microstructural analysis was carried out with the help of SEM. Then analyze to effect of heat treated and 'expulsion with heat treated' with the properties of their thermite welded rails. Compare the mechanical and microstructural properties of thermite welded rails between heat expulsion with heat treated and heat treated. Mechanical and microstructural response expulsion with heat treated thermite welded rail is higher value as compared to heat treatment.
Keywords: Expulsion, Heat treatment, Mechanical, Weldment.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2833
2493 Separation of Hazardous Brominated Plastics from Waste Plastics by Froth Flotation after Surface Modification with Mild Heat-Treatment
Authors: Nguyen Thi Thanh Truc, Chi-Hyeon Lee, Byeong-Kyu Lee, Srinivasa Reddy Mallampati
Abstract:This study evaluated to facilitate separation of ABS plastics from other waste plastics by froth flotation after surface hydrophilization of ABS with heat treatment. The mild heat treatment at 100oC for 60s could selectively increase the hydrophilicity of the ABS plastics surface (i.e., ABS contact angle decreased from 79o to 65.8o) among other plastics mixture. The SEM and XPS results of plastic samples sufficiently supported the increase in hydrophilic functional groups and decrease contact angle on ABS surface, after heat treatment. As a result of the froth flotation (at mixing speed 150 rpm and airflow rate 0.3 L/min) after heat treatment, about 85% of ABS was selectively separated from other heavy plastics with 100% of purity. The effect of optimum treatment condition and detailed mechanism onto separation efficiency in the froth floatation was also investigated. This research is successful in giving a simple, effective, and inexpensive method for ABS separation from waste plastics.
Keywords: ABS, hydrophilic, heat treatment, froth flotation, contact angle.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2079
2492 Heat Treatment and Rest-Inserted Exercise Enhances EMG Activity of the Lower Limb
Authors: Jae Kyun Bang, Sung Jae Hwang, Chang Yong Ko, Chi Hyun Kim
Abstract:Prolonged immobilization leads to significant weakness and atrophy of the skeletal muscle and can also impair the recovery of muscle strength following injury. Therefore, it is important to minimize the period under immobilization and accelerate the return to normal activity. This study examined the effects of heat treatment and rest-inserted exercise on the muscle activity of the lower limb during knee flexion/extension. Twelve healthy subjects were assigned to 4 groups that included: (1) heat treatment + rest-inserted exercise; (2) heat + continuous exercise; (3) no heat + rest-inserted exercise; and (4) no heat + continuous exercise. Heat treatment was applied for 15 mins prior to exercise. Continuous exercise groups performed knee flexion/extension at 0.5 Hz for 300 cycles without rest whereas rest-inserted exercise groups performed the same exercise but with 2 mins rest inserted every 60 cycles of continuous exercise. Changes in the rectus femoris and hamstring muscle activities were assessed at 0, 1, and 2 weeks of treatment by measuring the electromyography signals of isokinetic maximum voluntary contraction. Significant increases in both the rectus femoris and hamstring muscles were observed after 2 weeks of treatment only when both heat treatment and rest-inserted exercise were performed. These results suggest that combination of various treatment techniques, such as heat treatment and rest-inserted exercise, may expedite the recovery of muscle strength following immobilization.
Keywords: Electromyography, Heat Treatment, Muscle, Rest-Inserted Exercise.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1758
2491 Influence of Post Weld Heat Treatment on Mechanical and Metallurgical Properties of TIG Welded Aluminium Alloy Joints
Authors: Gurmeet Singh Cheema, Navjotinder Singh, Gurjinder Singh, Amardeep Singh Kang
Aluminium and its alloys have excellent corrosion resistant properties, ease of fabrication and high specific strength to weight ratio. In this investigation an attempt has been made to study the effect of different post weld heat treatment methods on the mechanical and metallurgical properties of TIG welded joints of the commercial aluminium alloy. Three different methods of post weld heat treatments are solution heat treatment, artificial ageing and combination of solution heat treatment and artificial aging are given to TIG welded aluminium joints. Mechanical and metallurgical properties of As welded joints of the aluminium alloys and post weld heat treated joints of the aluminium alloys were examined.
Keywords: Aluminium Alloys, Post weld Heat Treatment, TIG welding.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3100
2490 Optimization of Heat Treatment Due to Austenising Temperature, Time and Quenching Solution in Hadfield Steels
Authors: Sh. Hosseini, M. B. Limooei, M. Hossein Zade, E. Askarnia, Z. Asadi
Manganese steel (Hadfield) is one of the important alloys in industry due to its special properties. High work hardening ability with appropriate toughness and ductility are the properties that caused this alloy to be used in wear resistance parts and in high strength condition. Heat treatment is the main process through which the desired mechanical properties and microstructures are obtained in Hadfield steel. In this study various heat treatment cycles, differing in austenising temperature, time and quenching solution are applied. For this purpose, the same samples of manganese steel was heat treated in 9 different cycles, and then the mechanical properties and microstructures were investigated. Based on the results of the study, the optimum heat treatment cycle was obtained.
Keywords: Manganese steel (Hadfield), heat treatment, austenising temperature, austenising time, quenching solution, mechanical properties.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4266
2489 Characterising the Effects of Heat Treatment on 3CR12 and AISI 316 Stainless Steels
Authors: Esther T. Akinlabi, Stephen A. Akinlabi
This paper reports on the effects of heat treatment on 3CR12 and AISI 316 stainless steel grades. Heat treatment was conducted on the steel grades and cooled using two different media; air and water in order to study the effect of each medium on the evolving properties of the samples. The heat treated samples were characterized through the evolving microstructure and hardness. It was found that there was a significant grain size reduction in both the heat treated stainless steel specimens compared to the parent materials. The finer grain sizes were achieved as a result of impediment to growth of one phase by the other. The Vickers microhardness values of the heat treated samples were higher compared to the parent materials due to the fact that each of the steel grades had a proportion of martensitic structures in their microstructures thereby improving the integrity of the material.
Keywords: Austenite, Ferrite, Grain size, Hardness, Martensite, Microstructure and stainless steel.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4257
2488 Inﬂuence of Sodium Acetate on Electroless Ni-P Deposits and Effect of Heat Treatment on Corrosion Behavior
Authors: Y. El Kaissi, M. Allam, A. Koulou, M. Galai, M. Ebn Touhami
The aim of our work is to develop an industrial bath of nickel alloy deposit on mild steel. The optimization of the operating parameters made it possible to obtain a stable Ni-P alloy deposition formulation. To understand the reaction mechanism of the deposition process, a kinetic study was performed by cyclic voltammetry and by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The coatings obtained have a very high corrosion resistance in a very aggressive acid medium which increases with the heat treatment.
Keywords: Ni–P coating, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, heat treatment, cyclic voltammetry, potentiodynamic polarization.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1101
2487 Development of All-male Fingerlings by Heat Treatment and the Genetic Mechanism of Heat Induced Sex Determination in Nile Tilapia(Oreochromis niloticus L.)
Authors: P. O. Angienda, B. O. Aketch, E. N. Waindi
Abstract:Juvenile Nile tilapia subjected to heat treatment at temperatures ranging from 260C to 370C showed positive correlation (P<0.01) between treatment temperatures and resultant sex ratios, while, survival rate of the fry showed a negative correlation against temperature (P<0.01). The optimal temperature for both sex shift towards males and survival rates was 36±0.5°C, producing male percentage of 86.31 and a fry survival of 65.25. To determine the genetic basis of temperature sex-determination in Nile tilapia, we employed three microsatellite markers (Abur36, Abur100 and UNH846). Abur36 predicted the sex of 95% of the heat induced individuals, suggesting that the locus influence sex ratio and its interaction with temperature result in male biased sex ratio. This locus could turn out to be the major sex determining gene operating in Nile tilapia. These markers could be used in marker-assisted selection to select genotypes that give a higher percentage of males for commercial production.
Keywords: Heat treatment, Microsatellite, Nile tilapia, sex-determination.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3455
2486 Effect of Heat Treatment on the Portevin-Le Chatelier Effect of Al-2.5%Mg Alloy
Authors: A. Chatterjee, A. Sarkar, N. Gayathri, P. Mukherjee, P. Barat
Abstract:An experimental study is presented on the effect of microstructural change on the Portevin-Le Chatelier effect behaviour of Al-2.5%Mg alloy. Tensile tests are performed on the as received and heat treated (at 400 ºC for 16 hours) samples for a wide range of strain rates. The serrations observed in the stress-time curve are investigated from statistical analysis point of view. Microstructures of the samples are characterized by optical metallography and X-ray diffraction. It is found that the excess vacancy generated due to heat treatment leads to decrease in the strain rate sensitivity and the increase in the number of stress drop occurrences per unit time during the PLC effect. The microstructural parameters like domain size, dislocation density have no appreciable effect on the PLC effect as far as the statistical behavior of the serrations is considered.
Keywords: Dynamic strain ageing, Heat treatment, Portevin-LeChatelier effectProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2112
2485 Combined Effect of Cold Rolling and Heat Treatment on the Mechanical Properties of Al-Ti Alloy
Authors: Adeosun S. Oluropo, Sekunowo O. Israel, Talabi S. Isaac
This study investigated the combined effect of cold rolling and heat treatment on the mechanical properties of Al-Ti alloy. Samples of the alloy are cast in metal mould to obtain 0.94-2.19wt% mixes of titanium. These samples are grouped into untreated (as-cast) and those that are cold rolled to fifty percent reduction, homogenized at 5000C and soaked for one hour. The cold rolled and heat treated samples are normalized (RTn) and quench-tempered (RTq-t) at 1000C. All these samples are subjected to tensile, micro-hardness and microstructural evaluation. Results show remarkable improvement in the mechanical properties of the cold rolled and heat treated samples compared to the as-cast. In particular, the RTq-t samples containing titanium in the range of 1.7-2.2% demonstrates improve tensile strength by 24.7%, yield strength, 28%, elastic modulus, 38.3% and micro-hardness, 20.5%. The Al3Ti phase being the most stable precipitate in the α-Al matrix appears to have been responsible for the significant improvement in the alloy’s mechanical properties. It is concluded that quench and temper heat treatment is an effective method of improving the strength-strain ratio of cold rolled Al-.0.9-2.2%Ti alloy.
Keywords: Aluminum-titanium alloy, heat treatment, mechanical properties, precipitate.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2601
2484 Effect of Alloying Elements and Hot Forging/Rolling Reduction Ratio on Hardness and Impact Toughness of Heat Treated Low Alloy Steels
Authors: Mahmoud M. Tash
Abstract:The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of alloying elements and thermo-mechanical treatment (TMT) i.e. hot rolling and forging with different reduction ratios on the hardness (HV) and impact toughness (J) of heat-treated low alloy steels. An understanding of the combined effect of TMT and alloying elements and by measuring hardness, impact toughness, resulting from different heat treatment following TMT of the low alloy steels, it is possible to determine which conditions yielded optimum mechanical properties and high strength to weight ratio. Experimental Correlations between hot work reduction ratio, hardness and impact toughness for thermo-mechanically heat treated low alloy steels are analyzed quantitatively, and both regression and mathematical hardness and impact toughness models are developed.
Keywords: Hot Forging, hot rolling, heat treatment, hardness (hv), impact toughness (j), microstructure, low alloy steels.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3297
2483 Application of Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference Systems Technique for Modeling of Postweld Heat Treatment Process of Pressure Vessel Steel ASTM A516 Grade 70
Authors: Omar Al Denali, Abdelaziz Badi
The ASTM A516 Grade 70 steel is a suitable material used for the fabrication of boiler pressure vessels working in moderate and lower temperature services, and it has good weldability and excellent notch toughness. The post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) or stress-relieving heat treatment has significant effects on avoiding the martensite transformation and resulting in high hardness, which can lead to cracking in the heat-affected zone (HAZ). An adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was implemented to predict the material tensile strength of PWHT experiments. The ANFIS models presented excellent predictions, and the comparison was carried out based on the mean absolute percentage error between the predicted values and the experimental values. The ANFIS model gave a Mean Absolute Percentage Error of 0.556%, which confirms the high accuracy of the model.
Keywords: Prediction, post-weld heat treatment, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system, ANFIS, mean absolute percentage error.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 13
2482 Preparation and Fabrication of Lithium Disilicate Glass Ceramic as Dental Crowns via Hot Pressing Method
Authors: A. Srion, W. Thepsuwan, N. Monmaturapoj
Two Lithium Disilicate (LD) glass ceramics based on SiO2-Li2O-K2O-Al2O3 system were prepared through a glass melting method. The glass rods were then fabricated into dental crowns via a hot pressing at 900˚C and 850˚C in order to study the effect of the pressing temperatures on the phase formation and microstructure of the glasses. Different samples of as cast glass and heat treated samples (600˚C and 700˚C) were used to press for investigating the effect of an initial microstructure on the hot pressing technique. Xray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were performed to determine the phase formation and microstructure of the samples, respectively. XRD results show that the main crystalline structure was Li2Si2O5 by having Li3PO4, Li0.6Al0.6Si2O6, Li2SiO3, Ca5 (PO4)3F and SiO2 as minor phases. Glass compositions with different heat treatment temperatures exhibited a difference phase formations but have less effect during pressing. SEM micrographs showed the microstructure of Li2Si2O5 as lath-like shape in all glasses. With increasing the initial heat treatment temperature, the longer the lath-like crystals of lithium disilicate were increased especially when using glass heat treatment at 700˚C followed by pressing at 900˚C. This could be suggested that LD1 heat treatment at 700˚C which pressing at 900˚C presented the best formation by the hot pressing and compiled microstructure.
Keywords: Lithium disilicate, Hot pressing, Dental crown, Microstructure.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3420
2481 Impact Behavior of Cryogenically Treated En 52 and 21-4N Valve Steels
Authors: M. Arockia Jaswin, D. Mohan Lal
Cryogenic treatment is the process of cooling a material to extremely low temperatures to generate enhanced mechanical and physical properties. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of cryogenic treatment on the impact behavior of En 52 and 21-4N valve steels. The valve steels are subjected to shallow (193 K) and deep cryogenic treatment (85 K), and the impact behavior is compared with the valve steel materials subjected to conventional heat treatment. The impact test is carried out in accordance with the ASTM E 23-02a standard. The results show an improvement of 23 % in the impact energy for the En 52 deep cryo-treated samples when compared to that of the conventionally heat treated samples. It is revealed that during cryogenic treatment fine platelets of martensite are formed from the retained austenite, and these platelets promote the precipitation of fine carbides by a diffusion mechanism during tempering.
Keywords: Cryogenic treatment, valve steel, Fractograph, carbides, impact strength.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4376
2480 Performance Evaluation of Extruded-Type Heat Sinks Used in Inverter for Solar Power Generation
Authors: Jeong Hyun Kim, Gyo Woo Lee
In this study, heat release performances of the three extruded-type heat sinks can be used in inverter for solar power generation were evaluated. Numbers of fins in the heat sinks (namely E-38, E-47 and E-76) were 38, 47 and 76, respectively. Heat transfer areas of them were 1.8, 1.9 and 2.8m2. The heat release performances of E-38, E-47 and E-76 heat sinks were measured as 79.6, 81.6 and 83.2%, respectively. The results of heat release performance show that the larger amount of heat transfer area the higher heat release rate. While on the other, in this experiment, variations of mass flow rates caused by different cross sectional areas of the three heat sinks may not be the major parameter of the heat release. Despite the 47.4% increment of heat transfer area of E-76 heat sink than that of E-47 one, its heat release rate was higher by only 2.0%; this suggests that its heat transfer area need to be optimized.
Keywords: Solar Inverter, Heat Sink, Forced Convection, Heat Transfer, Performance Evaluation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2471
2479 Optimization of Artificial Ageing Time and Temperature on Evaluation of Hardness and Resistivity of Al-Si-Mg (Cu or/& Ni) Alloys
Authors: A. Hossain, A. S. W. Kurny
The factors necessary to obtain an optimal heat treatment that influence the hardness and resistivity of Al-6Si-0.5Mg casting alloys with Cu or/and Ni additions were investigated. The alloys were homogenised (24hr at 500oC), solutionized (2hr at 540oC) and artificially ageing at various times and temperatures. The alloys were aged isochronally for 60 minutes at temperatures up to 400oC and isothermally at 150, 175, 200, 225, 250 & 300oC for different periods in the range 15 to 360 minutes. The hardness and electrical resistivity of the alloys were measured for various artificial ageing times and temperatures. From the isochronal ageing treatment, hardness found maximum ageing at 225oC. And from the isothermal ageing treatment, hardness found maximum for 60 minutes at 225oC. So the optimal heat treatment consists of 60 minutes ageing at 225oC.
Keywords: Ageing, Al-Si-Mg alloy, hardness, resistivity.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2880
2478 Chromium Adsorption by Modified Wood
Authors: I. Domingos, B. Esteves, A. Figueirinha, Luísa P. Cruz-Lopes, J. Ferreira, H. Pereira
Chromium is one of the most common heavy metals which exist in very high concentrations in wastewater. The removal is very expensive due to the high cost of normal adsorbents. Lignocellulosic materials and mainly treated materials have proven to be a good solution for this problem.
Adsorption tests were performed at different pH, different times and with varying concentrations.
Results show that is at pH 3 that treated wood absorbs more chromium ranging from 70% (2h treatment) to almost 100% (12 h treatment) much more than untreated wood with less than 40%. Most of the adsorption is made in the first 2-3 hours for untreated and heat treated wood. Modified wood adsorbs more chromium throughout the time. For all the samples, adsorption fitted relatively well the Langmuir model with correlation coefficient ranging from 0.85 to 0.97.
The results show that heat treated wood is a good adsorbent ant that this might be a good utilization for sawdust from treating companies.
Keywords: Adsorption, chromium, heat treatment, wood modification.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2300
2477 Correlation between Heat Treatment, Microstructure and Properties of Trip-Assisted Steels
Authors: A. Talapatra, N. R. Bandhyopadhyay, J. Datta
In the present study, two TRIP-assisted steels were designated as A (having no Cr and Cu content) and B (having higher Ni, Cr and Cu content) heat treated under different conditions, and the correlation between its heat treatment, microstructure and properties were investigated. Micro structural examination was carried out by optical microscope and scanning electron microscope after electrolytic etching. Non-destructive electrochemical and ultrasonic testing on two TRIP-assisted steels was used to find out corrosion and mechanical properties of different alter microstructure phase’s steels. Furthermore, micro structural studies accompanied by the evaluation of mechanical properties revealed that steels having martensite phases with higher corrosive and hardness value were less sound velocity and also steel’s microstructure having finer grains that was more grain boundary was less corrosion resistance. Steel containing more Cu, Ni and Cr was less corrosive compared to other steels having same processing or microstructure.
Keywords: TRIP-assisted steels, heat treatment, corrosion, electrochemical techniques, micro-structural characterization, non-destructive (ultrasonic) technique.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2731
2476 Numerical Study of Heat Release of the Symmetrically Arranged Extruded-Type Heat Sinks
Authors: Man Young Kim, Gyo Woo Lee
In this numerical study, we want to present the design of highly efficient extruded-type heat sink. The symmetrically arranged extruded-type heat sinks are used instead of a single extruded or swaged-type heat sink. In this parametric study, the maximum temperatures, the base temperatures between heaters, and the heat release rates were investigated with respect to the arrangements of heat sources, air flow rates, and amounts of heat input. Based on the results we believe that the use of both side of heat sink is to be much better for release the heat than the use of single side. Also from the results, it is believed that the symmetric arrangement of heat sources is recommended to achieve a higher heat transfer from the heat sink.
Keywords: Heat Sink, Forced Convection, Heat Transfer, Performance Evaluation, Symmetrically Arranged.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1516
2475 Quantitative Changes in Biofilms of a Seawater Tubular Heat Exchanger Subjected to Electromagnetic Fields Treatment
Authors: Sergio Garcia, Alfredo Trueba, Luis M. Vega, Ernesto Madariaga
Abstract:Biofilms adhesion is one of the more important cost of industries plants on wide world, which use to water for cooling heat exchangers or are in contact with water. This study evaluated the effect of Electromagnetic Fields on biofilms in tubular heat exchangers using seawater cooling. The results showed an up to 40% reduction of the biofilm thickness compared to the untreated control tubes. The presence of organic matter was reduced by 75%, the inorganic mater was reduced by 87%, and 53% of the dissolved solids were eliminated. The biofilm thermal conductivity in the treated tube was reduced by 53% as compared to the control tube. The hardness in the effluent during the experimental period was decreased by 18% in the treated tubes compared with control tubes. Our results show that the electromagnetic fields treatment has a great potential in the process of removing biofilms in heat exchanger.
Keywords: Biofilm, heat exchanger, electromagnetic fields, seawater.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 539
2474 Effect of Flow Holes on Heat Release Performance of Extruded-type Heat Sink
Authors: Jung Hyun Kim, Gyo Woo Lee
In this study, the enhancement of the heat release performance of an extruded-type heat sink to prepare the large-capacity solar inverter thru the flow holes in the base plate near the heat sources was investigated. Optimal location and number of the holes in the baseplate were determined by using a commercial computation program. The heat release performance of the shape-modified heat sink was measured experimentally and compared with that of the simulation. The heat sink with 12 flow holes in the 18-mm-thick base plate has a 8.1% wider heat transfer area, a 2.5% more mass flow of air, and a 2.7% higher heat release rate than those of the original heat sink. Also, the surface temperature of the base plate was lowered 1.5oC by the holes.
Keywords: Heat Sink, Forced Convection, Heat Transfer, Performance Evaluation, Flow Holes.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1655
2473 Effect of Heat Treatment on the Phase Formation of La0.6Sr0.4CoO3-α
Authors: A. A. Samat, N. A. Abdullah, M. A. M. Ishak, N. Osman
Abstract:Powder of La0.6Sr0.4CoO3-α (LSCO) was synthesized by a combined citrate-EDTA method. The as-synthesized LSCO powder was calcined, respectively at temperatures of 800, 900 and 1000 °C with different heating/cooling rates which are 2, 5, 10 and 15 °C min-1. The effects of heat treatments on the phase formation of perovskite phase of LSCO were investigated by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD patterns revealed that the rate of 5 °C min-1 is the optimum heating/cooling rate to obtain a single perovskite phase of LSCO with calcination temperature of 800 °C. This result was confirmed by a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) as it showed a complete decomposition of intermediate compounds to form oxide material was also observed at 800 °C.
Keywords: La0.6Sr0.4CoO3-α, heat treatment, perovskite-type oxide, XRD.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4275
2472 Heat Release Performance of Swaged- and Extruded-Type Heat Sink Used in Industrial Inverter
Authors: Jung Hyun Kim, Min Ye Ku, Gyo Woo Lee
Abstract:In this experiment, we investigated the performance of two types of heat sink, swaged- and extruded-type, used in the inverter of industrial electricity generator. The swaged-type heat sink has 62 fins, and the extruded-type has 38 fins having the same dimension as that of the swaged-type. But the extruded-type heat sink maintains the same heat transfer area by the laterally waved surface which has 1 mm in radius. As a result, the swaged- and extruded-type heat sinks released 71% and 64% of the heat incoming to the heat sink, respectively. The other incoming heat were naturally convected and radiated to the ambient. In spite of 40% decrease in number of fins, the heat release performance of the extruded-type heat sink was lowered only 7% than that of the swaged-type. We believe that, this shows the increment of effective heat transfer area by the laterally waved surface of fins and the better heat transfer property of the extruded-type heat sink.
Keywords: Solar Inverter, Heat Sink, Forced Convection, Heat Transfer, Performance Evaluation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1813
2471 A Review of Heat Pipe Heat Exchangers Activity in Asia
Authors: Ehsan Firouzfar, Maryam Attaran
Abstract:Heat pipes are two-phase heat transfer devices with high effective thermal conductivity. Due to the high heat transport capacity, heat exchanger with heat pipes has become much smaller than traditional heat exchangers in handling high heat fluxes. With the working fluid in a heat pipe, heat can be absorbed on the evaporator region and transported to the condenser region where the vapour condenses releasing the heat to the cooling media. Heat pipe technology has found increasing applications in enhancing the thermal performance of heat exchangers in microelectranics, energy saving in HVAC systems for operating rooms,surgery centers, hotels, cleanrooms etc, temperature regulation systems for the human body and other industrial sectors. Development activity in heat pipe and thermosyphon technology in asia in recent years is surveyed. Some new results obtained in Australia and other countries are also included.
Keywords: Heat pipe heat exchanger, Thermosyphone, effectiveness, HVAC system, energy saving, temperature regulation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3485
2470 Heat Transfer Analysis of Rectangular Channel Plate Heat Sink
Authors: Zhang Lei, Liu Min, Liu Botao
Abstract:In order to improve the simulation effects of space cold black environment, this paper described a rectangular channel plate heat sink. By using fluid mechanics theory and finite element method, the internal fluid flow and heat transfer in heat sink was numerically simulated to analyze the impact of channel structural on fluid flow and heat transfer. The result showed that heat sink temperature uniformity is well, and the impact of channel structural on the heat sink temperature uniformity is not significant. The channel depth and spacing are important factors which affect the fluid flow and heat transfer in the heat sink. The two factors of heat transfer and resistance need to be considered comprehensively to determine the optimal flow structure parameters.
Keywords: heat transfer, heat sink, numerical simulationProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1700
2469 Effect of Enzyme and Heat Pretreatment on Sunflower Oil Recovery Using Aqueous and Hexane Extractions
Authors: E. Danso-Boateng
The effects of enzyme action and heat pretreatment on oil extraction yield from sunflower kernels were analysed using hexane extraction with Soxhlet, and aqueous extraction with incubator shaker. Ground kernels of raw and heat treated kernels, each with and without Viscozyme treatment were used. Microscopic images of the kernels were taken to analyse the visible effects of each treatment on the cotyledon cell structure of the kernels. Heat pretreated kernels before both extraction processes produced enhanced oil extraction yields than the control, with steam explosion the most efficient. In hexane extraction, applying a combination of steam explosion and Viscozyme treatments to the kernels before the extraction gave the maximum oil extractable in 1 hour; while for aqueous extraction, raw kernels treated with Viscozyme gave the highest oil extraction yield. Remarkable cotyledon cell disruption was evident in kernels treated with Viscozyme; whereas steam explosion and conventional heat treated kernels had similar effects.
Keywords: Enzyme-assisted aqueous and hexane extraction, heatpretreatment, sunflower cotyledon structure, sunflower oil extractionProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3336
2468 Effect of Heat-Moisture Treatment on the Formation and Properties of Resistant Starches From Mung Bean (Phaseolus radiatus) Starches
Authors: Su-Ling Li, Qun-Yu Gao
Mung bean starches were subjected to heat-moisture treatment (HMT) by different moisture contents (15%, 20%, 25%, 30% and 35%) at 120Ôäâ for 12h. The impact on the yields of resistant starch (RS), microstructure, physicochemical and functional properties was investigated. Compared to native starch, the RS content of heat-moisture treated starches increased significantly. The RS level of HMT-20 was the highest of all the starches. Birefringence was displayed clear at the center of native starch. For HMT starches, pronounced birefringence was exhibited on the periphery of starch granules; however, birefringence disappeared at the centre of some starch granules. The shape of HMT starches hadn-t been changed and the integrity of starch granules was preserved for all the conditions. Concavity could be observed on HMT starches under scanning electronic microscopy. After HMT, apparent amylose contents were increased and starch macromolecule was degraded in comparison with those of native starch. There was a reduction in swelling power on HMT starches, but the solubility of HMT starches was higher than that of native starch. Both of native and HMT starches showed A-type X-ray diffraction pattern. Furthermore, there is a higher intensity at the peak of 15.0 and 22.9 Å than those of native starch.
Keywords: Resistant starch, mung bean (Phaseolus radiatus) starch, heat-moisture treatment, physicochemical properties.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3398
2467 Effect of Heat Treatment on Mechanical Properties and Wear Behavior of Al7075 Alloy Reinforced with Beryl and Graphene Hybrid Metal Matrix Composites
Authors: Shanawaz Patil, Mohamed Haneef, K. S. Narayanaswamy
In the recent years, aluminum metal matrix composites were most widely used, which are finding wide applications in various field such as automobile, aerospace defense etc., due to their outstanding mechanical properties like low density, light weight, exceptional high levels of strength, stiffness, wear resistance, high temperature resistance, low coefficient of thermal expansion and good formability. In the present work, an effort is made to study the effect of heat treatment on mechanical properties of aluminum 7075 alloy reinforced with constant weight percentage of naturally occurring mineral beryl and varying weight percentage of graphene. The hybrid composites are developed with 0.5 wt. %, 1wt.%, 1.5 wt.% and 2 wt.% of graphene and 6 wt.% of beryl by stir casting liquid metallurgy route. The cast specimens of unreinforced aluminum alloy and hybrid composite samples were prepared for heat treatment process and subjected to solutionizing treatment (T6) at a temperature of 490±5 oC for 8 hours in a muffle furnace followed by quenching in boiling water. The microstructure analysis of as cast and heat treated hybrid composite specimens are examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The tensile test and hardness test of unreinforced aluminum alloy and hybrid composites are examined. The wear behavior is examined by pin-on disc apparatus. The results of as cast specimens and heat treated specimens were compared. The heat treated Al7075-Beryl-Graphene hybrid composite had better properties and significantly improved the ultimate tensile strength, hardness and reduced wear loss when compared to aluminum alloy and as cast hybrid composites.
Keywords: Beryl, graphene, heat treatment, mechanical properties.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 830