Search results for: air temperature
6390 Effect of Microstructure on Transition Temperature of Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI)
Authors: A. Ozel
Abstract:The ductile to brittle transition temperature is a very important criterion that is used for selection of materials in some applications, especially in low-temperature conditions. For that reason, in this study transition temperature of as-cast and austempered unalloyed ductile iron in the temperature interval from -60 to +100 degrees C have been investigated. The microstructures of samples were examined by light microscope. The impact energy values obtained from the experiments were found to depend on the austempering time and temperature.
Keywords: Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI), Charpy test, microstructure, transition temperatureProcedia PDF Downloads 423
6389 Temperature Profile Modelling in Flexible Pavement Design
Authors: Csaba Tóth, Éva Lakatos, László Pethő, Seoyoung Cho
Abstract:The temperature effect on asphalt pavement structure is a crucial factor at the design stage. In this paper, by applying the German guidelines for temperature along the asphalt depth is estimated. The aim is to consider temperature profiles in different seasons in numerical modelling. The model is built with an elastic and isotropic solid element with 19 subdivisions of asphalt layers to reflect the temperature variation. Comparison with the simple three-layer pavement system (asphalt layers, base, and subgrade layers) will be followed to see the difference in result without temperature variation along with the depth. Finally, the fatigue life calculation was checked to prove the validity of the methodology of considering the temperature in the numerical modelling.
Keywords: temperature profile, flexible pavement modeling, finite element method, temperature modelingProcedia PDF Downloads 89
6388 An Investigation on Hot-Spot Temperature Calculation Methods of Power Transformers
Authors: Ahmet Y. Arabul, Ibrahim Senol, Fatma Keskin Arabul, Mustafa G. Aydeniz, Yasemin Oner, Gokhan Kalkan
Abstract:In the standards of IEC 60076-2 and IEC 60076-7, three different hot-spot temperature estimation methods are suggested. In this study, the algorithms which used in hot-spot temperature calculations are analyzed by comparing the algorithms with the results of an experimental set-up made by a Transformer Monitoring System (TMS) in use. In tested system, TMS uses only top oil temperature and load ratio for hot-spot temperature calculation. And also, it uses some constants from standards which are on agreed statements tables. During the tests, it came out that hot-spot temperature calculation method is just making a simple calculation and not uses significant all other variables that could affect the hot-spot temperature.
Keywords: Hot-spot temperature, monitoring system, power transformer, smart gridProcedia PDF Downloads 486
6387 Temperature Distribution Control for Baby Incubator System Using Arduino AT Mega 2560
Authors: W. Widhiada, D. N. K. P. Negara, P. A. Suryawan
Abstract:The technological advances in the field of health to be very important, especially on the safety of the baby. In this case a lot of premature infants death caused by poorly managed health facilities. Mostly the death of premature baby caused by bacteria since the temperature around the baby is not normal. Related to this, the incubator equipment needs to be important, especially in how to control the temperature in incubator. On/Off controls is used to regulate the temperature distribution in the incubator so that the desired temperature is 36 °C to stay awake and stable. The authors have been observed and analyzed the data to determine the temperature distribution in the incubator using program of MATLAB/Simulink. The output temperature distribution is obtained at 36 °C in 400 seconds using an Arduino AT 2560. This incubator is able to maintain an ambient temperature and maintain the baby's body temperature within normal limits and keep the moisture in the air in accordance with the limit values required in infant incubator.
Keywords: on/off control, distribution temperature, Arduino AT 2560, baby incubatorProcedia PDF Downloads 384
6386 Childhood Respiratory Diseases Related to Indoor and Outdoor Air Temperature in Shanghai, China
Authors: Chanjuan Sun, Shijie Hong, Jialing Zhang, Yuchao Guo, Zhijun Zou, Chen Huang
Abstract:Background: Studies on associations between air temperature and childhood respiratory diseases are lack in China. Objectives: We aim to analyze the relationship between air temperature and childhood respiratory diseases. Methods: We conducted the on-site inspection into 454 residences and questionnaires survey. Indoor air temperature were from field inspection and outdoor air temperature were from website. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the associations. Results: Indoor extreme hot air temperature was positively correlated with duration of a common cold (>=2 weeks), and outdoor extreme hot air temperature was also positively related with pneumonia among children. Indoor and outdoor extreme cold air temperature was a risk factor for rhinitis among children. The biggest indoor air temperature difference (indoor maximum air temperature minus indoor minimum air temperature) (Imax minus Imin) (the 4th quartile, >4 oC) and outdoor air temperature difference (outdoor maximum air temperature minus outdoor minimum air temperature) (Omax minus Omin) (the 4th quartile, >8oC) were positively related to pneumonia among children. Meanwhile, indoor air temperature difference (Imax minus Imin) (the 4th quartile, >4 oC) was positively correlated with diagnosed asthma among children. Air temperature difference between indoor and outdoor was negatively related with the most childhood respiratory diseases. This may be partly related to the avoidance behavior. Conclusions: Improper air temperature may affect the respiratory diseases among children.
Keywords: air temperature, extreme air temperature, air temperature difference, respiratory diseases, childrenProcedia PDF Downloads 92
6385 Comparison between FEM Simulation and Experiment of Temperature Rise in Power Transformer Inner Steel Plate
Authors: Byung hyun Bae
Abstract:In power transformer, leakage magnetic flux generate temperature rise of inner steel plate. Sometimes, this temperature rise can be serious problem. If temperature of steel plate is over critical point, harmful gas will be generated in the tank. And this gas can be a reason of fire, explosion and life decrease. So, temperature rise forecasting of steel plate is very important at the design stage of power transformer. To improve accuracy of forecasting of temperature rise, comparison between simulation and experiment achieved in this paper.
Keywords: power transformer, steel plate, temperature rise, experiment, simulationProcedia PDF Downloads 403
6384 A Statistical Analysis on Relationship between Temperature Variations with Latitude and Altitude regarding Total Amount of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide in Iran
Authors: Masoumeh Moghbel
Abstract:Nowadays, carbon dioxide which is produced by human activities is considered as the main effective factor in the global warming occurrence. Regarding to the role of CO2 and its ability in trapping the heat, the main objective of this research is study the effect of atmospheric CO2 (which is recorded in Manaloa) on variations of temperature parameters (daily mean temperature, minimum temperature and maximum temperature) in 5 meteorological stations in Iran which were selected according to the latitude and altitude in 40 years statistical period. Firstly, the trend of temperature parameters was studied by Regression and none-graphical Man-Kendal methods. Then, relation between temperature variations and CO2 were studied by Correlation technique. Also, the impact of CO2 amount on temperature in different atmospheric levels (850 and 500 hpa) was analyzed. The results illustrated that correlation coefficient between temperature variations and CO2 in low latitudes and high altitudes is more significant rather than other regions. it is important to note that altitude as the one of the main geographic factor has limitation in affecting the temperature variations, so that correlation coefficient between these two parameters in 850 hpa (r=0.86) is more significant than 500 hpa (r = 0.62).
Keywords: altitude, atmospheric carbon dioxide, latitude, temperature variationsProcedia PDF Downloads 343
6383 Influence of Temperature on Properties of MOSFETs
Authors: Azizi Cherifa, O. Benzaoui
Abstract:The thermal aspects in the design of power circuits often deserve as much attention as pure electric components aspects as the operating temperature has a direct influence on their static and dynamic characteristics. MOSFET is fundamental in the circuits, it is the most widely used device in the current production of semiconductor components using their honorable performance. The aim of this contribution is devoted to the effect of the temperature on the properties of MOSFETs. The study enables us to calculate the drain current as function of bias in both linear and saturated modes. The effect of temperature is evaluated using a numerical simulation, using the laws of mobility and saturation velocity of carriers as a function of temperature.
Keywords: temperature, MOSFET, mobility, transistorProcedia PDF Downloads 267
6382 Evaluation of Mechanical Behavior of Gas Turbine Blade at High Temperature
Authors: Sung-Uk Wee, Chang-Sung Seok, Jae-Mean Koo, Jeong-Min Lee
Abstract:Gas turbine blade is important part of power plant, so it is necessary to evaluate gas turbine reliability. For better heat efficiency, inlet temperature of gas turbine has been elevated more and more so gas turbine blade is exposed to high-temperature environment. Then, higher inlet temperature affects mechanical behavior of the gas turbine blade, so it is necessary that evaluation of mechanical property of gas turbine blade at high-temperature environment. In this study, tensile test and fatigue test were performed at various high temperature, and fatigue life was predicted by Coffin-Manson equation at each temperature. The experimental results showed that gas turbine blade has a lower elastic modulus and shorter fatigue life at higher temperature.
Keywords: gas turbine blade, tensile test, fatigue life, stress-strainProcedia PDF Downloads 389
6381 Centrifuge Testing to Determine the Effect of Temperature on the Adhesion Strength of Ice
Authors: Zaid A. Janjua, Barbara Turnbull, Kwing-So Choi
Abstract:The adhesion of glaze ice on power infrastructure, ships and aerofoils cause monetary and structural damage. Here we investigate the influence of temperature as an important parameter affecting adhesion strength of ice. Two terms are defined to investigate this: 'freezing temperature', the temperature at which glaze ice forms; and 'ambient temperature', the temperature of the surrounding during the test. Using three metal surfaces, the adhesion strength of ice has been calculated as a value of shear stress at the point of detachment on a spinning centrifuge. Findings show that the ambient temperature has a greater influence than the freezing temperature on the adhesion strength of ice. This is because there exists an amorphous liquid-like layer at the ice-surface interface, whose bond with the surface increases in strength at lower ambient temperatures when the substrate conducts heat much faster than the ice and acts as a heat sink. The results will help us to measure the actual adhesion strength of ice to metal surfaces based on data from weather monitoring devices. Future tests envisaged focus on thermally non-conducting substrates and their influence on adhesion strength.
Keywords: ice adhesion, centrifuge, glaze ice, freezing temperature, ambient temperatureProcedia PDF Downloads 247
6380 A Method for Calculating Dew Point Temperature in the Humidity Test
Authors: Wu Sa, Zhang Qian, Li Qi, Wang Ye
Abstract:Currently in humidity tests having not put the Dew point temperature as a control parameter, this paper selects wet and dry bulb thermometer to measure the vapor pressure, and introduces several the saturation vapor pressure formulas easily calculated on the controller. Then establish the Dew point temperature calculation model to obtain the relationship between the Dew point temperature and vapor pressure. Finally check through the 100 groups of sample in the range of 0-100 ℃ from "Psychrometric handbook", find that the average error is small. This formula can be applied to calculate the Dew point temperature in the humidity test.
Keywords: dew point temperature, psychrometric handbook, saturation vapor pressure, wet and dry bulb thermometerProcedia PDF Downloads 335
6379 Vortex Separator for More Accurate Air Dry-Bulb Temperature Measurement
Authors: Ahmed N. Shmroukh, I. M. S. Taha, A. M. Abdel-Ghany, M. Attalla
Abstract:Fog systems application for cooling and humidification is still limited, although these systems require less initial cost compared with that of other cooling systems such as pad-and-fan systems. The undesirable relative humidity and air temperature inside the space which have been cooled or humidified are the main reasons for its limited use, which results from the poor control of fog systems. Any accurate control system essentially needs air dry bulb temperature as an input parameter. Therefore, the air dry-bulb temperature in the space needs to be measured accurately. The Scope of the present work is the separation of the fog droplets from the air in a fogged space to measure the air dry bulb temperature accurately. The separation is to be done in a small device inside which the sensor of the temperature measuring instrument is positioned. Vortex separator will be designed and used. Another reference device will be used for measuring the air temperature without separation. A comparative study will be performed to reach at the best device which leads to the most accurate measurement of air dry bulb temperature. The results showed that the proposed devices improved the measured air dry bulb temperature toward the correct direction over that of the free junction. Vortex device was the best. It respectively increased the temperature measured by the free junction in the range from around 2 to around 6°C for different fog on-off duration.
Keywords: fog systems, measuring air dry bulb temperature, temperature measurement, vortex separatorProcedia PDF Downloads 202
6378 Comparison of Mean Monthly Soil Temperature at (5 and 30 cm) Depths at Compton Experimental Site, West Midlands (UK), between 1976-2008
Authors: Aminu Mansur
Abstract:A comparison of soil temperature at (5 and 30 cm) depths at a research site over the period (1976-2008) was analyzed. Based on the statistical analysis of the database of (12,045) days of individual soil temperature measurements in sandy-loam of the (salwick series) soils, the mean soil temperature revealed a statistically significant increase of about -1.1 to 10.9°C at 5 cm depth in 1976 compared to 2008. Similarly, soil temperature at 30 cm depth increased by -0.1 to 2.1°C in 2008 compared to 1976. Although, rapid increase in soil temperature at all depths was observed during that period, but a thorough assessment of these conditions suggested that the soil temperature at 5 cm depth are progressively increasing over time. A typical example of those increases in soil temperature was provided for agriculture where Miscanthus (elephant) plant that grows within the study area is adversely affected by the mean soil temperature increase. The study concluded that these observations contribute to the growing mass of evidence of global warming and knowledge on secular trends. Therefore, there was statistically significant increase in soil temperature at Compton Experimental Site between 1976-2008.
Keywords: soil temperature, warming trend, environment science, climate and atmospheric sciencesProcedia PDF Downloads 227
6377 Oil Recovery Study by Low Temperature Carbon Dioxide Injection in High-Pressure High-Temperature Micromodels
Authors: Zakaria Hamdi, Mariyamni Awang
Abstract:For the past decades, CO2 flooding has been used as a successful method for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). However, high mobility ratio and fingering effect are considered as important drawbacka of this process. Low temperature injection of CO2 into high temperature reservoirs may improve the oil recovery, but simulating multiphase flow in the non-isothermal medium is difficult, and commercial simulators are very unstable in these conditions. Furthermore, to best of authors’ knowledge, no experimental work was done to verify the results of the simulations and to understand the pore-scale process. In this paper, we present results of investigations on injection of low temperature CO2 into a high-pressure high-temperature micromodel with injection temperature range from 34 to 75 °F. Effect of temperature and saturation changes of different fluids are measured in each case. The results prove the proposed method. The injection of CO2 at low temperatures increased the oil recovery in high temperature reservoirs significantly. Also, CO2 rich phases available in the high temperature system can affect the oil recovery through the better sweep of the oil which is initially caused by penetration of LCO2 inside the system. Furthermore, no unfavorable effect was detected using this method. Low temperature CO2 is proposed to be used as early as secondary recovery.
Keywords: enhanced oil recovery, CO₂ flooding, micromodel studies, miscible floodingProcedia PDF Downloads 265
6376 Study on the Heat Transfer Performance of the Annular Fin under Condensing Conditions
Authors: Abdenour Bourabaa, Malika Fekih, Mohamed Saighi
Abstract:A numerical investigation of the fin efficiency and temperature distribution of an annular fin under dehumidification has been presented in this paper. The non-homogeneous second order differential equation that describes the temperature distribution from the fin base to the fin tip has been solved using the central finite difference method. The effects of variations in parameters including relative humidity, air temperature, air face velocity on temperature distribution and fin efficiency are investigated and compared with those under fully dry fin conditions. Also, the effect of fin pitch on the dimensionless temperature has been studied.
Keywords: annular fin, dehumidification, fin efficiency, heat and mass transfer, wet finProcedia PDF Downloads 413
6375 Simulation of Uniaxial Ratcheting Behaviors of SA508-3 Steel at Elevated Temperature
Authors: Jun Tian, Yu Yang, Liping Zhang, Qianhua Kan
Abstract:Experimental results show that SA 508-3 steel exhibits temperature dependent cyclic softening characteristic and obvious ratcheting behaviors, and dynamic strain age was observed at temperature range of 200 ºC to 350 ºC. Based on these observations, a temperature dependent cyclic plastic constitutive model was proposed by introducing the nonlinear cyclic softening and kinematic hardening rules, and the dynamic strain age was also considered into the constitutive model. Comparisons between experiments and simulations were carried out to validate the proposed model at elevated temperature.
Keywords: constitutive model, elevated temperature, ratcheting, SA 508-3Procedia PDF Downloads 234
6374 Influence and Interaction of Temperature, H2S and pH on Concrete Sewer Pipe Corrosion
Authors: Anna Romanova, Mojtaba Mahmoodian, Morteza A. Alani
Abstract:Concrete sewer pipes are known to suffer from a process of hydrogen sulfide gas induced sulfuric acid corrosion. This leads to premature pipe degradation, performance failure and collapses which in turn may lead to property and health damage. The above work reports on a field study undertaken in working sewer manholes where the parameters of effluent temperature and pH as well as ambient temperature and concentration of hydrogen sulfide were continuously measured over a period of two months. Early results suggest that effluent pH has no direct effect on hydrogen sulfide build up; on average the effluent temperature is 3.5°C greater than the ambient temperature inside the manhole and also it was observed that hydrogen sulfate concentration increases with increasing temperature.
Keywords: concrete corrosion, hydrogen sulfide gas, temperature, sewer pipeProcedia PDF Downloads 501
6373 A Second Law Assessment of Organic Rankine Cycle Depending on Source Temperature
Authors: Kyoung Hoon Kim
Abstract:Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) has potential in reducing fossil fuels and relaxing environmental problems. In this work performance analysis of ORC is conducted based on the second law of thermodynamics for recovery of low temperature heat source from 100°C to 140°C using R134a as the working fluid. Effects of system parameters such as turbine inlet pressure or source temperature are theoretically investigated on the exergy destructions (anergies) at various components of the system as well as net work production or exergy efficiency. Results show that the net work or exergy efficiency has a peak with respect to the turbine inlet pressure when the source temperature is low, however, increases monotonically with increasing turbine inlet pressure when the source temperature is high.
Keywords: Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC), low temperature heat source, exergy, source temperatureProcedia PDF Downloads 367
6372 Movement of Metallic Inclusions in the Volume of Synthetic Diamonds at High Pressure and High Temperature in the Temperature Gradient Field
Authors: P. I. Yachevskaya, S. A. Terentiev, M. S. Kuznetsov
Abstract:Several synthetic HPHT diamonds with metal inclusions have been studied. To have possibility of investigate the movement and transformation of the inclusions in the volume of the diamond the samples parallele-piped like shape has been made out of diamond crystals. The calculated value of temperature gradient in the samples of diamond which was placed in high-pressure cell was about 5-10 grad/mm. Duration of the experiments was in range 2-16 hours. All samples were treated several times. It has been found that the volume (dimensions) of inclusions, temperature, temperature gradient and the crystallographic orientation of the samples in the temperature field affects the movement speed of inclusions. Maximum speed of inclusions’ movement reached a value 150 µm/h.
Keywords: diamond, inclusions, temperature gradient, HPHTProcedia PDF Downloads 349
6371 Effect of Process Parameters on Tensile Strength of Aluminum Alloy ADC 10 Produced through Ceramic Shell Investment Casting
Authors: Balwinder Singh
Abstract:Castings are produced by using aluminum alloy ADC 10 through the process of Ceramic Shell Investment Casting. Experiments are conducted as per the Taguchi L9 orthogonal array. In order to evaluate the effect of process parameters such as mould preheat temperature, preheat time, firing temperature and pouring temperature on surface roughness of ceramic shell investment castings, the Taguchi parameter design and optimization approach is used. Plots of means of significant factors and S/N ratios have been used to determine the best relationship between the responses and model parameters. It is found that the pouring temperature is the most significant factor. The best tensile strength of aluminum alloy ADC 10 is given by 150 ºC shell preheat temperature, 45 minutes preheat time, 900 ºC firing temperature, 650 ºC pouring temperature.
Keywords: investment casting, shell preheat temperature, firing temperature, Taguchi methodProcedia PDF Downloads 111
6370 The Influence of Air Temperature Controls in Estimation of Air Temperature over Homogeneous Terrain
Authors: Fariza Yunus, Jasmee Jaafar, Zamalia Mahmud, Nurul Nisa’ Khairul Azmi, Nursalleh K. Chang, Nursalleh K. Chang
Abstract:Variation of air temperature from one place to another is cause by air temperature controls. In general, the most important control of air temperature is elevation. Another significant independent variable in estimating air temperature is the location of meteorological stations. Distances to coastline and land use type are also contributed to significant variations in the air temperature. On the other hand, in homogeneous terrain direct interpolation of discrete points of air temperature work well to estimate air temperature values in un-sampled area. In this process the estimation is solely based on discrete points of air temperature. However, this study presents that air temperature controls also play significant roles in estimating air temperature over homogenous terrain of Peninsular Malaysia. An Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) interpolation technique was adopted to generate continuous data of air temperature. This study compared two different datasets, observed mean monthly data of T, and estimation error of T–T’, where T’ estimated value from a multiple regression model. The multiple regression model considered eight independent variables of elevation, latitude, longitude, coastline, and four land use types of water bodies, forest, agriculture and build up areas, to represent the role of air temperature controls. Cross validation analysis was conducted to review accuracy of the estimation values. Final results show, estimation values of T–T’ produced lower errors for mean monthly mean air temperature over homogeneous terrain in Peninsular Malaysia.
Keywords: air temperature control, interpolation analysis, peninsular Malaysia, regression model, air temperatureProcedia PDF Downloads 304
6369 Microstructure and High Temperature Deformation Behavior of Cast 310S Alloy
Authors: Jung-Ho Moon, Myung-Gon Yoon, Tae Kwon Ha
Abstract:High temperature deformation behavior of cast 310S stainless steel has been investigated in this study by performing tensile and compression tests at temperatures from 900 to 1200°C. Rectangular ingots of which the dimensions were 350×350×100 in millimeter were cast using vacuum induction melting. Phase equilibrium was calculated using the FactSage®, thermodynamic software and database. Thermal expansion coefficient was also measured on the ingot in the temperature range from room temperature to 1200°C. Tensile strength of cast 310S stainless steel was 9 MPa at 1200°C, which is a little higher than that of a wrought 310S. With temperature decreased, tensile strength increased rapidly and reached up to 72 MPa at 900°C. Elongation also increased with temperature decreased. Microstructure observation revealed that σ phase was precipitated along the grain boundary and within the matrix over 1200°C, which is detrimental to high temperature elongation.
Keywords: stainless steel, STS 310S, high temperature deformation, microstructure, mechanical propertiesProcedia PDF Downloads 250
6368 Parametric Analysis of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Using Lattice Boltzmann Method
Authors: Abir Yahya, Hacen Dhahri, Khalifa Slimi
Abstract:The present paper deals with a numerical simulation of temperature field inside a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) components. The temperature distribution is investigated using a co-flow planar SOFC comprising the air and fuel channel and two-ceramic electrodes, anode and cathode, separated by a dense ceramic electrolyte. The Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is used for the numerical simulation of the physical problem. The effects of inlet temperature, anode thermal conductivity and current density on temperature distribution are discussed. It was found that temperature distribution is very sensitive to the inlet temperature and the current density.
Keywords: heat sources, Lattice Boltzmann method, solid oxide fuel cell, temperatureProcedia PDF Downloads 241
6367 Comparative Study of the Earth Land Surface Temperature Signatures over Ota, South-West Nigeria
Authors: Moses E. Emetere, M. L. Akinyemi
Abstract:Agricultural activities in the South–West Nigeria are mitigated by the global increase in temperature. The unpredictive surface temperature of the area had increased health challenges amongst other social influence. The satellite data of surface temperatures were compared with the ground station Davis weather station. The differential heating of the lower atmosphere were represented mathematically. A numerical predictive model was propounded to forecast future surface temperature.
Keywords: numerical predictive model, surface temperature, satellite date, ground dataProcedia PDF Downloads 400
6366 Controlling of Water Temperature during the Electrocoagulation Process Using an Innovative Flow Columns -Electrocoagulation Reactor
Authors: Khalid S. Hashim, Andy Shaw, Rafid Alkhaddar, Montserrat Ortoneda Pedrola
Abstract:A flow column has been innovatively used in the design of a new electrocoagulation reactor (ECR1) that will reduce the temperature of water being treated; where the flow columns work as a radiator for the water being treated. In order to investigate the performance of ECR1 and compare it to that of traditional reactors; 600 mL water samples with an initial temperature of 35 0C were pumped continuously through these reactors for 30 min at current density of 1 mA/cm2. The temperature of water being treated was measured at 5 minutes intervals over a 30 minutes period using a thermometer. Additional experiments were commenced to investigate the effects of initial temperature (15-35 0C), water conductivity (0.15 – 1.2 S) and current density (0.5 -3 mA/cm2) on the performance of ECR1. The results obtained demonstrated that the ECR1, at a current density of 1 mA/cm2 and continuous flow model, reduced water temperature from 35 0C to the vicinity of 28 0C during the first 15 minutes and kept the same level till the end of the treatment time. While, the temperature increased from 28.1 to 29.8 0C and from 29.8 to 31.9 0C in the batch and the traditional continuous flow models respectively. In term of initial temperature, ECR1 maintained the temperature of water being treated within the range of 22 to 28 0C without the need for external cooling system even when the initial temperatures varied over a wide range (15 to 35 0C). The influent water conductivity was found to be a significant variable that affect the temperature. The desirable value of water conductivity is 0.6 S. However, it was found that the water temperature increased rapidly with a higher current density.
Keywords: water temperature, flow column, electrocoagulationProcedia PDF Downloads 312
6365 A Numerical Investigation of Total Temperature Probes Measurement Performance
Authors: Erdem Meriç
Abstract:Measuring total temperature of air flow accurately is a very important requirement in the development phases of many industrial products, including gas turbines and rockets. Thermocouples are very practical devices to measure temperature in such cases, but in high speed and high temperature flows, the temperature of thermocouple junction may deviate considerably from real flow total temperature due to the effects of heat transfer mechanisms of convection, conduction, and radiation. To avoid errors in total temperature measurement, special probe designs which are experimentally characterized are used. In this study, a validation case which is an experimental characterization of a specific class of total temperature probes is selected from the literature to develop a numerical conjugate heat transfer analysis methodology to study the total temperature probe flow field and solid temperature distribution. Validated conjugate heat transfer methodology is used to investigate flow structures inside and around the probe and effects of probe design parameters like the ratio between inlet and outlet hole areas and prob tip geometry on measurement accuracy. Lastly, a thermal model is constructed to account for errors in total temperature measurement for a specific class of probes in different operating conditions. Outcomes of this work can guide experimentalists to design a very accurate total temperature probe and quantify the possible error for their specific case.
Keywords: conjugate heat transfer, recovery factor, thermocouples, total temperature probesProcedia PDF Downloads 34
6364 Effect of Different Factors on Temperature Profile and Performance of an Air Bubbling Fluidized Bed Gasifier for Rice Husk Gasification
Authors: Dharminder Singh, Sanjeev Yadav, Pravakar Mohanty
Abstract:In this work, study of temperature profile in a pilot scale air bubbling fluidized bed (ABFB) gasifier for rice husk gasification was carried out. Effects of different factors such as multiple cyclones, gas cooling system, ventilate gas pipe length, and catalyst on temperature profile was examined. ABFB gasifier used in this study had two sections, one is bed section and the other is freeboard section. River sand was used as bed material with air as gasification agent, and conventional charcoal as start-up heating medium in this gasifier. Temperature of different point in both sections of ABFB gasifier was recorded at different ER value and ER value was changed by changing the feed rate of biomass (rice husk) and by keeping the air flow rate constant for long durational of gasifier operation. ABFB with double cyclone with gas coolant system and with short length ventilate gas pipe was found out to be optimal gasifier design to give temperature profile required for high gasification performance in long duration operation. This optimal design was tested with different ER values and it was found that ER of 0.33 was most favourable for long duration operation (8 hr continuous operation), giving highest carbon conversion efficiency. At optimal ER of 0.33, bed temperature was found to be stable at 700 °C, above bed temperature was found to be at 628.63 °C, bottom of freeboard temperature was found to be at 600 °C, top of freeboard temperature was found to be at 517.5 °C, gas temperature was found to be at 195 °C, and flame temperature was found to be 676 °C. Temperature at all the points showed fluctuations of 10 – 20 °C. Effect of catalyst i.e. dolomite (20% with sand bed) was also examined on temperature profile, and it was found that at optimal ER of 0.33, the bed temperature got increased to 795 °C, above bed temperature got decreased to 523 °C, bottom of freeboard temperature got decreased to 548 °C, top of freeboard got decreased to 475 °C, gas temperature got decreased to 220 °C, and flame temperature got increased to 703 °C. Increase in bed temperature leads to higher flame temperature due to presence of more hydrocarbons generated from more tar cracking at higher temperature. It was also found that the use of dolomite with sand bed eliminated the agglomeration in the reactor at such high bed temperature (795 °C).
Keywords: air bubbling fluidized bed gasifier, bed temperature, charcoal heating, dolomite, flame temperature, rice huskProcedia PDF Downloads 210
6363 Effect of Current Density, Temperature and Pressure on Proton Exchange Membrane Electrolyser Stack
Authors: Na Li, Samuel Simon Araya, Søren Knudsen Kær
Abstract:This study investigates the effects of operating parameters of different current density, temperature and pressure on the performance of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolysis stack. A 7-cell PEM water electrolysis stack was assembled and tested under different operation modules. The voltage change and polarization curves under different test conditions, namely current density, temperature and pressure, were recorded. Results show that higher temperature has positive effect on overall stack performance, where temperature of 80 ℃ improved the cell performance greatly. However, the cathode pressure and current density has little effect on stack performance.
Keywords: PEM electrolysis stack, current density, temperature, pressureProcedia PDF Downloads 105
6362 Fire Resistance Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Member Strengthened by Fiber Reinforced Polymer
Authors: Soo-Yeon Seo, Jong-Wook Lim, Se-Ki Song
Abstract:Currently, FRP (Fiber Reinforced Polymer) materials have been widely used for reinforcement of building structural members. However, since the FRP and the epoxy material for attaching it have very low resistance to heat, there is a problem in application where high temperature is an issue. In this paper, the resistance performance of FRP member made of carbon fiber at high temperature was investigated through experiment under temperature change. As a result, epoxy encapsulating FRP is damaged at not high temperatures, and the fibers are degraded. Therefore, when reinforcing a structure using FRP, a separate refractory heat treatment is necessary. The use of a 30 mm thick calcium silicate board as a fireproofing method can protect FRP up to 600ᵒC outside temperature.
Keywords: FRP (Fiber Reinforced Polymer), high temperature, experiment under temperature change, calcium silicate boardProcedia PDF Downloads 303
6361 Finite Element Method for Calculating Temperature Field of Main Cable of Suspension Bridge
Authors: Heng Han, Zhilei Liang, Xiangong Zhou
Abstract:In this paper, the finite element method is used to study the temperature field of the main cable of the suspension bridge, and the calculation method of the average temperature of the cross-section of the main cable suitable for the construction control of the cable system is proposed; By comparing and analyzing the temperature field of the main cable with five diameters, a reasonable diameter limit for calculating the average temperature of the cross section of the main cable by finite element method is proposed. The results show that the maximum error of this method is less than 1℃, which meets the requirements of construction control accuracy; For the main cable with a diameter greater than 400mm, the surface temperature measuring points combined with the finite element method shall be used to calculate the average cross-section temperature.
Keywords: suspension bridge, main cable, temperature field, finite elementProcedia PDF Downloads 64