Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30

Search results for: Takuya Sato

30 Indicator of Small Calcification Detection in Ultrasonography using Decorrelation of Forward Scattered Waves

Authors: Hirofumi Taki, Takuya Sakamoto, Makoto Yamakawa, Tsuyoshi Shiina, Toru Sato

Abstract:

For the improvement of the ability in detecting small calcifications using Ultrasonography (US) we propose a novel indicator of calcifications in an ultrasound B-mode image without decrease in frame rate. Since the waveform of an ultrasound pulse changes at a calcification position, the decorrelation of adjacent scan lines occurs behind a calcification. Therefore, we employ the decorrelation of adjacent scan lines as an indicator of a calcification. The proposed indicator depicted wires 0.05 mm in diameter at 2 cm depth with a sensitivity of 86.7% and a specificity of 100%, which were hardly detected in ultrasound B-mode images. This study shows the potential of the proposed indicator to approximate the detectable calcification size using an US device to that of an X-ray imager, implying the possibility that an US device will become a convenient, safe, and principal clinical tool for the screening of breast cancer.

Keywords: Ultrasonography, Calcification, Decorrelation, Forward scattered wave

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29 Preparation of CuAlO2 Thin Films on Si or Sapphire Substrate by Sol-Gel Method Using Metal Acetate or Nitrate

Authors: Takashi Ehara, Takayoshi Nakanishi, Kohei Sasaki, Marina Abe, Hiroshi Abe, Kiyoaki Abe, Ryo Iizaka, Takuya Sato

Abstract:

CuAlO2 thin films are prepared on Si or sapphire substrate by sol-gel method using two kinds of sols. One is combination of Cu acetate and Al acetate basic, and the other is Cu nitrate and Al nitrate. In the case of acetate sol, XRD peaks of CuAlO2 observed at annealing temperature of 800-950 ºC on both Si and sapphire substrates. In contrast, in the case of the films prepared using nitrate on Si substrate, XRD peaks of CuAlO2 have been observed only at the annealing temperature of 800-850 ºC. At annealing temperature of 850ºC, peaks of other species have been observed beside the CuAlO2 peaks, then, the CuAlO2 peaks disappeared at annealing temperature of 900 °C with increasing in intensity of the other peaks. Intensity of the other peaks decreased at annealing temperature of 950 ºC with appearance of broad SiO2 peak. In the present, we ascribe these peaks as metal silicide.

Keywords: CuAlO2, silicide, thin films, transparent conducting oxide, sol-gel.

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28 Solving 94-bit ECDLP with 70 Computers in Parallel

Authors: Shunsuke Miyoshi, Yasuyuki Nogami, Takuya Kusaka, Nariyoshi Yamai

Abstract:

Elliptic curve discrete logarithm problem(ECDLP) is one of problems on which the security of pairing-based cryptography is based. This paper considers Pollard’s rho method to evaluate the security of ECDLP on Barreto-Naehrig(BN) curve that is an efficient pairing-friendly curve. Some techniques are proposed to make the rho method efficient. Especially, the group structure on BN curve, distinguished point method, and Montgomery trick are well-known techniques. This paper applies these techniques and shows its optimization. According to the experimental results for which a large-scale parallel system with MySQL is applied, 94-bit ECDLP was solved about 28 hours by parallelizing 71 computers.

Keywords: Pollard’s rho method, BN curve, Montgomery multiplication.

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27 Designing Mobile Application to Motivate Young People to Visit Cultural Heritage Sites

Authors: Yuko Hiramatsu, Fumihiro Sato, Atsushi Ito, Hiroyuki Hatano, Mie Sato, Yu Watanabe, Akira Sasaki

Abstract:

This paper presents a mobile phone application developed for sightseeing in Nikko, one of the cultural world heritages in Japan, using the BLE (Bluetooth Low Energy) beacon. Based on our pre-research, we decided to design our application for young people who walk around the area actively, but know little about the tradition and culture of Nikko. One solution is to construct many information boards to explain; however, it is difficult to construct new guide plates in cultural world heritage sites. The smartphone is a good solution to send such information to such visitors. This application was designed using a combination of the smartphone and beacons, set in the area, so that when a tourist passes near a beacon, the application displays information about the area including a map, historical or cultural information about the temples and shrines, and local shops nearby as well as a bus timetable. It is useful for foreigners, too. In addition, we developed quizzes relating to the culture and tradition of Nikko to provide information based on the Zeigarnik effect, a psychological effect. According to the results of our trials, tourists positively evaluated the basic information and young people who used the quiz function were able to learn the historical and cultural points. This application helped young visitors at Nikko to understand the cultural elements of the site. In addition, this application has a function to send notifications. This function is designed to provide information about the local community such as shops, local transportation companies and information office. The application hopes to also encourage people living in the area, and such cooperation from the local people will make this application vivid and inspire young visitors to feel that the cultural heritage site is still alive today. This is a gateway for young people to learn about a traditional place and understand the gravity of preserving such areas.

Keywords: BLE beacon, smartphone application, Zeigarnik effect, world heritage site, school trip.

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26 Study on the Chaotic Cipher Combined with Mersenne Twister

Authors: Daiki Yoshida, Ariyoshi Nakayama, Hirotaka Watanabe, Taichi Sato, Syuhei Kuriyama, Hiroyuki Kamata

Abstract:

In this study, we propose the chaotic cipher combined with Mersenne Twister that is an extremely good pseudo-random number generator for the secure communications. We investigate the Lyapunov exponent of the proposed system, and evaluate the randomness performance by comparing RC4 and the chaotic cipher. In these results, our proposed system gets high chaotic property and more randomness than the conventional ciphers.

Keywords: Chaos, chaotic property, cipher, Mersenne Twister, Randomness.

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25 GPS TEC Variation Affected by the Interhemispheric Conjugate Auroral Activity on 21 September 2009

Authors: W. Suparta, M. A. Mohd. Ali, M. S. Jit Singh, B. Yatim, T. Motoba, N. Sato, A. Kadokura, G. Bjornsson

Abstract:

This paper observed the interhemispheric conjugate auroral activity occurred on 21 September 2009. The GPS derived ionospheric total electron content (TEC) during a weak substorm interval recorded at interhemispheric conjugate points at Husafell in Iceland and Syowa in Antarctica is investigated to look at their signatures on the auroral features. Selection of all-sky camera (ASC) images and keogram at Tjörnes and Syowa during the interval 00:47:54 – 00:50:14 UT on 21 September 2009 found that the auroral activity had exerted their influence on the GPS TEC as a consequence of varying interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) By polarity.

Keywords: Auroral activity, GPS TEC, Interhemispheric conjugate points, Responses

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24 Model Checking Consistency of UML Diagrams Using Alloy

Authors: Akie Nimiya, Tomoyuki Yokogawa, Hisashi Miyazaki, Sousuke Amasaki, Yoichiro Sato, Michiyoshi Hayase

Abstract:

In this paper, we proposed a method for detecting consistency violation between UML state machine diagrams and communication diagrams using Alloy. Using input language of Alloy, the proposed method expresses system behaviors described by state machine diagrams, message sequences described by communication diagrams, and a consistency property. As a result of application for an example system, we confirmed that consistency violation could be detected using Alloy correctly.

Keywords: Model checking, UML, state machine diagrams, communication diagram, alloy.

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23 Symbolic Model Checking of Interactions in Sequence Diagrams with Combined Fragments by SMV

Authors: Yuka Kawakami, Tomoyuki Yokogawa, Hisashi Miyazaki, Sousuke Amasaki, Yoichiro Sato, Michiyoshi Hayase

Abstract:

In this paper, we proposed a method for detecting consistency violation between state machine diagrams and a sequence diagram defined in UML 2.0 using SMV. We extended a method expressing these diagrams defined in UML 1.0 with boolean formulas so that it can express a sequence diagram with combined fragments introduced in UML 2.0. This extension made it possible to represent three types of combined fragment: alternative, option and parallel. As a result of experiment, we confirmed that the proposed method could detect consistency violation correctly with SMV.

Keywords: UML, model checking, SMV, sequence diagram.

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22 A Quantification Method of Attractiveness of Stations and an Estimation Method of Number of Passengers Taking into Consideration the Attractiveness of the Station

Authors: Naoya Ozaki, Takuya Watanabe, Ryosuke Matsumoto, Noriko Fukasawa

Abstract:

In the metropolitan areas in Japan, in many stations, shopping areas are set up, and escalators and elevators are installed to make the stations be barrier-free. Further, many areas around the stations are being redeveloped. Railway business operators want to know how much effect these circumstances have on attractiveness of the station or number of passengers using the station. So, we performed a questionnaire survey of the station users in the metropolitan areas for finding factors to affect the attractiveness of stations. Then, based on the analysis of the survey, we developed a method to quantitatively evaluate attractiveness of the stations. We also developed an estimation method for number of passengers based on combination of attractiveness of the station quantitatively evaluated and the residential and labor population around the station. Then, we derived precise linear regression models estimating the attractiveness of the station and number of passengers of the station.

Keywords: Attractiveness of the station, estimation method, number of passengers of the station, redevelopment around the station, renovation of the station.

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21 Trial Development the Evaluation Method of Quantification the Feeling of Preventing Visibility by Front A Pillar

Authors: T. Arakawa, H. Sato

Abstract:

There are many drivers who feel right A pillar of Japanese right-hand-drive car preventing visibility on turning right or left at intersection. On the other hand, there is a report that almost pedestrian accident is caused by the delay of finding pedestrian by drivers and this is found by drivers’ eye movement. Thus, we developed the evaluation method of quantification using drivers’ eye movement data by least squares estimation and we applied this method to commercial vehicle and evaluation the visibility. It is suggested that visibility of vehicle can be quantified and estimated by linear model obtained from experimental eye fixation data and information of vehicle dimensions.

Keywords: Eye fixation, modeling, obstacle feeling, right A pillar.

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20 Data Quality Enhancement with String Length Distribution

Authors: Qi Xiu, Hiromu Hota, Yohsuke Ishii, Takuya Oda

Abstract:

Recently, collectable manufacturing data are rapidly increasing. On the other hand, mega recall is getting serious as a social problem. Under such circumstances, there are increasing needs for preventing mega recalls by defect analysis such as root cause analysis and abnormal detection utilizing manufacturing data. However, the time to classify strings in manufacturing data by traditional method is too long to meet requirement of quick defect analysis. Therefore, we present String Length Distribution Classification method (SLDC) to correctly classify strings in a short time. This method learns character features, especially string length distribution from Product ID, Machine ID in BOM and asset list. By applying the proposal to strings in actual manufacturing data, we verified that the classification time of strings can be reduced by 80%. As a result, it can be estimated that the requirement of quick defect analysis can be fulfilled.

Keywords: Data quality, feature selection, probability distribution, string classification, string length.

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19 Development of 25A-Size Three-Layer Metal Gasket by Using FEM Simulation

Authors: Shigeyuki Haruyama, I Made Gatot Karohika, Akinori Sato, Didik Nurhadiyanto, Ken Kaminishi

Abstract:

Contact width and contact stress are important design parameters for optimizing corrugated metal gasket performance based on elastic and plastic contact stress. In this study, we used a three-layer metal gasket with Al, Cu, Ni as the outer layer, respectively. A finite element method was employed to develop simulation solution. The gasket model was simulated by using two simulation stages which are forming and tightening simulation. The simulation result shows that aluminum with tangent modulus, Ehal = Eal/150 has the highest slope for contact width. The slope of contact width for plastic mode gasket was higher than the elastic mode gasket.

Keywords: Contact width, contact stress, layer, metal gasket, corrugated, simulation.

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18 Towards Developing a Self-Explanatory Scheduling System Based on a Hybrid Approach

Authors: Jian Zheng, Yoshiyasu Takahashi, Yuichi Kobayashi, Tatsuhiro Sato

Abstract:

In the study, we present a conceptual framework for developing a scheduling system that can generate self-explanatory and easy-understanding schedules. To this end, a user interface is conceived to help planners record factors that are considered crucial in scheduling, as well as internal and external sources relating to such factors. A hybrid approach combining machine learning and constraint programming is developed to generate schedules and the corresponding factors, and accordingly display them on the user interface. Effects of the proposed system on scheduling are discussed, and it is expected that scheduling efficiency and system understandability will be improved, compared with previous scheduling systems.

Keywords: Constraint programming, Factors considered in scheduling, machine learning, scheduling system.

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17 Preliminary Evaluation of Passive UHF-Band RFID for Identifying Floating Objects on the Sea

Authors: Yasuhiro Sato, Kodai Noma, Kenta Sawada, Kazumasa Adachi, Yoshinori Matruura, Saori Iwanaga

Abstract:

RFID system is used to identify objects such as passenger identification in public transportation, instead of linear or 2-dimensional barcodes. Key advantages of RFID system are to identify objects without physical contact, and to write arbitrary information into RFID tag. These advantages may help to improve maritime safety and efficiency of activity on the sea. However, utilization of RFID system for maritime scenes has not been considered. In this paper, we evaluate the availability of a generic RFID system operating on the sea. We measure RSSI between RFID tag floating on the sea and RFID antenna, and check whether a RFID reader can access a tag or not, while the distance between a floating buoy and the ship, and the angle are changed. Finally, we discuss the feasibility and the applicability of RFID system on the sea through the results of our preliminary experiment.

Keywords: RFID, Experimental Evaluation, RSSI, Maritime use.

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16 Efficient and Effective Gabor Feature Representation for Face Detection

Authors: Yasuomi D. Sato, Yasutaka Kuriya

Abstract:

We here propose improved version of elastic graph matching (EGM) as a face detector, called the multi-scale EGM (MS-EGM). In this improvement, Gabor wavelet-based pyramid reduces computational complexity for the feature representation often used in the conventional EGM, but preserving a critical amount of information about an image. The MS-EGM gives us higher detection performance than Viola-Jones object detection algorithm of the AdaBoost Haar-like feature cascade. We also show rapid detection speeds of the MS-EGM, comparable to the Viola-Jones method. We find fruitful benefits in the MS-EGM, in terms of topological feature representation for a face.

Keywords: Face detection, Gabor wavelet based pyramid, elastic graph matching, topological preservation, redundancy of computational complexity.

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15 Cutaneous Application of Royal Jelly Inhibits Skin Lesions in NC/Nga Mice, a Human-Like Mouse Model of Atopic Dermatitis

Authors: Junki Miyamoto, Mariko Kiyomi, Yuuki Nagashio, Takuya Suzuki, Soichi Tanabe

Abstract:

Anti-allergic effects of royal jelly were evaluated in a human-like mouse model of atopic dermatitis. NC/Nga mice were cutaneously applied with royal jelly for 6 weeks. Royal jelly-treated mice exhibited lower levels of serum total immunoglobulin E in comparison with controls. We found that the treatment decreased (11% to the control) expression of mRNA for aquaporin-3, which is involved in the modulation of epidermal hydration. Microarray analysis revealed more than 10-fold changes in the expression of several genes, such as transglutaminase 2, repetin, and keratins. In normal human epidermal keratinocytes, royal jelly extract suppressed interleukin-8 elevation induced by TNF-α and interferon-γ, suggesting direct anti-inflammatory activity in keratinocytes. Collectively, topical application of royal jelly may be useful for amelioration of lesions and inflammation in atopic dermatitis.

Keywords: Aquaporin 3, immunoglobulin E, NC/Nga, royal jelly.

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14 Preservation of Carbon Dioxide Clathrate Hydrate Coexisting with Sucrose at Temperatures below the Water Freezing Point under Atmospheric Pressure

Authors: Tadaaki Sato, Ryo Ohmura

Abstract:

This paper reports the influence of sucrose on the preservation of CO2 hydrate crystal samples. The particle diameter of hydrate samples were 1.0 and 5.6-8.0 mm. Mass fraction of sucrose in the sample was 0.16. The samples were stored at the aerated condition under atmospheric pressure and at the temperature of 253 or 258 K. The results indicated that the mass fractions of CO2 hydrate in the samples with sucrose were 0.10 ± 0.03 at the end of 3-week preservation, regardless of temperature and particle diameter. Mass fraction of CO2 hydrate in the samples with sucrose was higher than that of pure CO2 hydrate for 1.0 mm particle diameter, while was lower than that of pure CO2 hydrate for 5.6-8.0 mm particle diameter. Discussion is made on the influence of sucrose on the dissociation of CO2 hydrate and the resulting formation of ice.

Keywords: Clathrate hydrates, Carbon dioxide

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13 Development of Scratching Monitoring System Based On Mathematical Model of Unconstrained Bed Sensing Method

Authors: Takuya Sumi, Syoko Nukaya, Takashi Kaburagi, Hiroshi Tanaka, Kajiro Watanabe, Yosuke Kurihara

Abstract:

We propose an unconstrained measurement system for scratching motion based on mathematical model of unconstrained bed sensing method which could measure the bed vibrations due to the motion of the person on the bed. In this paper, we construct mathematical model of the unconstrained bed monitoring system; and we apply the unconstrained bed sensing method to the system for detecting scratching motion. The proposed sensors are placed under the three bed feet. When the person is lying on the bed, the output signals from the sensors are proportional to the magnitude of the vibration due to the scratching motion. Hence, we could detect the subject’s scratching motion from the output signals from ceramic sensors. We evaluated two scratching motions using the proposed system in the validity experiment as follows: 1st experiment is the subject’s scratching the right side cheek with his right hand, and; 2nd experiment is the subject’s scratching the shin with another foot. As the results of the experiment, we recognized the scratching signals that enable the determination when the scratching occurred. Furthermore, the difference among the amplitudes of the output signals enabled us to estimate where the subject scratched.

Keywords: Unconstrained bed sensing method, scratching, body movement, itchy, piezoceramics.

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12 A Ring Segmented Bus Architecture for Globally Asynchronous Locally Synchronous System

Authors: Masafumi Kondo, Yoichiro Sato, Kazuyuki Tashiro, Tomoyuki Yokogawa, Michiyoshi Hayase

Abstract:

Recently, most digital systems are designed as GALS (Globally Asynchronous Locally Synchronous) systems. Several architectures have been proposed as bus architectures for a GALS system : shared bus, segmented bus, ring bus, and so on. In this study, we propose a ring segmented bus architecture which is a combination of segmented bus and ring bus architecture with the aim of throughput enhancement. In a segmented bus architecture, segments are connected in series. By connecting the segments at the end of the bus and constructing the ring bus, it becomes possible to allocate a channel of the bus bidirectionally. The bus channel is allocated to the shortest path between segments. We consider a metastable operation caused by asynchronous communication between segments and a burst transfer between segments. According to the result of simulation, it is shown that the GALS system designed by the proposed method has the desired operations.

Keywords: GALS systems bus architecture, segmented bus, ring bus.

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11 Study on the Evaluation of the Chaotic Cipher System Using the Improved Volterra Filters and the RBFN Mapping

Authors: Hirotaka Watanabe, Takaaki Kondo, Daiki Yoshida, Ariyoshi Nakayama, Taichi Sato, Shuhei Kuriyama, Hiroyuki Kamata

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a chaotic cipher system consisting of Improved Volterra Filters and the mapping that is created from the actual voice by using Radial Basis Function Network. In order to achieve a practical system, the system supposes to use the digital communication line, such as the Internet, to maintain the parameter matching between the transmitter and receiver sides. Therefore, in order to withstand the attack from outside, it is necessary that complicate the internal state and improve the sensitivity coefficient. In this paper, we validate the robustness of proposed method from three perspectives of "Chaotic properties", "Randomness", "Coefficient sensitivity".

Keywords: Chaos cipher, 16-bit-length fixed point arithmetic, Volterra filter, Seacret communications, RBF Network

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10 Direct Numerical Simulation of Subcooled Nucleate Pool Boiling

Authors: Sreeyuth Lal, Yohei Sato, Bojan Niceno

Abstract:

With the long-term objective of Critical Heat Flux (CHF) prediction, a Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) framework for simulation of subcooled and saturated nucleate pool boiling is developed. One case of saturated, and three cases of subcooled boiling at different subcooling levels are simulated. Grid refinement study is also reported. Both boiling and condensation phenomena can be computed simultaneously in the proposed numerical framework. Computed bubble detachment diameters of the saturated nucleate pool boiling cases agree well with the experiment. The flow structures around the growing bubble are presented and the accompanying physics is described. The relation between heat flux evolution from the heated wall and the bubble growth is studied, along with investigations of temperature distribution and flow field evolutions.

Keywords: CFD, interface tracking method, phase change model, subcooled nucleate pool boiling.

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9 A Simple Autonomous Hovering and Operating Control of Multicopter Using Only Web Camera

Authors: Kazuya Sato, Toru Kasahara, Junji Kuroda, Tomoyuki Izu

Abstract:

In this paper, an autonomous hovering control method of multicopter using only Web camera is proposed. Recently, various control method of an autonomous flight for multicopter are proposed. But, in the previous proposed methods, a motion capture system (i. e., OptiTrack) and laser range finder are often used to measure the position and posture of multicopter. To achieve an autonomous flight control of multicopter with simple equipments, we propose an autonomous flight control method using AR marker and Web camera. AR marker can measure the position of multicopter with Cartesian coordinate in three dimensional, then its position connects with aileron, elevator, and accelerator throttle operation. A simple PID control method is applied to the each operation and adjust the controller gains. Experimental results are given to show the effectiveness of our proposed method. Moreover, another simple operation method for autonomous flight control multicopter is also proposed.

Keywords: Autonomous hovering control, multicopter, Web camera.

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8 Influence of Differences of Heat Insulation Methods on Thermal Comfort of Apartment Buildings

Authors: Hikaru Sato, Hiroatsu Fukuda, Yupeng Wang

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to analyze influence of differences of heat insulation methods on indoor thermal environment and comfort of apartment buildings. This study analyzes indoor thermal environment and comfort on units of apartment buildings using calculation software "THERB" and compares three different kinds of heat insulation methods. Those are outside insulation on outside walls, inside insulation on outside walls and interior insulation. In terms of indoor thermal environment, outside insulation is the best to stabilize room temperature. In winter, room temperature on outside insulation after heating is higher than other and it is kept 3-5 degrees higher through all night. But the surface temperature with outside insulation did not dramatically increase when heating was used, which was 3 to 5oC lower than the temperature with other insulation. The PMV of interior insulation fall nearly range of comfort when the heating and cooling was use.

Keywords: Apartment Building, Indoor Thermal Environment, Insulation, PMV

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7 Development of Underactuated Robot Hand Using Cross Section Deformation Spring

Authors: Naoki Saito, Daisuke Kon, Toshiyuki Sato

Abstract:

This paper describes an underactuated robot hand operated by low-power actuators. It can grasp objects of various shapes using easy operations. This hand is suitable for use as a lightweight prosthetic hand that can grasp various objects using few input channels. To realize operations using a low-power actuator, a cross section deformation spring is proposed. The design procedure of the underactuated robot finger is proposed to realize an adaptive grasping movement. The validity of this mechanism and design procedure are confirmed through an object grasping experiment. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of across section deformation spring in reducing the actuator power. Moreover, adaptive grasping movement is realized by an easy operation.

Keywords: Robot hand, Underactuated mechanism, Cross section deformation spring, Prosthetic hand.

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6 Influence of Initial Surface Roughness on Severe Wear Volume for SUS304 Austenitic Stainless Steels

Authors: A. Kawamura, K. Ishida, K. Okada, T. Sato

Abstract:

Simultaneous measurements of the curves for wear versus distance, wear rate versus distance, and coefficient of friction versus distance were performed in situ to distinguish the transition from severe running-in wear to mild wear. The effects of the initial surface roughness on the severe running-in wear volume were investigated. Disk-on-plate friction and wear tests were carried out with SUS304 austenitic stainless steel in contact with itself under repeated dry sliding conditions at room temperature. The wear volume was dependent on the initial surface roughness. The wear volume when the initial surfaces on the plate and disk had dissimilar roughness was lower than that when these surfaces had similar roughness. For the dissimilar roughness, the wear volume decreased with decreasing initial surface roughness and reached a minimum; it stayed nearly constant as the roughness was less than the mean size of the oxide particles.

Keywords: Austenitic stainless steel, initial surface roughness, running-in, severe wear.

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5 A New Traffic Pattern Matching for DDoS Traceback Using Independent Component Analysis

Authors: Yuji Waizumi, Tohru Sato, Yoshiaki Nemoto

Abstract:

Recently, Denial of Service(DoS) attacks and Distributed DoS(DDoS) attacks which are stronger form of DoS attacks from plural hosts have become security threats on the Internet. It is important to identify the attack source and to block attack traffic as one of the measures against these attacks. In general, it is difficult to identify them because information about the attack source is falsified. Therefore a method of identifying the attack source by tracing the route of the attack traffic is necessary. A traceback method which uses traffic patterns, using changes in the number of packets over time as criteria for the attack traceback has been proposed. The traceback method using the traffic patterns can trace the attack by matching the shapes of input traffic patterns and the shape of output traffic pattern observed at a network branch point such as a router. The traffic pattern is a shapes of traffic and unfalsifiable information. The proposed trace methods proposed till date cannot obtain enough tracing accuracy, because they directly use traffic patterns which are influenced by non-attack traffics. In this paper, a new traffic pattern matching method using Independent Component Analysis(ICA) is proposed.

Keywords: Distributed Denial of Service, Independent Component Analysis, Traffic pattern

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4 Mechanical Behavior of Deep-Drawn Cups with Aluminum/Duralumin Multi-Layered Clad Structures

Authors: Hideaki Tsukamoto, Yoshiki Komiya, Hisashi Sato, Yoshimi Watanabe

Abstract:

This study aims to investigate mechanical behavior of deep-drawn cups consisting of aluminum (A1050)/ duralumin (A2017) multi-layered clad structures with micro- and macro-scale functional gradients. Such multi-layered clad structures are possibly used for a new type of crash-boxes in automobiles to effectively absorb the impact forces generated when automobiles having collisions. The effect of heat treatments on microstructure, compositional gradient, micro hardness in 2 and 6-layered aluminum/ duralumin clad structures, which were fabricated by hot rolling, have been investigated. Impact compressive behavior of deep-drawn cups consisting of such aluminum/ duralumin clad structures has been also investigated in terms of energy absorption and maximum force. Deep-drawn cups consisting of 6-layerd clad structures with microand macro-scale functional gradients exhibit superior properties in impact compressive tests.

Keywords: Crash box, functionally graded material (FGM), Impact compressive property, Multi-layered clad structure.

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3 Simulation Study on the Indoor Thermal Comfort with Insulation on Interior Structural Components of Super High-Rise Residences

Authors: Y. Wang, H. Fukuda, A. Ozaki, H. Sato

Abstract:

In this study, we discussed the effects on the thermal comfort of super high-rise residences that how effected by the high thermal capacity structural components. We considered different building orientations, structures, and insulation methods. We used the dynamic simulation software THERB (simulation of the thermal environment of residential buildings). It can estimate the temperature, humidity, sensible temperature, and heating/cooling load for multiple buildings. In the past studies, we examined the impact of air-conditioning loads (hereinafter referred to as AC loads) on the interior structural parts and the AC-usage patterns of super-high-rise residences. Super-high-rise residences have more structural components such as pillars and beams than do ordinary apartment buildings. The skeleton is generally made of concrete and steel, which have high thermal-storage capacities. The thermal-storage capacity of super-high-rise residences is considered to have a larger impact on the AC load and thermal comfort than that of ordinary residences. We show that the AC load of super-high-rise units would be reduced by installing insulation on the surfaces of interior walls that are not usually insulated in Japan.

Keywords: High-rise Residences, AC Load, Thermal Comfort, Thermal Storage, Insulation Patterns

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2 Bus Transit Demand Modeling and Fare Structure Analysis of Kabul City

Authors: Ramin Mirzada, Takuya Maruyama

Abstract:

Kabul is the heart of political, commercial, cultural, educational and social life in Afghanistan and the fifth fastest growing city in the world. Minimum income inclined most of Kabul residents to use public transport, especially buses, although there is no proper bus system, beside that there is no proper fare exist in Kabul city Due to wars. From 1992 to 2001 during civil wars, Kabul suffered damage and destruction of its transportation facilities including pavements, sidewalks, traffic circles, drainage systems, traffic signs and signals, trolleybuses and almost all of the public transport system (e.g. Millie bus). This research is mainly focused on Kabul city’s transportation system. In this research, the data used have been gathered by Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) in 2008 and this data will be used to find demand and fare structure, additionally a survey was done in 2016 to find satisfaction level of Kabul residents for fare structure. Aim of this research is to observe the demand for Large Buses, compare to the actual supply from the government, analyze the current fare structure and compare it with the proposed fare (distance based fare) structure which has already been analyzed. Outcome of this research shows that the demand of Kabul city residents for the public transport (Large Buses) exceeds from the current supply, so that current public transportation (Large Buses) is not sufficient to serve public transport in Kabul city, worth to be mentioned, that in order to overcome this problem, there is no need to build new roads or exclusive way for buses. This research proposes government to change the fare from fixed fare to distance based fare, invest on public transportation and increase the number of large buses so that the current demand for public transport is met.

Keywords: Transportation, planning, public transport, large buses, fixed fare, distance based fare, Kabul, Afghanistan.

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1 Effect of Pole Weight on Nordic Walking

Authors: Takeshi Sato, Mizuki Nakajima, Macky Kato, Shoji Igawa

Abstract:

The purpose of study was to investigate the effect of varying pole weights on energy expenditure, upper limb and lower limb muscle activity as Electromyogram during Nordic walking (NW). Four healthy men [age = 22.5 (±1.0) years, body mass = 61.4 (±3.6) kg, height = 170.3 (±4.3) cm] and three healthy women [age = 22.7 (±2.9) years, body mass = 53.0 (±1.7) kg, height = 156.7 (±4.5) cm] participated in the experiments after informed consent. Seven healthy subjects were tested on the treadmill, walking, walking (W) with Nordic Poles (NW) and walking with 1kg weight Nordic Poles (NW+1). Walking speed was 6 km per hours in all trials. Eight EMG activities were recorded by bipolar surface methods in biceps brachii, triceps brachii, trapezius, deltoideus, tibialis anterior, medial gastrocnemius, rectus femoris and biceps femoris muscles. And heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (VO2), and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured. The level of significance was set at a = 0.05, with p < 0.05 regarded as statistically significant. Our results confirmed that use of NW poles increased HR at a given upper arm muscle activity but decreased lower limb EMGs in comparison with W. Moreover NW was able to increase more step lengths with hip joint extension during NW rather than W. Also, EMG revealed higher activation of upper limb for almost all NW and 1kgNW tests plus added masses compared to W (p < 0.05). Therefore, it was thought either of NW and 1kgNW were to have benefit as a physical exercise for safe, feasible, and readily training for a wide range of aged people in the quality of daily life. However, there was no significant effected in leg muscles activity by using 1kgNW except for upper arm muscle activity during Nordic pole walking.

Keywords: Nordic walking, electromyogram, heart rate.

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